Reagents and laboratory materials needed are inexpen- sive and readily available and can be performed with minimal training. Because each individual perceives color uniquely and because lighting conditions are not always optimal in non-lab settings, accuracy can be greatly enhanced with the use of smartphone apps to re- port color test results quantitatively . Overall skill level required is basic to intermediate. A basic user can run the simple test and obtain results, whereas an intermediate user would run a standard protocol. An example of an intermediate protocol would be to run a battery of tests based on how much sample can be ob- tained without objection from the user. The tests should be based on an educated guess system, narrowing down possibilities through analysis and questions. Potential questions would be as follows: What did the user think it was or was told it was? What are recent novel substances that have been appearing in the clinic or on the street lately? What is the most dangerous substances worth testing for (smallest window of dosage)? Is there any knowledge of common mixtures, such as opioid mixtures?
Based on the data shown in Table 1, RFP and INH mono-resistance positivity rates were 26.5% (178/671) and 26.4% (177/671), respectively, according to the DNA microarray method; these rates were slightly lower than the DST results at 30.8% (207/671) and 32. 6% (219/671), respectively. The sensitivity values for RFP and INH were 83.1 and 79.9%, respectively, and the potential cause of this result is that some mutations occur beyond the limits of the chip testing sites. In some previous studies, the drug INH up-regulated the phenotypes of genes, such as ahpC, kasA, NDH, iniABC, fadE , and furA ; thus, these gene phenotypes should be included in the detection range [2, 24, 25]. This phenomenon also led to further widening of the detection gap between the two methods; the positive rate for the chip method was 18.0% (121/671), whereas Table 1 Performance evaluation of the CapitalBio ™ DNA microarray for rifampin and isoniazid resistance in tuberculosis cases compared with the standard drug sensitivity testing (DST) method for the 671 samples
Manual performance of the assays, interpretation of the electropherograms, and data analysis all require careful and skilled evaluation. An added problem in reporting is the non- standardization of the databases used to associate mutations with particular drugs. Many of the discrepancies among the mutations reported by the VG, AB, and reference laboratory assays appeared to be due to differences in databases. The Los Alamos HIV database (http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/) and the Stan- ford database (http://hivdb.stanford.edu/hiv/) are often refer- enced, and there are periodic consensus statements concerning notable mutations and patterns (11, 12); however, there is no standardized interpretation of significant mutations. Even more complexity is added to interpretation when reporting goes beyond just providing mutation lists to specifying resis- tance or susceptibility to a given drug. Interpretation of indi- vidual mutations and mutation patterns to provide information about drug resistance currently depends on the interpretation rules used in individual laboratories. As a consequence, com- mercially available assays are using diverse databases and in- terpretation rules, and these are continually being updated as new information becomes available. Clinical interpretation of drug resistance reports should take into account that variations in the databases can affect the reported mutations and that variations in interpretation rules can affect the identification of resistance.
The WWARN QA/QC programme is a dynamic pro- gramme for the distribution of certified reference stan- dards and proficiency testing samples for anti-malarial drug measurement. It will facilitate clinical pharmacoki- netic and in vitro sensitivity studies around the world. The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out druganalysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. To ensure the quality of pharmacokinetic data, it is important that laboratories use validated and accurate methods, but equally important that results are compared with other laboratories. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor quality reference stan- dards. By providing anti-malarial drug standards from a central point, it is possible to lower the cost of these standards. This process both assesses and empowers.
Our goal is to explore methods that work for detecting signals at the population- level, and not necessarily at an individual level. Therefore, in contrast with using a full- featured natural language processing (NLP) tool, our goal is to develop simple, fast, and good-enough term recognition methods that can be used on very large datasets. To the best of our knowledge, NLP tools do not function at the scale of tens of millions of clinical notes. However, when they do reach the necessary level of scalability, we can use their more advanced capabilities to improve our methods. In the meantime, we have begun to include contextual cues (e.g., family history) by incorporating tools like ConText  as a means of improving the precision with which we determine whether drug is prescribed or a disease is diagnosed. We are also investigating regular expression based tools like Unitex  that demonstrate the kind of speed and Table 2 Two-by-two contingency table for rofecoxib and myocardial infarction within the STRIDE dataset for patients with rheumatoid arthritis before 2005 using mainly ICD9 coded data.
Combining high test performance and the operational issues discussed above, direct NRA and MODS assays appear to be competing tests for TB laboratories at safety level 2 in RLS. However, it is possible that in most of such settings, laboratories are familiar with the L-J solid medium-based assays, where NRA would require only a minor adjustment to be implemented in the routines. Other tests that have recently appeared in the literature and proposed for TB high burden RLS include the Alamar blue, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphe- nyltetrazolium bromide), and resazurin assays . Most of these studies were performed as indirect assays. For MTT and the manual mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, Maryland, we came across only two direct studies under each test [43- 46]. These tests were excluded from the meta-analysis because the very few study reports made it difficult to give conclusive comments on the methods.
T uberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the world. According to the 2013 Global Tuberculosis re- port by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012 an esti- mated 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR- TB), and there were approximately 170,000 deaths due to MDR-TB worldwide (1). MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are among the greatest threats to the success of TB control in the world (2, 3). Ethambutol (EMB) is one of the first- line drugs included in the directly observed, treatment short- course antitubercular regimen recommended by the WHO (3). EMB is commonly used in combination with isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), and pyrazinamide to treat TB, particularly when treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB (3). EMB has also been found to protect companion drugs against resistance, particularly INH (4). Initially, EMB was effective for preventing treatment failures caused by M. tuberculosis isolates resistant to other anti-TB drugs; however, the resistance rate of EMB has gradually increased in some regions and is close to 50% in TB patients that are retreated (5–7). In China, the resistance rate for EMB increased from 6.52% in 2007 to 17.18% in 2010 (8). Therefore, rapid and effective methods of drug susceptibility testing (DST) for M. tuberculosis resistance to EMB are vital so that clinicians can make appropri- ate, rational decisions regarding drugs that will be most effective for treatment. Conventional, phenotypic DST of EMB is the most commonly used approach in many countries. The WHO describes phenotypic DST as the gold standard testing method; however, phenotypic DST is not efficient when used clinically, due to the long turnaround time. Recently, the development of molecular technology has allowed molecular assay testingmethods based on the detection of the embB gene to be more widely used for diag-
Various political pledges, along with significant financial resources have been invested in treating and preventing drug misuse in prison settings (Djemil, 2008). The Prison Service of England and Wales offers a comprehensive range of services, including detoxification programmes, maintenance prescribing programmes, CARATs (Counselling, Assessment, Referral, Advice and Throughcare services) and rehabilitation programmes (Wheatley, 2008). They have also acknowledged drug and substance misuse issues as a key priority within their health promotion strategy (HM Prison Service, 2003) and action to promote and protect prisoners’ health has been supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), particularly across Europe (Møller et al., 2007; Møller et al., 2009). Their recently devised ‘health promoting prison’ concept is being endorsed both nationally (Department of Health, 2002; HM Prison Service, 2003) and internationally (WHO, 1995, 2007) as a way to create a prison system which is generally supportive of health. Most notably, it aims to reduce prisoners’ exposure to communicable diseases and provide an environment that is both ‘reforming’ and ‘health promoting’ (WHO, 2007). Nonetheless, critics have argued that health promotion in prison is a contradiction in terms (Goos, 1996; Smith, 2000), an
In these quotes, appeals to the greater good are explicit and override those of children’s rights. Similar arguments have been put forward in relation to other school surveillance and security measures such as bag searches. As Warnick (2010) suggests ‘having a bag searched for a weapon seems like it causes students little substantive harm… in comparison to the potential harm of being in a school with weapons’. Similarly, an Australian headteacher stated ‘I don't mind copping the flak if it saves one boy in the next two years’ (cited in Chilcot and Hart, 2012: n.p.). However, this somewhat presumptuous position fails to recognize the unintended consequences of suspicionless searches on student privacy and trust, and presumes that school DAT can indeed prevent or deter illicit drug use amongst young people. In a trade off between safety and privacy, the former will always prevail as the safety of young people is undoubtedly paramount, but this presumes that the trade is real rather than curated or imagined. The ‘if it saves just one child mantra’ (Author, 2013) trumps all other concerns, but often this argument is used to silence opposing voices rather than enact evidence-based, proportionate and rational policies to attend to school-based issues. 5. Policy transfer and the surveillance school economy: understanding school-based drugtesting in light of the evidence
Material and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 150 Staphylococcus aureus strains were collected from different clinical samples in the hospitals located in Shiraz and Jahrom, Iran. To detect methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, we used phenotypical methods such as disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration by E-Test, and PCR molecular method for mass gene.
The goal of the hospital supply system is to ensure adequate stock of the required items so that an uninterrupted supply of such items is maintained. Therefore, hospitals need to adapt efficient techniques for inventory control. A savings of 1% or 2% from these costs can lead to a significant increase in hospital productivity, profitability, financial performance and increase competitive advantage. Yiğit stated that inventory control analysis and precautions taken in a study conducted in a 1500-bedded hospital, resulted in saving 20% of the cost of expensive drugs. 5 The ability to
Data from both Problems 2 and 3 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) were analyzed. From Problem 2, we used a data set of the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) of 2300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 10 Mb of chromosome 18q, a region that had shown linkage evidence for rheu- matoid arthritis (RA) . This data set contained 460 cases and 460 controls, the latter being recruited from a New York City population. Problem 3 provided simulated RA data on 9187 SNPs distributed over the entire genome. We used Replicates 1 through 10 of the affected sib-pair nuclear families for analysis. From each family, haplo- types transmitted to the first affected sib were used as cases and non-transmitted haplotypes as controls, regardless of the affection status of the parents. We had no prior knowl- edge of the answers.
Software testing is an important technique for the improvement and measurement of a software system quality. Software testing is a component of software quality control (SQC). SQC means control the quality of software engineering products, which is conducting using tests of the software system These tests can be: unit tests (this testing checks each coded module for the presence of bugs), integration tests (interconnects sets of previously tested modules to ensure that the sets behave as well as they did as independently tested modules), or system tests (checks that the entire software system embedded in its actual hardware environment behaves according to the requirements document). SQC also includes formal check of individual parts of code, and the review of requirements documents. Large losses can be avoided if timely testing and discovering bugs in initial phases of testing are conducting. . In my paper, I have described some of the most prevalent and commonly used strategies of software testing which are classified by purpose. The successful use of these techniques in industrial software development will validate the results of the research and drive future research. 
Testing is best accomplished by forming a test team. The test team must use struc- tured methodologies; they should not use the same methodology for testing that they used to develop the system. The effectiveness of the test team depends on developing the system under one methodology and testing it under another. As illustrated in Fig- ure 3-2, when the project starts, both the development process and system test process also begin. Thus, the testing and implementation teams begin their work at the same time and with the same information. The development team defines and documents the requirements for implementation purposes, and the test team uses those require- ments for the purpose of testing the system. At appropriate points during the develop- ment process, the test team runs the compliance process to uncover defects. The test team should use the structured testing techniques outlined in this book as a basis of evaluating the corrections.
Table 1 lists all of the test products that were available from the sites in this study. We found that a variety of products were offered for home use. These included a multipanel hair test, saliva and breath alcohol tests, and a variety of urine tests, including single drug and multidrug panels. One company marketed a “hair testing service” that could be purchased through several different web sites. The hair test kit contains information about talking to children about drug abuse, an agreement/ consent form, instructions for obtaining a hair sam- ple, a coded card to which to attach the hair sample, and an envelope for mailing the sample. Parents obtain the test results by calling a toll-free number and giving the code number from the kit. This prod- uct tests for use of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, meth- amphetamine, and phencyclidine (PCP) in the past 5 to 95 days and has been FDA approved for profes- sional use. One web site that marketed the identical product also listed Ecstasy (3,4-methylinedioxymeth- amphetamine [MDMA]) separately as detected by this test.
The main principle flowing from Lornex seems to be that employers should not be free to intrude upon the privacy of employees at a whim. Employers should have rea- sonable suspicion that an employee is engaged in a fraudulent activity before his privacy can justifiably be invaded. However, despite the fact that the surveillance in Doman was conducted based on objective evidence, it was still held to be unreasonable. Therefore, Doman seems to establish that an invasion of an employee’s privacy will only be justified where the employer has conclusive proof of the employee’s fraud and no other alterna- tives exist for obtaining the sought information. This standard of reasonableness is higher than that established for employers in British Columbia employee search cases. 2) Employee DrugTesting Cases
Stability testing of pharmaceutical products is a complex set of procedures involving considerable cost, time consumption and scientific expertise in order to build in quality, efficacy and safety in a drug formulation. Stability of a pharmaceutical product may be defined as the capability of a particular formulation in a specific container/closure system to remain within its physical, chemical, microbiological, toxicological, protective and informational specifications. In other words, it is the extent to which a product retains, within the specified limits, throughout its period of storage and use, the same properties and characteristics possessed at the time of its packaging. Stability testing thus evaluates the effect of environmental factors on the quality of the a drug substance or a formulated product which is utilized for prediction of its shelf life, determine proper storage conditions and suggest labeling instruction. Creamaffin as an emulsion, is a thermodynamically unstable system consisting of at least two immiscible liquid phases, one of which is dispersed as globules in the other liquid phase, stabilized by the presence of an emulsifying agent.