Drugs and Birth

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Antimalarial drugs for preventing malaria during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized trials

Antimalarial drugs for preventing malaria during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized trials

Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as a birth weight of a live born infant of less than 2,500 g (5.5 lb) regardless of gestational age [1]. LBW is one of the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality in the world and may be the result of a short gestational period, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), or a combination of both events [1]. Infants born with this adverse outcome are at higher risk of early growth retardation, infectious diseases, develop- mental delay, death during infancy and chronic disease in adulthood [2, 3]. It is estimated that over 4 million children are born each year with LBW in Africa, where malaria infection accounts for up to 560,000 (14 %) LBW infants and 11 % of LBW-related infant mortality [4]. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease transmitted by a parasitic protozoan in the Plasmodium genus. This disease leads to maternal anemia and placental parasitemia, which are both known risk factors for LBW. This may ex- plain the high LBW prevalence observed in regions where malaria is endemic, and hence making the disease a poten- tially modifiable necessary cause of LBW. Therefore, the use of antimalarial drugs appears to be one of the most ap- propriate interventions to prevent the deleterious effect of malaria during pregnancy and to reduce child mortality as recommended by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) [5]. A recent Cochrane review published in 2014 reported that compared to placebo, prophylactic antimalarial drug use during pregnancy reduced the risk of LBW by 27 % among women in their first or second pregnancy [6]. Previously, another meta-analysis showed that the use of three or more doses of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine compared to two doses was associated with a reduction of the risk of LBW by 23 % among HIV-negative women [7].
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Declines in Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth Among Infants Who Were Born to HIV-Infected Women During an Era of Increased Use of Maternal Antiretroviral Drugs: Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease, 1989–2004

Declines in Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth Among Infants Who Were Born to HIV-Infected Women During an Era of Increased Use of Maternal Antiretroviral Drugs: Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease, 1989–2004

The PSD cohort is 1 of the largest pediatric/perinatal cohorts assembled to track the natural history of HIV and AIDS. Infants were enrolled in PSD during a span of time (1989 –2004) that covered the entire spectrum of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and evolving therapy. There are cer- tain limitations to the PSD data. First, the study is based on pediatric hospital chart review, so maternal informa- tion is limited. Second, documentation of LBW and pre- term birth trends does not explain why or how these events happened. In addition, the PSD database lacks data about maternal viral load, maternal CD4 counts during pregnancy and at delivery, previous preterm de- livery, reason for cesarean section, and maternal socio- economic status. Each of these factors can influence the
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Birth Outcome From a Prospective, Matched Study of Prenatal Crack/Cocaine Use: I. Interactive and Dose Effects on Health and Growth

Birth Outcome From a Prospective, Matched Study of Prenatal Crack/Cocaine Use: I. Interactive and Dose Effects on Health and Growth

were done at the end of each trimester to cover the previous 3 months. Seventy-five percent were enrolled and interviewed by the end of their first (41%) or second (34%) trimester. If women could not be interviewed at the end of each trimester, they were interviewed after birth about drug use in each of their trimesters of pregnancy to maintain information on timing of usage. Twenty- five percent (including the 11% with no prenatal care) were en- rolled and interviewed at birth. A pregnancy calendar was de- signed for each woman to trigger and organize her memory around real-time events. Records were also made of amount (or cost) of usual usage of each drug. Changes in usage pattern were also noted, including the amount used on days when subjects used more or less than usual. Thus, a woman’s average daily usage of each drug could be calculated for each trimester and for the total pregnancy. Because of the inherent inaccuracies in having subjects try to estimate the quantity of nonstandardized “lines” or “rocks” of cocaine, we asked them to tell us what they paid for their cocaine. We thought that the relationship between the reported cost of illicit street drugs and the actual amount received might remain constant because of the competitive marketplace and would be a more accurate representation of amount than would estimated size.
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Assessment of Antifungal Therapy in an 800-Gram Infant with Candidal Arthritis and Osteomyelitis

Assessment of Antifungal Therapy in an 800-Gram Infant with Candidal Arthritis and Osteomyelitis

Pharmacologic properties and toxicities of antifungal drugs, however, have not been defmed for the neonate or young infant; hence, we report the successful treatment of a low-birth-weigh[r]

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Midwifery basics  Infant feeding: Managing baby related challenges

Midwifery basics Infant feeding: Managing baby related challenges

hypoglycaemia can lead to neurological injury if not treated appropriately. Risk factors include: small or large for gestational age, prematurity, asphyxia and/or respiratory distress, infection, inborn errors of metabolism, diabetic mother, cold stress after birth, use of intravenous dextrose in labour and maternal drugs that affect glucose status (e.g tocolytics, betablockers such as Labetalol) (Pollard 2012, Walker 2011). It is also crucial to recognize the signs and symptoms of neonatal hypoglycaemia such as: lethargy, irritability, altered level of consciousness, apnoea, cyanosis, hypothermia or convulsions (Pollard 2012, UNICEF Baby Friendly Initiative UK 2011). Prevention is the goal and some of the practice recommendations for babies at risk of hypoglycaemia are similar to recommendations for all babies such as encouraging skin-to-skin contact to maintain the newborn’s body temperature, regulate heart rate, reduce stress, crying and encourage early and frequent breastfeeding. Early breastfeeding will help to mobilise alternative energy sources and stabilisation of vital signs and reduction of stress will lead to reduced energy expenditure. In addition infants with higher risk of hypoglycaemia will require regular monitoring of vital signs and blood glucose. There is no agreed level of plasma glucose concentration or duration of hypoglycaemia that is associated with clinical signs or permanent neurological injury so there are variations in local guidelines (Adamkin & Committee on Fetus and Newborn 2011, UNICEF Baby Friendly Initiative UK 2011). If an infant is symptomatic or screening reveals low blood glucose breastfed infants should be offered expressed colostrum via a cup, syringe or nasogastric tube and formula fed infants should also have frequent effective feeds. Some infants may require intravenous fluids.
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STRUCTURAL ISOLATION OF NEROLIDOL THROUGH NMR STUDIES FROM ALPINIA CALCARATA ROSCOE (ZINGIBERACEAE)   A VALUABLE MEDICINAL PLANT

STRUCTURAL ISOLATION OF NEROLIDOL THROUGH NMR STUDIES FROM ALPINIA CALCARATA ROSCOE (ZINGIBERACEAE) A VALUABLE MEDICINAL PLANT

Medicinal plants are one of the essential sources of phytochemicals to combat new strains of microorganisms. Extraction and characterization of several active phytocompounds from plants have given birth to some high activity profile drugs. [1] The use of traditional medicine is widespread in India. [2]

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A Retrospective Study on Clinical Characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

A Retrospective Study on Clinical Characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

To study the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients attending the rheumatology unit in a private hospital. The demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters, comorbidities, articular manifestations and pattern of prescriptions were studied from the case records . A total of 75 RA patients were studied. Female preponderance was observed and the ratio was found to be 3:1. The frequent laboratory measurements were found to be erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hemoglobin (Hb), and other hematological parameters. The articular manifestations were found to be knee, wrist, ankle, shoulder and elbow joints. The most common comorbidity was found to be hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The prescription pattern revealed the disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) as the first line drugs followed by steroids and non –steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The first line DMARD was found to be methotrexate. The tendency of polypharmacy was more and the most combination was DMARD with a steroid and NSAID. The trend reveals aggressive therapy among rheumatologists. Frequent monitoring of adverse drug reactions like hepatic abnormalities for DMARDs and bone densitometry for oral glucocorticoids and drug interactions could further improve the quality of life of RA patients.
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An Evaluation Of Efficacy And Safety Of Drugs In Patients Of Rheumatoid Arthritis And Their Impact On Quality Of Life

An Evaluation Of Efficacy And Safety Of Drugs In Patients Of Rheumatoid Arthritis And Their Impact On Quality Of Life

The continuous, longitudinal, prospective, observational study was carried out to study the efficacy and safety of drugs in patients suffering from RA and their impact on quality of life at Department of Pharmacology and Rheumatology out- patient-department (OPD), B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Gujarat state, Western part of India. The study protocol was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) (EC/ Approval/40/15) and permission from superintendent and Head of Department of Rheumatology of the institute was taken. The study was conducted for a total duration of 18 months. Newly diagnosed patients of either gender of RA, more than 18 years of age and willing to participate in the study were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Patients were enrolled in the study during initial 12 months and each recruited patient was followed up for a period of 6 months after enrollment. Patients were assessed and diagnosed by a rheumatologist.
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Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs - Updated

Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs - Updated

Hallucinogenic and dissociative drugs have been used for a variety of reasons (Bogenschutz, 2012; Bonson, 2001). Historically, hallucinogenic plants have been used for religious rituals to induce states of detachment from reality and precipitate “visions” thought to provide mystical insight or enable contact with a spirit world or “higher power.” More recently, people report using hallucinogenic drugs for more social or recreational purposes, including to have fun, help them deal with stress, or enable them to enter into what they perceive as a more enlightened sense of thinking or being. Hallucinogens have also been investigated as therapeutic agents to treat diseases associated with perceptual distortions, such as schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dementia. Anecdotal reports and small studies have suggested that ayahuasca may be a potential treatment for substance use disorders and other mental health issues, but no large- scale research has verified its efficacy (Barbosa, 2012).
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The Effect Birth Interval on Fetal Outcome at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital – A Cross Sectional Study

The Effect Birth Interval on Fetal Outcome at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital – A Cross Sectional Study

Birth spacing is a well known, underutilized and admittedly, not a fully understood health intervention [1]. Despite lack of data on the underlying biological mechanisms, longer birth intervals are associated with multiple health benefits for both mother and the child. It is associated with reduced risk for all categories of infant and neonatal mortality. It also reduces the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth asphyxia and small for gestational age [1,2]. Unfortunately, each year an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birth weight, condition directly linked to infant mortality as about 10 million infants and children globally die annually due to low birth weight and perinatal complications. 1 In Nigeria, the infant mortality rate was 100/1000 live births and the neonatal mortality rate was 48/1000 [2,3]. These immense and heart breaking number have remained roughly static since the early 1990 s.
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Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

Abstract: While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of inter- ventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth.
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Epigenetic management of major psychosis

Epigenetic management of major psychosis

Research on the use of epigenetic drugs for a variety of clinical conditions is an active area of epigenetic research at present and a few epigenetic drugs have already been approved for clinical use. Many psychotropic drugs that are currently in use have been shown to influence epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in addition to other mechanisms of action. The most prominent and best example of this is the mood stabilizer valproic acid or its salt, sodium valproate. Valproic acid, which is a short-chain fatty acid, has been commonly used as an antiepileptic drug since the late 1960s. It was marketed in France in 1969 but was not licensed in the USA until 1978 (Porter and Meldrum 2009). More recently, it was found to have mood-stabilizing effects in patients with bipolar disorder. It has some well-established mechanisms of action as an antiepileptic drug which could contribute to its mood- stabilizing effect: it prolongs the inactive state of sodium channels after depolarization; it potentiates the action of GABA at neuronal synapses where GABA is released, and it blocks T-type calcium channels in thalamic neurons. However, in addition to these actions, it is thought to act
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Vaginal birth after caesarean birth in Italy: variations among areas of residence and hospitals

Vaginal birth after caesarean birth in Italy: variations among areas of residence and hospitals

Patient factors and patient-specific clinical characteristics have been studied as risk factors for both caesarean delivery and VBAC. Maternal age, race/ethnicity, prematurity, pre-eclampsia, twins, more than one caesarean and pre- vious vaginal birth are the most commonly studied [17, 18]. The objective of the present study was to analyze VBAC rates with respect to caesarean rates and the vari- ations among areas of residence, hospitals and hospital ownership types in Italy.

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Drugs Hazards and Rational Use of Drugs: A Review

Drugs Hazards and Rational Use of Drugs: A Review

The concept of rational drug use during the past few years has been theme of various national and international gatherings, various studies conducted in developing and developed countries. Past few year regarding safe and effective use of drugs shows that irrational drug is a global phenomenon and only few prescriptions justify rational use of drugs.

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Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

Studies conducted in Brazil have been unable to con- firm the hypothesis of increased Caesarean sections due to women’s “demand” [22]. One investigation conducted in the postnatal ward in two hospitals from the private sector in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro state found that over 70% of multiparous pregnant women and 80% of nulliparous pregnant women desired to have a vaginal birth at the beginning of their pregnancies. Nonetheless, by the end of the pregnancy, at the time of birth, only 30% of them maintained this wish, and, at the end of pregnancy, only 10% of these women had vaginal births. The reasons given by the women for hav- ing had Caesarean sections did not coincide with the indication written on the medical records, nor with results observed throughout the pregnancy [22]. Similar results were obtained in São Luis, capital of the state of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil [23]. The change in the type of birth, in relation to the initial desire, seems to have been influenced by the interventionist conduct of the clinician [24]. If a Caesarean section was decided upon after hospitalization, this has already been described in litera- ture as a clinical entity - “Intrapartum elective cesarean delivery” - where the profile of the attending clinician is the main determinant for the decision to perform a Caesarean section before any concrete obstetrical indication [25].
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Mechanisms behind Substance Abuse and Rugby  Lessons from a Field Experiment with Incarcerated Offenders

Mechanisms behind Substance Abuse and Rugby Lessons from a Field Experiment with Incarcerated Offenders

For the evaluation design of participants entering the program we use randomized trials. The selection process into this program was as follows: (i) in August 2010, volunteers, after getting the approval of the prison authorities to promote the rugby program in one unit of 500 inmates, organized several meetings with the leaders of the offenders to motivate their participation and disseminate the project among other offenders. Volunteers emphasized to the prisoners that this program doesn ’ t exclude anyone because of age, health or ignorance of rugby. As a result of this promotion, 87 candidates showed up; (ii) in September 2010 all 87 applicants were interviewed. In this baseline survey we collected data on offenders’ characteristics and living standards; (iii) from this population, 34 applicants were randomly assigned to the treated group while the remaining candidates were assigned to the control group; (iv) in October 2010, the volunteers started the weekly rugby classes for inmates; (v) in May 2011, the first part of the program concluded and the individuals of both the control and treatment groups were subject to an interview for the first follow-up impact evaluation. At the end of this first part of the program, we were interested in the impact of the program on substance abuse. Specifically, we asked the inmates in May 2011: “ Have you consumed drugs last month (marijuana, cocaine derivative, etc.)? ”
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ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SHARING BETWEEN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES AND MINISTRY OF 
HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A PILOT STUDY

ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SHARING BETWEEN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES AND MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A PILOT STUDY

Drug abuse pertains to the consumption of a substance that may induce adverse effects to a person. In international security studies, drug trafficking has become an important topic. In this regard, drug-related crimes are identified as an extremely significant challenge faced by any community. Several techniques for investigations in the crime domain have been implemented by many researchers. However, most of these researchers focus on extracting general crime entities. The number of studies that focus on the drug crime domain is relatively limited. This paper mainly aims to propose a rule-based named entity recognition model for drug-related crime news documents. In this work, a set of heuristic and grammatical rules is used to extract named entities, such as types of drugs, amount of drugs, price of drugs, drug hiding methods, and the nationality of the suspect. A set of grammatical and heuristic rules is established based on part-of- speech information, developed gazetteers, and indicator word lists. The combined approach of heuristic and grammatical rules achieves a good performance with an overall precision of 86%, a recall of 87%, and an F1-measure of 87%. Results indicate that the ensemble of both heuristic and grammatical rules improves the extraction effectiveness in terms of macro-F1 for all entities.
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PHARMACEUTICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TRIPHALA IN AN INDIAN ALCHEMY (RASASHASTRA) - A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW .......

PHARMACEUTICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TRIPHALA IN AN INDIAN ALCHEMY (RASASHASTRA) - A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW .......

which shodhita drugs are subjected for cycles of bhavana and putana (Incineration) thus transformed the efficacious, safe, absorbable, bio- assimilable form. In this transformation liquid media plays an important role which helps the process of marana. Metals or minerals which have undergone the pro- cess of shodhana are ground with specified liquid. The Process can be repeated several times and suc- cessive bhavana are given after complete dry of pre- vious one 36 .

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Synthesis of novel thyroid hormone analogues

Synthesis of novel thyroid hormone analogues

Figure 1.8 Anti-thyroid drugs: Carbimazole, Methimazole and Propylthiouracil. A class of anti-thyroid drugs known as thioamide drugs, are effective in treating hyperthyroidism. They are[r]

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIPOSOME BY MICROENCAPSULATION VESICLE METHOD AND VAGINAL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR VORICONAZOLE GEL

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIPOSOME BY MICROENCAPSULATION VESICLE METHOD AND VAGINAL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR VORICONAZOLE GEL

The encapsulation efficiency of these drugs strongly correlated to the log P octanol/water and also tended to correlate to the log P chloroform/water for the order of the log P chloroform/water was almost the same as the order of the log P octanol/water in the drugs examined. As far as the results of this study, the log P octanol/water was considered to be a better indicator of the encapsulation efficiency of a drug in the MCV method. [4]

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