However, the heat wave does not affect the north and northeast Iberian Peninsula. The warm and dry air mass was almost stationary, affecting the entire center and southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. However, a rapid and brief movement of this warm air mass from the southeast to north- east on 27 August 2010 affected the northeast Iberian Penin- sula for several hours, when a significant increase in temper- ature was recorded as well as a decrease in the relative and absolute humidity. Automatic weather stations located in the Barcelona city center recorded 39.3 ◦ C (the highest tempera- ture since 1780) and the relative humidity dropped to 19 %. In addition, the recorded temperature values from 11:00 to 16:00 UTC were above 30 ◦ C, more than 5 ◦ C higher than the mean maximum temperature in August during the period 1961–1990, which was 26.8 ◦ C. However, for the 12 h prior to and later than the hours in which the maximum value was recorded, the temperature remained within normal values. As will be shown, the period of abnormally high temperature could be considered as occurring from 11:00 to 16:00 UTC. This event cannot be classified according to the above defini- tions either as a heat wave or as a heat burst.
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pseudocritical). This state is called maxcondenbar state. Looking at the top of the dry air curve (see Figure 4), we can also see that in pseudocritical condition the temperature is lower than the maximum temperature at the saturation loop. When we observe a process of phase change during isothermal expansion, so the maximum temperature, at which the elementary phase change could take place in the air, is t 1 4 0 .5 1 8 8 C . The
Depositions were performed using an RF magnetron reactive sputtering apparatus. A titanium disk (99.9% purity) of 75 mm in diameter was used as a target and a glass plate (28 48 1 mm) as a substrate. Prior to sputtering deposi- tion, the surface of the glass plate was rubbed with SiC abrasion paper (mesh No. 80). A mixture of Ar gas and dry air (N 2 : O 2 ¼ 79 : 21(vol%)) (or O 2 gas for comparison)
significant increase in symptom scores or mediators was noted after WMA challenge, with the exception of a marginal increase in kinins. The response to CDA was similar, regardless of challenge order. Changes in mediators correlated with one another, and symptom scores correlated significantly with the levels of histamine, kinins, and PGD2. Five subjects without a history of nasal symptoms on cold air exposure had no change in mediators or symptom scores after CDA or WMA challenge. We conclude that CDA causes the release of
Assuming the ideal behavior of gaseous components of moist air (dry air and water vapor), an equilibrium p - t diagram was constructed with a set of curves of a constant ratio of specific and relative moisture, enabling to determine the state of moist air at different pressures and to solve even such thermodynamic processes occurring in moist air, where the pressure changes.
The C-band cryogenic receiver of the 26 m radio telescope at Nanshan of observation frequency is 4720-5110 MHz. Because it is a kind of cryogenic receiver with external feed, the aerating system directly designs the feed as a dry air cavity. The top part of feed is sealed with wave-transmitting material, and the bottom is connected with the vacuum window of dewar and sealed. The dry air is continuously supplied into feed by the inflator. The pressure of feed is monitored by monitor unit, which can exhaust the old air, so as to keep dry for the vacuum window.
A regenerative evaporative cooler typically consists of a dry and wet air channel separated by a heat transfer membrane, an air circulating fan, a water supply system, and other ancillaries. The proposed evaporative cooler uses a modular vertically mounted heat pipes and porous ceramic tubes that form the heat and mass exchanger. A schematic diagram of the cooler is shown in Fig. 2(a). A single heat and mass exchanger module comprises a wicked tubular heat pipe with its finned evaporator located in the dry channel and condenser protruding into the wet channel. A porous ceramic tube is then fitted as a sleeve over the condenser part of the heat pipe, as shown in Fig. 2(b). In operation, the annulus gap between the heat pipe and the ceramic sleeve is filled with water, which allows the porous ceramic sleeve to be continuously saturated and form a thin water film on its external surface. The ambient hot, dry air at the inlet of the dry channel (state 1) is circulated over the finned part of the heat pipe, decreasing its temperature along the channel. At the outlet of the dry channel (state 2), part of the dry and cool air (product air) is diverted into the wet channel (state 3) where it flows over the wet ceramic tubes and causes water to evaporate, removing heat deposited at the heat pipe condenser before being discharged as saturated air to outside (state 4). The process thus permits to achieve the greatest temperature drop of product air while rejecting humid working air.
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Because the use of phosphates has being recently diminished in meat industry due to the nutritional drawbacks of phosphates, some researchers started to evaluate sodium bicarbonate as phosphate replacer in meat products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different temperature combinations of dry air-cooking treat- ments (Air and Core temperatures: 160 - 76, 160 - 80, 200 - 76 and 200˚C - 80˚C, respectively) on chemical com- position, texture properties, water activity, freezable water and bound water, color, pH, and water binding ca- pacity of phosphate and bicarbonate-marinated chicken breast. A batch of 24 h post-mortem broiler breast meat of 80 fillets was divided into two groups of marination treatments (0.3% sodium bicarbonate n = 40, 0.3% so- dium tripolyphosphate n = 40) and was vacuum tumbled (45 min, −0.95 mbar, 20 rpm). Different tempera- ture-combinations cooking treatments significantly modified the chemical composition. Bicarbonate marinated fillets showed higher ability to retain water (67.3% vs. 65.7%, P < 0.05) during severe heat treatment and lower cook losses (30.7% vs. 33.4%, P < 0.05) when compared with phosphate-marinated fillets. The effect of changing the cooking temperatures on Texture Profile Analysis (hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness) was more tangible in phosphate marinated fillets than bicarbonate. Bicarbon- ate-marinated fillets showed significant differences in the percentage of bound water, latent heat, and water activity after cooking in comparison to phosphate-marinated fillets. The results of this study revealed that phosphate-marinated fillets interacted with heat treatments in different patterns in comparison with bicar- bonate-marinated fillets.
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Experimental study on swirl fluidized bed used 10 0 angle of blade inclination to dry lignite. This study utilizeda sample of mass 600 gr with a variation of dry air temperature of 50, 45, and 40 0 C, and variation of fluidization velocity, which parallel with the gapof 10.9, 13.6, and 16.4 m/s, respectively. The effects of temperature and fluidization velocity difference in drying characteristic and moisture, which released from coal, thus received by dry air were investigated in this study. During the seven minutes of drying for a variation of temperature of 50, 45, and 40 0 C, were able to decrease moisture content as much as 24.73, 23.6, and 21.32%, respectively. For a variation of fluidization velocity of 16.4, 13.6, and 10.9 m/s were able to decrease moisture content as much as 22.83, 21.23, and 14.63%, respectively. The amount of moisture which released from coal was not a significant difference with received by dry air.
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.74015 228 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection At 8:00 on May, Guiyang sounding was a typical upper dry and wet structure (Figure 4). The CAPE value was 148.5 J/kg (Table 1). After the temperature was corrected at 14 o'clock in the afternoon, it was only 380 J/kg. The high altitude is strong southwesterly wind (700 - 400 hPa average wind speed 21 m/s), vertical wind shear reaches medium intensity; 0˚C layer height, −20˚C layer height are favorable to the favorable height of hail in Guizhou. The sounding also reveals that the dry and cold features of the middle and upper floors are obvious, coupled with the high wind speed, which corresponds to dry and cold air and strong dry air. At 20 o'clock on the 5th, the storm has formed and is located in the northwest of Guiyang. The CAPE and vertical wind shear are obviously strengthened, the wet layer is obviously thickened, and many storm intensity in- dicators are directed toward the strong storm increase. It shows that after the development of hot and low pressure in the daytime, the transportation of warm and humid airflow will tend to be unstable, and the potential of updraft and convective development will increase. At the same time, it is noted that the rela- tive humidity of the 850 hPa near-surface layer is significantly reduced, the spe- cific humidity is also reduced to 10 g/kg, and the wet layer is raised above the near-surface layer.
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Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered to be potentially responsible for the development of airway problems and for the reduction in the pulmonary functional capacities. One of the components of the modern life style is the intensive use of air conditioners, which has caused the increased inhalation of cold dry air ultimately leading to an alteration in the pulmonary functions. The inhalation of cold dry air for long periods makes the airway smooth muscle more sensitive. Abrupt changes in the air temperature may induce rhinitis even in the absence of the usual triggering allergy. The existence of bronchospasm in response to nasal inhalation of cold and/or dry air may be considered as a protective mechanism that tends to reduce the airflow rate in the upper airways and cervical trachea and limits the penetration of insufficiently conditioned inspired air into the lungs. Cold dry air challenge test is the test by which bronchial responsiveness is measured by applying physical stimuli like hyperventilation of cold and dry air. It has been observed that hyperventilation of cold dry air causes bronchoconstriction, and eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients in AC environment, the current study was carried out on young adults using air condition and non-air condition, 66 subjects between the age group of 25-50 years chosen for the study, the subjects was then divided into two groups viz, group A & group B. The subjects of both the groups then examined for their FVC, FEV1 and PEFR values FVC and FEV1 ratio was also documented for each subjects. The best of the three readings was recorded and finally the data was analyzed using standard deviation and‘t’ test. There was a difference in the data after the analysis of standard deviation and ‘t’ test hence it was found that FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is higher in Non-air conditioner users compare to air conditioner users. But there is no significant difference between the PEFR level between Air conditioner and non-air conditioner users. Hence it can be concluded that non air conditioner users have higher pulmonary function when compared to air conditioner users.
DMI. Since both processing centers use the same input bend- ing angle climatologies (DMI L1b), these differences can only enter through alternative handling of the extrapolation (fulltop and exptop) and in the implementations of the Abel integral. Note that the main focus of this study is the strato- sphere and that we therefore show “dry” parameters, which are not fully adequate to characterize moist regions in the lower troposphere. Specifically the refractivity bias structure in the low and midlatitude troposphere in the lowest few kilo- meters relative to ECMWF is not caused by the API retrieval. It can also be seen for the IPI method (see Figs. 5, 6, 7 shown by Gleisner and Healy, 2013). However, the error at the low- est m 2 km is probably due to the use of a mean radius of curvature.
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Disks (15 cm thick) from each tree were obtained at 3 m height above the ground and were put into plastic bags to prevent them from drying, and then brought to the labora- tory. Each disk was cut into a board (4 cm wide) including the pith and the external growth rings. Each board was sliced transversely and end-matched strips were prepared. One strip (3 cm thick) was for GMC and heartwood bright- ness, another (3 cm thick) was for pit aspiration in the green condition, and the other was for pit aspiration in the air-dry condition. The brightness in the tangential surface of each ring in the air-dry heartwood was measured with a colorim- eter (Minolta CR-300). The averages of each tree are listed in Table 1.
pathways. Finally, as an example application of the moisture tagging technique, we simulated the Great Lake-effect snowstorm of 2014, aiming at quantifying the contribution of evaporative fluxes from the lakes to total precipitable water and espe- cially to snowfall amounts in this event. We employed for this purpose a nested grid within the validation domain, covering the Great Lakes region at 5 km resolution and simulated the 4-day period from 17 November at 06:00 UTC to 21 Novem- ber at 06:00 UTC. Results show the activation of the lake ef- fect upon arrival of a cold and dry arctic air mass over the area, with the formation of total precipitable water plumes originating from the lakes and extending tens and even hun- dreds of kilometers in the downwind direction. As expected, the model shows how the lake effect intensifies with colder and stronger west or northwesterly surface winds and tapers off with warmer and weaker southerly airflows. The contri- bution of lake-evaporated moisture to total precipitable wa- ter within the plumes is generally above 30 % across the area downwind of the lakes when temperatures at 850 hPa are be-
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In the Picarro implementation (Fig. 5), two mass flow con- trollers (Smart Trak 50 Series, C50L-SS-DD-1-PV2-V0-F1, Sierra Instruments, Monterey, CA, USA) are added to the LSCE implementation. One mass flow controller (MFC) is situated upstream of the hydrophobic filter, and the second MFC is used to dilute the flow of humid air exiting the hy- drophobic filter. The filter can be heated above ambient tem- perature to allow measurements at elevated dew points, and the plumbing downstream of the filter is heated to above the filter temperature to ensure that water vapour does not con- dense in the transfer lines. By varying the ratios of the flows through MFCs, one can generate an arbitrary water vapour concentration profile in the instrument until the water droplet fully evaporates (although the concentration delivered by this system is not targeted as well as with a dew point generator), which reduces the potential for bias associated with the emis- sion or uptake of carbon dioxide from the water droplet as the droplet evolves.
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A clear and natural example of this phenomenon, based on which this paper was written, can be readily seen in the environment. If we look carefully at warm rainy summer monsoons in high-mountain regions (altitudes higher than 1000 or 2000 meters) with heavy snowfall located adjacent to low-altitude plains (altitudes of 100 meters or less), we will notice that these very low- altitude plains generate warm strong winds because of their higher temperatures. If clouds cover these plains, warm winds will stop blowing because these clouds (which result from the warming up and melting of the snow on the mountains) prevent displacement of cold and warm air masses. In the highlands covered with snow, solar radiation melts snow and a cold and heavy air mass is produced whereas in the low-altitude plains
The results of seed treatments by ozone gener- ated from humid air and dry oxygen in the simi- lar concentrations do not differ in the germination ability and morphology of the seedlings or in the seed treatment efficiency. This might suggest that reactive nitrogen species do not play a significant role. High concentrations of ozone at the exposure of the seeds do not further improve the efficiency of seed treatment, since when the basic contami- nations are eliminated, microorganisms which are more resistant to an oxidative stress and cannot be detected by eye. Seed treatment by ozone in a high concentration generated from dry oxygen causes the reliable inhibition of the sprout contaminations and a relative transfer of biomass into roots, i.e. the increase in the ratio of total length of roots to the length of sprout. This is indicative of the enhanced resistance of a developing plant to different nega- tive factors.
DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.68005 87 Journal of Power and Energy Engineering energy consumption in buildings is a key aim in most countries and is a particu- lar challenge in a desert climate. People in different climates feel comfortable at different indoor air temperatures. Such temperatures can differ considerably from the values adopted by national energy codes, which in turn can impact upon space energy consumption in buildings with air conditioning systems, such as Kuwaiti residential buildings. Kuwait, as in most countries with an extreme dry-desert climate, has a long summer season with a mean daily maximum tem- perature of 46˚C . Centralized air-conditioning, which is generally deployed from the beginning of April to the end of October, accounts for around 75% of national electrical power consumption. Increasing the thermostat temperature setting in the summer season can potentially save significant electrical energy, which would, in turn, decrease energy expenditure, fossil fuel usage for generat- ing electricity and consequently carbon dioxide emissions.
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Dry flue gas loss-This loss contributes a large proportion of the losses incurred in the boiler. It is due to the residual thermal energy constrained in the dry flue gas when its temperature is too low for further useful work. This loss is calculated as a function of the quantity of dry combustion gases, the temperature rise between Forced Draft fan inlet and the gas exit temperature, and the mean specific heat of flue gas at constant pressure.
Dry eye represents a multifactorial, heterogeneous disorder of the preocular tear film, which results in ocular surface disease. The tear film and ocular surface form a complex and stable system that can lose its equilibrium through numerous disturbing factors. Reduction in quality of life is inevitable when symptoms of dry eye occur. These symptoms range from mild transient irritation to persistent dryness, burning, itchiness, redness, pain, ocular fatigue and visual disturbance. 11 Epidemiological studies have