Dynamic Languages

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Parallelization of Dynamic Languages: Synchronizing Built-in Collections

Parallelization of Dynamic Languages: Synchronizing Built-in Collections

As indicated with Listing 1 , most dynamic language implementations do not support both con- current modiication of collections and parallel access to the collection. When they do support concurrent modiications, there is an overhead for ensuring thread safety, for instance by degrading single-threaded performance or by not scaling even on workloads that do not require synchroniza- tion. JavaScript prevents sharing of arrays 1 and dictionaries between threads. Ruby and Python support sharing, but their standard implementations (℧RI, CPython) rely on global interpreter locks (GIL) preventing parallel code execution. Jython does not use a GIL but synchronizes every object and collection access [ Juneau et al. 2010 ], which degrades scalability. PyPy-ST℧ [ ℧eier et al. 2016 ] emulates the GIL semantics and enables scaling but incurs a signiicant overhead on single-threaded performance. JRuby [ Nutter et al. 2018 ] and Rubinius [ Phoenix et al. 2018 ] aim for scalability but provide no thread safety for built-in collections. Instead, developers are expected to synchronize all accesses to Array or Hash objects, even for operations that appear to be atomic at the language level. This does not it with our expectation of what dynamic languages should provide.
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Array Operators Using Multiple Dispatch: A design methodology for array implementations in dynamic languages

Array Operators Using Multiple Dispatch: A design methodology for array implementations in dynamic languages

Another approach is to implement static analyses de novo for dynamic languages. However, the flexibility of these languages’ programs limits the extent of analysis in practice. For example, MATLAB’s array semantics allow an array to be enlarged auto- matically whenever a write occurs to an out-of-bounds index, and also for certain operations to automatically promote the element type of an array from real to complex numbers. This poses imple- mentation challenges for static MATLAB compilers like FALCON, which have to implement a complete type system with multiple compiler passes and interprocedural flow analyses to check for such drastic changes to arrays [18, 25]. In fact, MATLAB’s (and APL’s) semantics are so flexible that shape inference on arrays is impos- sible to compute using ordinary dataflow analysis on bounded lat- tices [13]. Additionally, type checking is essential to disambiguate MATLAB expressions like A*B, which, depending on the dimen- sions of A and B, could represent a scaling, inner product, outer product, matrix-matrix multiplication, or matrix-vector multiplica- tion [25]. Similar work has been done for other dynamic languages, as in Hack, a PHP implementation with a full static type system [31].
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Trace-based Just-in-Time Type Specialization for Dynamic Languages

Trace-based Just-in-Time Type Specialization for Dynamic Languages

Dynamic languages such as JavaScript are more difficult to com- pile than statically typed ones. Since no concrete type information is available, traditional compilers need to emit generic code that can handle all possible type combinations at runtime. We present an al- ternative compilation technique for dynamically-typed languages that identifies frequently executed loop traces at run-time and then generates machine code on the fly that is specialized for the ac- tual dynamic types occurring on each path through the loop. Our method provides cheap inter-procedural type specialization, and an elegant and efficient way of incrementally compiling lazily discov- ered alternative paths through nested loops. We have implemented a dynamic compiler for JavaScript based on our technique and we have measured speedups of 10x and more for certain benchmark programs.
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Practical Dynamic Grammars for Dynamic Languages

Practical Dynamic Grammars for Dynamic Languages

In Table 1 we list the average throughput of different Small- talk parsers producing an identical AST. The hand-written recursive descent parser is a clear winner, being almost 5 times as fast as the other two parsers. We expected the LALR parser [4] to perform better, given the sophisticated opti- mization algorithms implemented in this compiler-compiler. Profiling the parsers reveals that the LALR parser spends most of its time looking up, decoding and dispatching values from its tables. PetitParser on the other hand shows a deep nesting of message sends, something a dynamic language language like Smalltalk can do very efficiently.
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Compiling dynamic languages via statically typed functional languages

Compiling dynamic languages via statically typed functional languages

Unlike Jython, our implementation primarily aims to achieve high performance (Section 8.4). • IronPython is a Python implementation for Microsoft's .NET infrastructure [20]. It compile[r]

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Compiler and runtime techniques for optimizing dynamic scripting languages

Compiler and runtime techniques for optimizing dynamic scripting languages

The profiler first gets the type of the object on top of the interpreter stack after an instrumented instruction is interpreted, and stores the type into a profiling table indexed with the interpreter’s PC. The type information of a generic R object is stored in three places: the type in the header, attrib also in the header to specify the number of dimensions (there is no dim attribute if the number of dimensions is one, i.e. in the case of a vector), and length in the body section to specify the vector length of VECTOR. The profiler checks all these attributes, and combines them into a type (see next section) defined by ORBIT. If one instruction is profiled several times (in the same PC location), the final type is the meet of all the types profiled. Because of the R object structure, the type profiling is more complex than other dynamic languages. By carefully design the profiling component, the overhead of profiling is typically less than 10%.
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CLASSIFICATION OF NIGERIAN LANGUAGES BASED ON GREENBERG'S CLASSIFICATION OF AFRICAN LANGUAGES

CLASSIFICATION OF NIGERIAN LANGUAGES BASED ON GREENBERG'S CLASSIFICATION OF AFRICAN LANGUAGES

The problem of multi-lingualism and the diversification of African languages have attracted scholars especially linguists, sociologist, anthropologists, archaeologists, historians and other interested scholars to study it with a view to finding out the historical origin and development of these diverse languages spoken in the multi-ethnic continent. Unequivocally speaking, Africa is a multi- lingual as well as a multi-ethnic continent. It should be highlighted that linguists are still busy counting the languages spoken in Africa. However, according to Heine, B.(2000), the 1996 edition of ethnologue puts the number of living Languages in Africa at 2,01 I and lists the total number of living languages in the World as 6,500. The number of languages listed for Nigeria is 515. Out of these, 505 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother tongue speakers, and 8 are extinct.
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Modern Languages Syllabi Fall 2015 Modern Languages Syllabi 2015

Modern Languages Syllabi Fall 2015 Modern Languages Syllabi 2015

excerpted here from the University Catalog. This policy applies to all courses in the Department of Modern Languages. “ All work submitted for academic evaluation must be the student’s own. Certainly, the activities of other scholars will influence all students. However, the direct and unattributed use of another’s efforts is prohibited as is the use of any work untruthfully submitted as one’s own. Penalties for violations of this policy may include one or more of the following: a zero for that assignment or test, an “F” in the course, and expulsion from the University.”
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LANGUAGES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION

LANGUAGES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION

HUB University College Brussels is proud to host its first International Conference on Languages in Business Education. The conference provides an opportunity for all those interested in Languages and Business to exchange ideas, share experiences and outline opportunities for future research. Researchers are invited to submit abstracts and papers broadly consistent with this conference's special topic: 'Languages in Business Education'. The conference is open to anybody involved in 'language and business' issues, including both young and experienced researchers, PhD students, post-doctoral researchers, and professionals from business, government and non-governmental institutions.
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Niger-Congo Languages

Niger-Congo Languages

All these groups, with the exception of Bantoid, are found primarily in Nigeria. The principal languages of each group are as follows: Defoid: Yoruba and Igala; Edoid: Edo and Urhobo; Nupoid: Nupe, Ibira (Ebira), and Gwari (Gbagyi); Idomoid: Idoma and Igede; Igboid: Igbo; Cross River: Efik, Ibibio, and Ogoni; Kainji: Kambari; Platoid: Berom, Tarok, and Jukun.

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Alternative Programming Languages

Alternative Programming Languages

We are going to see JavaFX Script, apart of to be a scripting language is a language to desing User Interfaces, so have the powerfull of a script with the design of interfaces in graphic[r]

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HUMANITIES AND LANGUAGES UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES HUMANITIES AND LANGUAGES FUTURE STUDY GUIDE

HUMANITIES AND LANGUAGES UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES HUMANITIES AND LANGUAGES FUTURE STUDY GUIDE

Located just minutes from the Gold Coast beaches, the campus offers a dynamic and exciting student lifestyle, with beach volleyball, indoor soccer, basketball and tennis facilities as well as a gym and fitness centre and an Olympic-standard athletics track (see page 30). On-campus accommodation is also available at the Griffith University Village (see page 33). The campus is renowned for expertise in health education and research, and is the site of the new $150 million Griffith Health Centre. We’ve also recently extended the Gold Coast Library to include new indoor and outdoor study spaces, a Microsoft Tech Lounge and a study hall with 24/7 access for students. A new Griffith Business School building is set to open in 2014.
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The translation of high level computer languages to other high level languages

The translation of high level computer languages to other high level languages

Then each statement which used the character function would be translated to a procedure call of the Pascal procedure, followed by the translated version of the FORTRAN statement with th[r]

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Massachusetts District-Determined Measures. World Languages and Foreign Languages

Massachusetts District-Determined Measures. World Languages and Foreign Languages

Generic rubrics for scoring tasks (collaborative work, oral presentations, written material) in multiple languages. Authentic assessment to supplement other measures. Includes task-specific rubrics, conversion scales from rubric ratings to numeric grades, and a quality assessment checklist ensuring alignment to specific standards and performance task status. Since these assessments are multi-language, there is no mention of a specific target language to be used in task completion, though it is clear that using the target language is the main purpose. Districts interested in building their own customized measures can easily modify to align to expectations for these grades.
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Europeans and their Languages

Europeans and their Languages

Finally, attention should be paid to the fact that in six Member States the majority of the population indicates that they do not know any foreign languages. This is the case in Ireland (66%), the United Kingdom (62%), Italy (59%), Portugal (58%), Hungary (58%) and Spain (56%). This is the case also in the acceding country Romania (53%) and the candidate country Turkey (67%). When the results are analysed along with the socio-demographic categories some distinctive patterns are perceived. Take the group of respondents that speak at least two languages along with their native language. It would seem that a “multilingual European” has the following characteristics:
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FORMAL LANGUAGES, AUTOMATA AND THEORY OF COMPUTATION EXERCISES ON REGULAR LANGUAGES

FORMAL LANGUAGES, AUTOMATA AND THEORY OF COMPUTATION EXERCISES ON REGULAR LANGUAGES

Concatenation of two non-regular languages will however always result in a non-regular language. If we assume the contrary, that is, that it is possible to create a regular language by concatenation of two non-regular languages, there would be a finite automation accepting this language. Concatenation of languages corresponds to concatenation of two automata accepting respective language. Thus, it would be possible to split this finite automation into two separate automata accepting each of the original languages, which is a contradiction since these languages are non-regular which means there cannot exist finite automata accepting them.
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Formal Languages and Compilation

Formal Languages and Compilation

Predictive parser construction topological sorting, 346 Alphabet, 7 unary, 75 Alphabetic homomorphism, 79, 298 Alternative, 18, 31 Ambiguity, 45 conditional instruction, 52, 301, 305 deg[r]

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About the Proximity of the Languages on the Example of German Languages (Part 2)

About the Proximity of the Languages on the Example of German Languages (Part 2)

Now we continue the study the corresponding translations in Germanic languages of the two groups: West German Languages with the following 9 representatives (in alphabetical order): Afrikaans, Deutsch (German), English, Frysk (Frisian), Nedelands (Dutch), Niederdeutsche, Pijin, Scots, Yiddish, and North German Lan- guages with 6 translations in Dansk (Danish), Islenska (Icelandic), Føroyskt (Faroese), Norsk (Norwegian) in two forms: Bokmål and Nynorsk, and Svenska (Swedish).

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The Iranian and Azari languages

The Iranian and Azari languages

Of the twenty languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to SIL Ethnologue twelve areIndo-European: Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi French,Italin Punjabi, and Urdu, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers. Several disputed proposals link Indo-European to other major language families. Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century. In 1583 Thomas Stephens an English Jesuit missionary in Goa noted similarities between Indian languages specifically Konkani, and Greek and Latin. These observations however were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century. The first account by a western European to mention the ancient language Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti born in Florence Italy in 1540 a merchant who traveled to the Indian subcontinent. Writing in 1585 he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian these included devaḥ/dio God sarpaḥ/serpe serpent sapta/sette seven, aṣṭa/otto eight, nava/nove nine. However, neither Stephens's nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.
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Imperatives in Arawá languages

Imperatives in Arawá languages

I formulate two possibilities for interpreting the different forms of the polite imperative morpheme in Sorowahá: the first one postulates the existence of different morphemes for polite imperative (-bu singular and -baha plural); the second one postulates the existence of only one morpheme for polite imperative which is -bu; when -bu is followed by plural marking -ha, the vowel of -bu becomes [a], and it occurs as -ba. Thus, whereas ba is the surface form, -bu is the underlying form for polite imperative in plural constructions. I have adopted here the second possibility of interpretation for the polite imperative based on two points: i) -ha has been attested as the regular form of plural marking in imperative constructions in Sorowahá (see (18b) and (18d)); ii) vowel change is a very common morphophonological phenomenon in Arawá languages.
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