Another approach is to implement static analyses de novo for dynamiclanguages. However, the flexibility of these languages’ programs limits the extent of analysis in practice. For example, MATLAB’s array semantics allow an array to be enlarged auto- matically whenever a write occurs to an out-of-bounds index, and also for certain operations to automatically promote the element type of an array from real to complex numbers. This poses imple- mentation challenges for static MATLAB compilers like FALCON, which have to implement a complete type system with multiple compiler passes and interprocedural flow analyses to check for such drastic changes to arrays [18, 25]. In fact, MATLAB’s (and APL’s) semantics are so flexible that shape inference on arrays is impos- sible to compute using ordinary dataflow analysis on bounded lat- tices . Additionally, type checking is essential to disambiguate MATLAB expressions like A*B, which, depending on the dimen- sions of A and B, could represent a scaling, inner product, outer product, matrix-matrix multiplication, or matrix-vector multiplica- tion . Similar work has been done for other dynamiclanguages, as in Hack, a PHP implementation with a full static type system .
In Table 1 we list the average throughput of different Small- talk parsers producing an identical AST. The hand-written recursive descent parser is a clear winner, being almost 5 times as fast as the other two parsers. We expected the LALR parser  to perform better, given the sophisticated opti- mization algorithms implemented in this compiler-compiler. Profiling the parsers reveals that the LALR parser spends most of its time looking up, decoding and dispatching values from its tables. PetitParser on the other hand shows a deep nesting of message sends, something a dynamic language language like Smalltalk can do very efficiently.
The profiler first gets the type of the object on top of the interpreter stack after an instrumented instruction is interpreted, and stores the type into a profiling table indexed with the interpreter’s PC. The type information of a generic R object is stored in three places: the type in the header, attrib also in the header to specify the number of dimensions (there is no dim attribute if the number of dimensions is one, i.e. in the case of a vector), and length in the body section to specify the vector length of VECTOR. The profiler checks all these attributes, and combines them into a type (see next section) defined by ORBIT. If one instruction is profiled several times (in the same PC location), the final type is the meet of all the types profiled. Because of the R object structure, the type profiling is more complex than other dynamiclanguages. By carefully design the profiling component, the overhead of profiling is typically less than 10%.
The problem of multi-lingualism and the diversification of African languages have attracted scholars especially linguists, sociologist, anthropologists, archaeologists, historians and other interested scholars to study it with a view to finding out the historical origin and development of these diverse languages spoken in the multi-ethnic continent. Unequivocally speaking, Africa is a multi- lingual as well as a multi-ethnic continent. It should be highlighted that linguists are still busy counting the languages spoken in Africa. However, according to Heine, B.(2000), the 1996 edition of ethnologue puts the number of living Languages in Africa at 2,01 I and lists the total number of living languages in the World as 6,500. The number of languages listed for Nigeria is 515. Out of these, 505 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother tongue speakers, and 8 are extinct.
excerpted here from the University Catalog. This policy applies to all courses in the Department of Modern Languages. “ All work submitted for academic evaluation must be the student’s own. Certainly, the activities of other scholars will influence all students. However, the direct and unattributed use of another’s efforts is prohibited as is the use of any work untruthfully submitted as one’s own. Penalties for violations of this policy may include one or more of the following: a zero for that assignment or test, an “F” in the course, and expulsion from the University.”
HUB University College Brussels is proud to host its first International Conference on Languages in Business Education. The conference provides an opportunity for all those interested in Languages and Business to exchange ideas, share experiences and outline opportunities for future research. Researchers are invited to submit abstracts and papers broadly consistent with this conference's special topic: 'Languages in Business Education'. The conference is open to anybody involved in 'language and business' issues, including both young and experienced researchers, PhD students, post-doctoral researchers, and professionals from business, government and non-governmental institutions.
All these groups, with the exception of Bantoid, are found primarily in Nigeria. The principal languages of each group are as follows: Defoid: Yoruba and Igala; Edoid: Edo and Urhobo; Nupoid: Nupe, Ibira (Ebira), and Gwari (Gbagyi); Idomoid: Idoma and Igede; Igboid: Igbo; Cross River: Efik, Ibibio, and Ogoni; Kainji: Kambari; Platoid: Berom, Tarok, and Jukun.
Located just minutes from the Gold Coast beaches, the campus offers a dynamic and exciting student lifestyle, with beach volleyball, indoor soccer, basketball and tennis facilities as well as a gym and fitness centre and an Olympic-standard athletics track (see page 30). On-campus accommodation is also available at the Griffith University Village (see page 33). The campus is renowned for expertise in health education and research, and is the site of the new $150 million Griffith Health Centre. We’ve also recently extended the Gold Coast Library to include new indoor and outdoor study spaces, a Microsoft Tech Lounge and a study hall with 24/7 access for students. A new Griffith Business School building is set to open in 2014.
Generic rubrics for scoring tasks (collaborative work, oral presentations, written material) in multiple languages. Authentic assessment to supplement other measures. Includes task-specific rubrics, conversion scales from rubric ratings to numeric grades, and a quality assessment checklist ensuring alignment to specific standards and performance task status. Since these assessments are multi-language, there is no mention of a specific target language to be used in task completion, though it is clear that using the target language is the main purpose. Districts interested in building their own customized measures can easily modify to align to expectations for these grades.
Finally, attention should be paid to the fact that in six Member States the majority of the population indicates that they do not know any foreign languages. This is the case in Ireland (66%), the United Kingdom (62%), Italy (59%), Portugal (58%), Hungary (58%) and Spain (56%). This is the case also in the acceding country Romania (53%) and the candidate country Turkey (67%). When the results are analysed along with the socio-demographic categories some distinctive patterns are perceived. Take the group of respondents that speak at least two languages along with their native language. It would seem that a “multilingual European” has the following characteristics:
Concatenation of two non-regular languages will however always result in a non-regular language. If we assume the contrary, that is, that it is possible to create a regular language by concatenation of two non-regular languages, there would be a finite automation accepting this language. Concatenation of languages corresponds to concatenation of two automata accepting respective language. Thus, it would be possible to split this finite automation into two separate automata accepting each of the original languages, which is a contradiction since these languages are non-regular which means there cannot exist finite automata accepting them.
Now we continue the study the corresponding translations in Germanic languages of the two groups: West German Languages with the following 9 representatives (in alphabetical order): Afrikaans, Deutsch (German), English, Frysk (Frisian), Nedelands (Dutch), Niederdeutsche, Pijin, Scots, Yiddish, and North German Lan- guages with 6 translations in Dansk (Danish), Islenska (Icelandic), Føroyskt (Faroese), Norsk (Norwegian) in two forms: Bokmål and Nynorsk, and Svenska (Swedish).
Of the twenty languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to SIL Ethnologue twelve areIndo-European: Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi French,Italin Punjabi, and Urdu, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers. Several disputed proposals link Indo-European to other major language families. Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century. In 1583 Thomas Stephens an English Jesuit missionary in Goa noted similarities between Indian languages specifically Konkani, and Greek and Latin. These observations however were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century. The first account by a western European to mention the ancient language Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti born in Florence Italy in 1540 a merchant who traveled to the Indian subcontinent. Writing in 1585 he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian these included devaḥ/dio God sarpaḥ/serpe serpent sapta/sette seven, aṣṭa/otto eight, nava/nove nine. However, neither Stephens's nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.
I formulate two possibilities for interpreting the different forms of the polite imperative morpheme in Sorowahá: the first one postulates the existence of different morphemes for polite imperative (-bu singular and -baha plural); the second one postulates the existence of only one morpheme for polite imperative which is -bu; when -bu is followed by plural marking -ha, the vowel of -bu becomes [a], and it occurs as -ba. Thus, whereas ba is the surface form, -bu is the underlying form for polite imperative in plural constructions. I have adopted here the second possibility of interpretation for the polite imperative based on two points: i) -ha has been attested as the regular form of plural marking in imperative constructions in Sorowahá (see (18b) and (18d)); ii) vowel change is a very common morphophonological phenomenon in Arawá languages.