with the type of risk we assess and which method we fellow in order to assess the risk? As its mentioned in this resource i.e. GAO “ since risk and threats change over time it is important that organizations periodically reassess risk and reconsider the appropriateness and effectiveness of the policies and controls they have selected “. This has been clearly explained in the following Fig 1. I have included from the same source “GAO”. Here in my own view and analysis I would recommend if the point is clearly mentioned as the risk management needs a kind of a riskassessment which should be able to cover the threats or even go beyond that by safeguard the information from these types of risk by introducing the dynamicriskassessment as strong tool of riskassessment or reducing the risk even we can say eliminating it to the minimum. The figure as it is given in the source “GAO” is explaining about the riskassessment cycle which ranges from controlling the risk or managing it or even assessing it in different ways and manners. (Jean Boltz, Ernest Döring, and Michael Gilmore., November 1999) The risk will be assessed as the Centre will take the job of activating the cycle as per the risk level.
In this section, we propose a dynamicriskassessment framework to manage the IoT data effectively for the evaluation of CAV risks. Instead of considering risks with a predefined set of threats and elements, our framework manages risks through profiles, each containing risk information of a specific aspect that relates WR XVHUV¶ YLHZV and needs. A risk profile of an object reflects its current risk knowledge, which are formed through relevant collected data and assessment methods. The profile can be updated to reflect situation changes by analysing the monitoring data or advances in theoretical assessment methodologies. It also guides the reaction strategies for the riskassessment results, for example, suggesting best countermeasures (e.g. reconfiguring the protection, applying stricter encryption and security policies, etc.) for each type of results. Risk management authorities will collect and manage different risk profiles in a library and distribute the relevant profiles to users, either by broadcasting or on-request. In transportation, depending on risk awareness and needs, transporters can request relevant risk profiles to form their own riskassessment model. This model will consider only a limited number of IoT input sources filtered by the chosen profiles, hence it will assess the risk faster and provide more understandable results to users. Moreover, when accidents happen, road operators can broadcast similar profiles for other transporters to help them react faster and with an optimal strategy.
This section briefly describes the Emerald software, of which DNRISK will base on. Emerald, developed jointly by BNR, Nortel Networks and Bell Canada, is a tool that can apply different risk rate assessment strategies at the earliest possible stages of software development. Emerald provides decision support by assessing risk rate and predicting software faults based on several source code characteristics. The goal of Emerald is to predict which module will be most probably to receive modification and update due to changes or "fixes" resulting from field Customer Service Reports (CSRs) by assigning a risk rate to each module. Emerald can evaluate risk rate with different metrics such as the AIM, TTRISK and OPRISK mentioned previously.
The role of different variables in the risk model was pre- sented with specific examples, with special emphasis on the relative significance of metocean, vessel traffic condi- tions and oil spill modelling systems integrated for the pi- lot area. The results from the risk modelling software tool are in agreement with what was expected from the proposed methodology for risk. Using an oil transport model (together with metocean modelling systems) in the estimation of the risk of oil reaching the coastline can provide a more robust and dynamicriskassessment. The results presented here have shown that the mere fact of having intensive ship traffic in the proximity of some coastal areas does not necessarily mean that the risk of shoreline contamination is high, depending on the instantaneous metocean conditions. If they are favourable to transport an eventual oil spill to offshore, the risk of shore- line contamination will be low. Also, it was shown that even if the metocean and the sea state conditions are stable and not extremely rough (reducing the probability of having ship accidents) – the risk of having ship incidents may not be nec- essarily reduced, depending on a combination of multiple dy- namic factors, including the ship traffic intensity.
Risks and hazards in agriculture, resulting in injuries and deaths are a global problem. The level of awareness in this area is linked to the overall level of development of the country or region. However, research shows that even in developed countries, the level of safety culture in the areas of agriculture is at a low stage. An American research 1 conducted in two agricultural high schools showed inadequate knowledge of students regarding safety work practices on farms. It is asserted that the farm tractors are the major cause of fatalities in Turkey agricultural regions 2 . The frequency of occupational accidents on Swedish farms is also high 3 . Yearly, in Sweden, per 1,000,000 persons, 11.6 fatal accidents happen among those with farming as a main occupation 4 . Inadequate knowledge and poor attitude to safety in agriculture is reflected in the regulations and rules for safety at work. It is also reflected in Slovenia. The small country with a long agricultural tradition of small farms has low awareness of safety culture in particular in the segment of small farms. The high number of accidents (with very high casualties and non-registered injuries) sometimes with high fatal rates requires a more thorough assessment of the situation in agriculture.
Within this subproject, one aim is to improve the envi- ronmental riskassessment of antibiotics applied in aqua- culture. Worldwide, the amount of marine aquaculture is increasing . Aquacultures are often operated in open coastal systems (cages) with widespread use of antibiotics directly entering water bodies and adjacent sedimentary areas . Investigations showed that industrial maricul- ture systems were important antibiotic resistance genes’ (ARGs) reservoirs in coastal area . The impact of anti- biotics, used in aquacultures, on important prokaryotic marine primary producers, such as marine cyanobac- teria, is not assessed within the authorization process. Fig. 1 Structure and action of a peptide antibiotic (NK-2) against
symptoms, counselors are required to inhibit students' negative feeling through relaxation techniques, positive self-talk, and releasing psychological tension or refreshing psychological functioning. All these techniques are time consuming and need a sophisticated psychological knowledge by teachers which is outside the ability boundary of customary language teachers in Iran and many other countries. But, the dynamic interventions used in this study can be performed by all ordinary language teachers in the class context (not in clinical conditions) during instructions. Cao  used different instruments and identified similar symptoms but did not propose any remedy for removing them. Besides, in a similar study, Hasenan and Abdulghani  recognized same anxiety symptoms but proposed learning strategies such as social, affective, meta-cognitive, cognitive and memory strategies for treating anxiety. These strategies are implicit in nature and are not deeply rooted in psychological theories of learning. They might help removing learning difficulties but their application in relieving or treating learning anxiety is in serious doubt. However, the inventory of mediations and interventions used in this study are deeply rooted in Vygotskian psychology, counseling, ZPD and theories of social-cognitive development. Also, the findings of the current research enjoy support of robust experimental findings. Poehner  found that dynamic intervention has prognostic vales in identifying learner’s problems and therefore it is an effective means of understanding learners’ abilities and helping them to overcome learning problems. However, he only underlined learning difficulties which were caused by wrong instructions, static views of assessment and etc. Besides, Ajideh and Nourdad  indicated that using dynamic interventions in education, improves immediate and delayed effects on the reading comprehension of learners in all proficiency levels. A bulk of researches stand firm behind the current findings [2, 4, 14, 17, 18, 19] none of them, however, have studied the effect of dynamic views of instruction on removing anxiety. Therefore, it can be concluded that using those approaches to teaching such as dynamic intervention and mediated learning which have their roots in cognitive and psychological underpinnings might relieve the psychological problems associated with learning. This issue is also found in a research by Zare and his colleagues  which have stated that combining meta-cognitive approach with cognitive and behavioral approaches can teach patients to not only process their beliefs and attitudes objectively, but also become aware of information processing which result in reduction of anxious thoughts among patients.
As one kind of renewable energy, the cellulosic ethanol project was gradually developed in China in recent years. The first large-scale cellulosic ethanol producer with annual capacity of 50,000 tons had been put into operation in Shandong province. However, the Chinese cellulosic ethanol industry developed slowly by the complex technology, high cost and uncertainties. Real option is a typical approach used in renewable energy field. Some researchers (Lee et al., 2010; Sharma et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2014) had investigated the benefits of investing renewable energy policy using binomial tree model. Sharma et al. (2013) constructed a real option model for a hypothetical, vertically integrated lignocellulosic enterprise that produces cellulosic ethanol and biosuccinic acid. In their model, binomial tree was used to present the uncertainties in bioproduct demands and prices. Different with the previous research, this paper establishes a quadrinomial lattice tree model based on dynamicrisk-neutral probability with two construction stages and double stochastic variables.
ensuring quality control and reducing disagreement between expert assessors (Turbé et al. 2017; Vanderhoeven et al. 2017). For example, González-Moreno et al. (2019) pro- pose that in order to reduce inconsistencies in research findings, assessment protocols should use a five-level scoring rule, maximum aggregation of impacts and the modera- tion of expertise requirements. However, more fundamentally, protocols differ strongly in the kind of information they accept as an evidence base. Firstly, some protocols consider only impacts originating from the (invaded) area (e.g. EICAT) for which the assessment is done whereas others recommend incorporating impact information from other invaded ranges, or even from the native range (e.g. NNRA; Table 1). Secondly, some protocols focus on impacts reported in the peer-reviewed literature only, while others allow any kind of grey literature or expert opinion to be used (Table 2). Thirdly, protocols also may not clearly discriminate between study designs, risking largely an- ecdotal observations to be considered as equally informative as experimental studies (Table 2). While protocols often include a general level of confidence for the overall (impact) assessment, this typically does not allow one to identify the type or source of uncertainty. Consequently, reasons for self-reported low levels of confidence in the out- put of (impact) assessments remain mostly unexplained (Vanderhoeven et al. 2017).
Since an IP may not want to share detailed data about their own infrastructure or their riskassessment methods, it is difficult for the SP (and possibly cloud brokers) to verify the reliability of IP’s riskassessment. This problem may be exacerbated if the SP wishes to choose the best (according to their own criteria) IP for their services and have little or no past dealings with many providers. When making an SLA offer, an IP usually presents an associated availability to the entity (SP) it is negotiating with. Most of commercial cloud providers such as Amazon ”guarantee” a service availability of 99%. This metric can be translated into a Probability of Failure (PoF), therefore a risk of service unavailability. However, the SP will not necessary trust this IP’s metric. Even if the IP utilises sophisticated and accurate riskassessment techniques, they might wish to convince the SP that the PoF is lower than it is in reality, in order to increase the likelihood that the SLA negotiation is successful . If the IP’s offered PoFs were consistently lower than the actual PoF by a considerable margin then its reputation may be damaged and the SP may become aware of this. However, if the difference is not too large (while still being statistically significant and therefore potentially having an impact on the SP’s own assessment) it may require a significant amount of historical data to enable the IP’s inaccuracy or dishonesty to be identified. Hence it would clearly be of value if the SP could obtain additional information to provide some indication of the reliability of an IP’s riskassessment prior to accepting an SLA offer. This information is a measure of the IP’s reliability and the SP’s own PoF estimate (which differs from the provider’s if it is considered unreliable).
In the Grid fabric, reservation and allocation of correspond- ing resources are important to achieve the desired QoS. This implies that candidate resources are selected by consider- ing reliability, availability, cost, and performance. Foster et al.  present a prototype for the Globus Architecture for Reservation and Allocation (GARA). GARA supports dy- namic discovery and reservation of heterogenous (in type and administration) resources. However, it lacks risk man- agement in the resource selection. Accordingly, reliability, availability, cost, and performance are considered but with- out an estimate of the risk of failure of the SLA. Early work in the AssessGrid project , examines a provider’s re- sponsibility in providing risk-aware resource reservations. Further, a brief overview of the benefits of risk-aware mi- grations has been published . The paper presented here aims to give a more general overview of the whole project, considering all actors: the end-user, broker and provider. If the risk of an SLA violation increases during job-runtime, e.g. because of system outages, the resource provider can initiate precautionary fault-tolerance actions. Precaution- ary action enhances the fault-tolerance functionalities de- veloped in the EC-funded HPC4U project . Distributed checkpointing and migration for single-node jobs are al- ready realised in order to ensure the fulfilment of SLAs, even in cases of system failures . Combining the HPC4U results with risk management functionalities will enable taking actions before an outage. Accordingly, the danger of an SLA violation is significantly reduced.
In the financial world nowadays, Value-at-Risk has become one of the most important if not the most used measures of risk. The models to negotiate portfolio risk were developed very quickly from the traditional distribution of profit and loss to dynamic Value-at-Risk. As a risk-management technique Value-at-Risk describes the loss that can occur over a given period, at a given confidence level, due to exposure to market risk. The simplicity of the Value-at-Risk concept has directed many to recommend that it become a standard risk measure, not only for financial establishments involved in large-scale trading operations, but also for retail banks, insurance companies, institutional investors and non-financial enterprises. As we see, Value-at-Risk has become an inalienable tool for risk control and an integral part of methodologies that dispense of capital between various business spheres. Its use is being encouraged by the Bank for International Settlements, the American Federal Reserve Bank and the Securities and Exchange Commission for every derivatives user. Today we can even speak about Portfolio Value-at-Risk. A major problem of the Value-at-Risk concept, however, is that it is calculated statically without analysis of the daily changes of surrounding financial, economic and social conditions.
As the ports play a prominent role in the national economy of the countries and a number of factors such as safety condition of the port and low rate or non-occur- rence of accidents are greatly important for being selected as a destination for cargo owners to bring their vessels and cargo therein, giving due care to safety related is- sues in ports and harbors is among jurisdictional and sensitive duties of the authori- ties in ports and maritime areas. Enjoying some 3000 km of marine coastlines and more than 10 commercial ports throughout the country, Iran is no exception where its ports are responsible for cargo import and export. In this respect, container ter- minals are one of the high-risk areas in ports requiring extensive care of the pertain- ing authorities to take appropriate measures to maintain safety standard there. One of the significant methods and techniques for the riskassessment is P&HRAM as to the containers terminals. This method has been employed in this research taking into account the operation attributes of the works in ports and harbors. This method pro- vided appropriate answers to the research questions in that it was predicted that the great part of the activities in container terminal poses a higher risk from human perspective than expected requiring some measures to be taken to mitigate the risks to a tolerable level. This research was conducted and the results demonstrated that more than 75% of the risks in container terminals are higher than acceptable level about which some measures were taken and the risks were reduced to 100% lower than tolerable level.
Software organization faces operational, technical and strategic risk. Hence, riskassessment is an important part of the decision-making process of software activities. Software management process has gained relevant during the last years, however there is still growing need of developing an innovative models that can support software practitioners in making decision to assess operational, technical and strategic risk. Existing riskassessment models adequately provide valuable insights to software practitioners to identify and measure the magnitude of risks associated in software activities, but they do not provide decision making support to software practitioners in assessing operational, technical and strategic risk. Thus, the aim of this paper is to propose a riskassessment model to support decision making of software practitioners when they assess risk that occurs in software management process. The developed model also provides software practitioners with the required riskassessment process and components, when they assess risk in their organisation. Semi–structured interview was used to collect data using two case studies involving a panel of software experts and software practitioners. Data was collected based on riskassessment practices in their respective software organisations. The case study was analysed using descriptive and narrative analyses. Results from the case studies shows that the current practice of assessing risk in software organisations is not effective due to inadequate decision making support to software practitioners when they measure and quantify identified operational, technical and strategic risk. Keywords: Risk, RiskAssessment, Decision Making, Software Organisations, Software Management
The riskassessment was being done at the new project in organization of automotive industry in Nitra. In the article we used the FMEA method, which is most important tool in competitive environment in the quality management of production and the risk management like the important part in all components of the system. In the ﬁ eld of assembly we evaluated the high risk factors by the FMEA method, which arising from the using handling tools (knife, electrical screwdriver) and sharp objects at the workplace of assembly position. If we want to eliminate risks, we need to used recommended protective measure.
In line with the importance of investigating an individual‟s performance in the C-DA program collectively, instead of doing it in isolation, which has also been underscored by Poehner et al. (2014), Table 3 provides the researchers with each individual‟s collective performance. In this regard, the individual‟s performance appears to be quite straightforward if his/her LPS is taken into account. So far, the participants‟ general performance has been discussed, but a more nuanced set of information can be provided in case a learner‟s scores are taken together. This way each individual‟s needs for different constructs are specified and the mediator is certain about inclusion of appropriate ZPD-based materials for the individual. For instance, a close investigation of the scoring profile of participants 1 and 22 who had identical performance by reaching the same actual pretest score, mediated score, actual posttest score, and consequently gain score revealed that they would have different scores in the various stages of the assessment given that their specific needs were taken into account.
Implementation of breastfeeding is an important measure for preventing infant health problems; WHO breastfeeding rates are above 80%. On the carriers of the HBV breastfeeding problems, domestic and foreign scholars have different views. The research shows that, HBV replication and strong delivery women such as group A HBsAg HBeAg positive serum and milk are contagious. Studies confirmed the persistence of infection of hepatitis B virus between mother and infant, breast-feeding of infants at increased risk for HBV infection, persistent infection with hepatitis B virus between mother and infant. The implementation of breastfeeding should pay attention to compliance with evidence-based medi- cine science sex. Hepatitis B virus nucleic acid gene is a reflection of HBV repli- cation, infectious index  gold, mother of hepatitis B replication of HBV active milk, saliva HBV-DNA load, and vertical transmission of big risk . The PCR test is a new level of molecule and gene of pathogenic examination method, from the fluorescence quantitative PCR detection of milk HBV-DNA. It reflects that the hepatitis B patients can carry out breast feeding ; when maternal blood HBV DNA is ≥1000 copies/ml, infant feeding is suggested. The mother who car- ries the hepatitis B virus cannot do maternal infant feeding, and deep kiss inti- mate contact, in order to prevent blood, saliva and other ways of infection of hepatitis B virus. The parent HBV-DNA content is a dynamic process, so carry- ing hepatitis B virus lactation to dynamic could detect maternal saliva, milk, so as to take effective measures to reduce the blocking, breastfeeding rates of infec- tion.
Conditional volatilities of both stock returns and sentiment are initially estimated using the popular Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) and GARCH-in- mean models (Engle, 1982; Bollerslev, 1986 and 1987; Engle et al., 1987). Lee, Jiang and Indro (2002) also use II sentiment in a GARCH framework to show the impact of sentiment on the conditional volatility of stock returns. 2 To study the time varying correlation between investors’ uncertainty and stock market risk, we employ the Dynamic Conditional Correlation GARCH (DCC-GARCH) method (Engle, 2002). Our data on sentiment and stock market indices goes from July 1987 through December 2012. According to National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), there are three recession periods in our sample. Therefore, this sample period allows us to observe the dynamics of investors’ uncertainty and risk during recession and non-recession periods.
HCPs play a major role in improving the quality of health care and thus increasing the value of services pro- vided (9). Such quality improvement occurs primarily at the level of inter- action between HCPs and patients. Providers need evidence-based tools and resources to aid them in initiating important conversations and provid- ing high-quality care to every patient. However, studies have identified barriers to HCPs’ use of type 2 dia- betes riskassessment tools. These barriers include attitudes about avail- able tools, the impracticality of their
We consider that semi quantitative assessment is useful especially as a quantification of risk is difficult and, to a considerable extent, the extreme.  At the same time, qualitative interpretation is too subjective. The combination of the two models can be a solution in some cases, combining the specific advantages of each and decreasing their disadvantages. In addition, the implementation of riskassessment models through qualitative methods, the software is often resorting to using semi quantitative methods, even if the result obtained will result in a qualitative assessment of risks. In auditing semi quantitative assessment involves the award of such assessments very low, low, medium, high risk for each component and then framing their numerical values. Inherent risk for example, as a component of audit risk, is general and specific. General inherent risk has to be evaluating for: management, accounting, activity and previous audits. The auditor has to find answers for some sets of question for each category and combine them with answers for specific inherent risk. Information sources for these answers are varied and combines documentary sources with direct knowledge within the firm and documentary sources from third parties. Table 2 summarizes the sources of information for assessing the accounting staff training and the capacity to accomplish the tasks. In this case, assessing the accounting staff must be based on two categories of criteria: human, determined by the quality of relations between members of the organization,