Various measuring devices, such as double ball bar (DBB) [2 – 4], automatic theodolite [5,6], coordinate measuring machines (CMM) [7–9], FRAO arm [10,11], laser tracker [9,12–14] and customized fix- tures [15 – 17], have been employed for calibration tasks. The DBB is a relative low-cost and off the-shelf device with sub-micro accuracy, thus many researchers have proposed different calibration methods to reduce the kinematic error of various robots by applying this measuring device. Nubiola et al. [2,3] calibrated the kinematic errors of the robot with 6D measurementsystem based on DBB. The least squares approximation
2) Absolute Localization: In the absolute localization method, the robot estimates its current position by determining the distance from predefined locations without regard to the previous location estimates. Therefore, any error in the localization measurement does not increase. This method usually employs landmarks to estimate the robot’s location. Landmarks are classified into active and passive landmarks. The former can be satellites or other radio transmitting objects and they actively send out information about the location of the robot. This has the advantage that the robot does not require prior information about the environment. However, the active landmarks’ signals might be disturbed before being received by the robot and this will cause errors in the measurement . The Global Positioning System (GPS) is frequently used to measure the absolute position of robot that use active landmarks. The passive landmarks do not send signals as active landmarks do but they must be actively seen and recognized by the robot in order for it to determine its location. Landmark recognition depends on the type sensors used.
The H7 Robot by the JSK Laboratory The Jouhou System Kougaku (jsk) Laboratory of the University of Tokyo has a long tradition of building humanoid robots, some of which are shown in Figure 2.7. The aim of its work is to develop an experimental research platform for walking, autonomous behaviour and human interaction. The design of their latest robot H7 focused on additional degrees of freedom (resulting in 30), extra joint torques, high computing power, real-time support, power autonomy, dynamic walking trajectory generation, full body motions, and three- dimensional vision support. Being 1.5 m tall and weighing 57 kg, the robot features 7 degrees of freedom per leg including an active toe joint. A real- time capable on-board computer, four lead-acid batteries, wireless lan, two ieee1394 high resolution cameras, 6-axis forces sensors and an inertial measurement unit complete the robot’s equipment [Kuﬀner 01, Chestnutt 03, Nishiwaki 06].
Abstract. At present, some approaches from which the “black box” system transforms to “white” system or “gray” system have gradually been in hot research. Provided that a measurementsystem is time-varying, dynamic, random and self-correlation, it should be considered as a dynamicsystem; otherwise, it should be static or “pseudo-dynamic”, we can thus apply static measurement uncertainty theory to process and analyze. In this paper, some theories about system graying are introduced firstly, and dynamic features of measurement are described in detail to fulfill the system identification. Then, the application on an universal hybrid system is shown that based on the modeling analysis mentioned above, the whole processing can be testified its validity.
An increasing trend in educational and hobby robotics has been seen in the past years. Kits for building Do-It Yourself (DIY) robots are now common, and low-cost electronic boards have spread in last years. These educational or hobbyist kits usually leverage from open source licenses, in order to ease the use and development of these products, and also increase the interest of people in electronics, mechanics and programming. Within this context, Robot Devastation is an open source game where DIY robotic developments are integrated as real- world ‘avatars’ of the players. The idea is to integrate real user-made robots with this Augmented Reality (AR) game, through the use of fiducial elements (e.g. AR markers). These robotic platforms can interact in a common virtual space and be controlled from off-the-self devices (a mockup is shown in Fig. 1).
Recently, many researches have been done on the applications of neural networks (NNs) for identification and control of dynamic systems [7-12]. Many authors have suggested NNs as powerful building blocks for a wide class of complex nonlinear system control strategies when there exists no complete model information or, even, a controlled plant is considered as a “black box” . According to the structure, the NNs can be mainly classified as feedforward neural networks (FNNs) ,  and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) [10,11]. The most useful property of NNs is their ability to uniformly approximate arbitrary input-output linear or nonlinear mappings on closed subsets. Based on this property, the NN-based controllers have been developed to compensate the effects of nonlinearities and system uncertainties in control system, so that the stability, convergence and robustness of the system can be improved. Moreover, RNN has capabilities superior to FNN, such as the dynamic response and information storing ability [10,11]. Since an RNN has an internal feedback loop, it captures the dynamic response of system with external feedback through delays. Thus, the RNN is a dynamic mapping and demonstrates good control performance in presence of unmodelled dynamics. However, no matter FNNs or RNNs, the learning is slow since all the weights are updated during each learning cycle. Therefore, the effectiveness of NN is limited in problems requiring on-line learning.
Similarly, the data glove is used for dynamic signature verification and that is easy to use, free from image and material of signature medium as well as no scanning processes is required. It involves only a direct acquisition of signals from the subjects while they write down their signatures, preprocess it, extract the feature, match it to classify and decision making. The data glove offers the users comfort, ease of application, and it comes with a small form factor with multiple application drivers, high data quality, low cross-correlation and high frequency data lodging. It measures finger flexure (2 sensors per finger) as well as the abduction between fingers. The system interfaces with the computer via a cable to the USB port (Platform Independent). It features an auto calibration function, 8-bit flexure and abduction resolu- tion, extreme comfort, low drift and an open architecture. It can also be operated wirelessly to interface with the computer via Bluetooth technology up to 20 m distance.
When measurement data are not arriving for estimation purposes before updating the current state, EKF simply presume that the updated state holds the same state covariance calculated in earlier stage. This condition is identifiable through (9). . If this happen, then it can be expected that the mobile robot still has a good estimation. However, this case is not logically acceptable as when there is no information, the uncertainties should be increasing. In mobile robot localization, or even more complex problem such as SLAM, the uncertainties do has significant effect to the overall estimation. The uncertainties are subjected to the application of different sensors devices, feature recognition and dynamic environments. Unfortunately, there are no scientific explanations until now which discussing in detail regarding this matter. Hence it would be a good starts if there is a description about how the state covariance behaves during this problem. In addition, there are lot of unknown and unexpected factor exists that could influence the overall estimation such as modeling error, or dynamic obstacles. When these issues come in, how actually would the state covariance behaves? This paper
When the chirp reaches an object, it is reflected in varying degrees dependent on the shape, orientation, and surface properties of the reflecting surface. The ranging system is capable of detecting amazingly small obstacles such as a flower stem at several meters.
ABSTRACT: In this paper, a flexible enveloping grasper is proposed for pick-and-place tasks with low manipulation and task planning complexity for practical applications. The proposed grasper has two main characteristics: self- adaptivity and flexibility and can grasp variable shaped objects. The grasper is mounted on the mobile robot which is controlled by using android mobile with application installed on it. Various sensors are interfaced like PIR, Tempera- ture, Gas and Light for monitoring environmental conditions. The data is collected by using RF transceiver and dis- played on the PC using the Visual Basic.
computation. Devi  used fuzzy VIKOR method in intuitionistic fuzzy environment for robot selection . Tao et al.  applied an integrated multiple criteria decision making model applying axiomatic fuzzy set theory . Karsak  has addressed the problem of robot selection using fuzzy regression-based decision-making approach to give a new direction for robot selection .Vahdani et al.  presented soft computing based on new interval-valued fuzzy modified multi-criteria decision-making method (Fuzzy TOPSIS). The evaluation and selection of robots is mainly dependent on different criteria and sub-criteria e.g. robot type (articulated, SCARA, etc.), degrees of freedom, pay load, horizontal reach, vertical reach, repeatability, power supply, program steps, memory size, control system and cost etc. which directly or indirectly affect the selection process. Therefore, the structural analysis becomes very important and essential which is mainly dependent on the proper identification of these criteria and sub-criteria and their relative importance.
A technical project paper entitled “The Robotic Arm”  by Yu Shan Zhen, Li Feng and Randall Watanabe, FALL (1997) is also studied. The objective of this design project is to use a XILINX FPGA chip, XC4010E, to build a Controller System to control the movements of the robotic arm. The whole system is composed of the Controller System and three drive circuits. One driver circuit for each motor on the robotic arm. The Control System will feed the drive circuits that actually drive the motors on the robotic arm. These drive circuits are needed because the Control System does not supply enough power to drive the motors directly. The controller System is implemented on the XC4010E XILINX chip. It has two inputs and six outputs. One of the inputs is a reset switch that resets the Control System to the initial state. The other input is an external clock used to synchronize the output signals. It will be a 1 kHz signal generated with a signal generator. The XILINX FPGA is capable of running at much higher speed but a slow clock is needed to obtain relatively large delays for the output signals. The six output signals form three pairs. Each pair of signals is for each motor on the robotic arm. Since there are three pairs, there are three motors on the robotic arm, one for up and down movement, one for left and right movement and another for grasping and ungrasping. The drive circuits are built with TTL Logic gates and NPN transistor amplifiers, where the Logic gates ensure the proper input into the transistors. To verify the movement of the robotic arm, the programmer need to do try and error type of programming to ensure the movement of the robot, this will take some time to verify the movement of the robot.
As the expected increase in renewable generation and electricity demand, questions about how to transmit large amount of intermittent and remote renewable energy over long distance to load centers arises. Under the scenarios, the development of a nation-wide transmission overlay is becoming one of the primary goals for many counties. Chapter 6 analyzes the technical requirements of such an overlay grid and discusses some of the potential transmission technologies suitable for long distance bulk power transmission backbone. A multi-terminal VSC HVDC grid is considered to be the most optimal transmission technology for the essential transmission upgrade. And the primary implementation of the multi-terminal VSC HVDC overly grid is on a regionally NPCC system, and eventually will cover the entire US grid. Advanced control methods should also be taking into consideration for practical operation conditions of the overlay grids. Finally, a Virtual Grid Simulator (VGS) is discussed, which is a platform that can run dynamic simulation continuously to mimic the real power grid with consideration of load variation, economical dispatch as well as disturbances. Several tools, including Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), PowerWorld Dynamic Simulator, ePMU, ePHASORsim, are evaluated and compared based on the needs of VGS. ePHASORsim was eventually chosen as the commercial platform as it supports a variety of PSS/E models, and users can create user defined models easily in OpenModelic, then import to ePHASORsim. With the freedom to define input/output pins, internal variables can be accessed. MATLAB/Simulink user friendly makes it a lot more flexible in terms of implementing control functions, dispatch programs, and etc. Validation with PSS/E simulation results shows credibility of ePHASORsim dynamic simulation results.
When the shaft of absolute encoder revolves,there will be corresponding code( binary system,BCD code and etc) exporting.We can judge rotation direction and the location of displacement according to the change of code size so there is no need to have orientation judgment circuit.It has a absolute zero code.When rebooting after power failure or shut down,we can also get the positions’ codes and find zero code precisely.Normally the measuring range of absolute encoder is 0-360 degrees.But special type can also achieve several circles measurement.The diagrammatic sketch of absolute encoder is as shown in the figure 5.
As a pioneering WAMS deployed at the distribution level, the frequency monitoring network FNET/GridEye has been continuously monitoring the grids for over ten years and various data visualization and analytics applications have been developed [1-5]. Unlike phasor measurement units (PMU) which require high manufacturing and installation costs [6-8], FNET/GridEye measures from normal single-phase electrical outlets with a simple procedure at a lower outlay. As a complete wide-area monitoring system, all the phasor measurements collected by frequency disturbance recorders (FDRs) are transmitted to the FNET/GridEye server hosted at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for cutting- edge research and development (R&D).
Black-box models are implemented using both Prony and PEM following the corresponding procedure illustrated concisely in Fig. 1. Considering the model order selection for each system variable, an initial estimation is obtained using N4SID for the PEM, while for the Prony method Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is adopted . Τhe final order for each method is determined individually by further trial and error, in order to achieve the best possible fit. Note that the performance of the PEM is significantly improved by selecting the weighting factors of (12) to emphasize the requirement for a good fit in the frequency range of interest. For this purpose the fast fourier transform (FFT) is applied to the corresponding dynamic responses. Respectively in the proposed Prony method, the FFT is also used for the initial estimation of the frequency parameter as well as to define the corresponding boundaries during the nonlinear-least square procedure .
increase the weight of the attribute Group Performance. After discussing this suggestion in the review meeting, it was agreed on to double the value of Group Performance from 30 to 60. Thirdly, both the general manager and the HR executive found it difficult to explain the employees that their performance should improve, even when they discussed the final grades per attribute with the employees in the monthly meeting, and that the general understanding amongst employees that their performance was excellent was wrong. This resulted in changing the method of the sheets a little. In the new system, employees would be asked one by one to fill in their own grades for the past month first. Then HR would fill in their grades for each employee and then the grades could be compared in the personal monthly review meetings. This way the difference in the employees’ perception of their work and expectations of the management for the performance of the employees could easily be compared and explained. The other advantage of this system change is that it would increase the support and acceptance of the system amongst employees.
For imitation of full body human motion, the main focus of existing methods is on balance maintenance. Two stability criteria which are used in these studies include Zero Moment Point (ZMP)  and Center of Mass (CoM). The general pipeline of balance maintenance involves designing ZMP trajectory for a humanoid robot, computing reference CoM trajectory from the ZMP trajectory, and constraining a humanoid robot to follow the reference CoM trajectory. Kim et al. proposed a method for imitating full body dance movements. The ZMP trajectory of the robot was generated based on the support region and used to compute reference CoM trajectory by recursive equations. Under this scheme, the robot’s pelvis was forc ed to follow the reference CoM to maintain balance. Hu et al. used human walking data to allow walking replication by a humanoid robot. The robot’s ZMP trajectory was designed by projecting pelvis position according to support area then reference CoM trajectory was obtained by a preview controller. Closed loop inverse kinematics was applied to follow human end-effector positions. Koenemann and Bennewitz  performed whole body motion imitation by finding valid foot positions and applying inverse kinematics to compute lower body joint angles. However, the method was validated by using results from standing on one leg motion, not walking motion. It considered only static stability, not dynamic stability. Boutin et al. imitated human walking. The ZMP trajectory of the robot was derived based on foot trajectories; and the CoM trajectory was also generated by a preview controller. The optimization algorithm for inverse kinematics was employed to find the joint angles that satisfy constraints on the swing foot
How can we make a robot that can go anywhere on its own? This thesis presents several new behaviors on the RHex robot that greatly increase the variety of obstacles that it can overcome, including vertical jumps, flips, leaps onto and across ledges, aerial reorientations, and proprioceptively-aware behaviors. These behaviors inspire new tools to model and understand their transitional nature, wherein it is no longer useful to think of each step as being an equal part of a steady state gait. Legged robots will necessarily experience a variety of changing contact conditions as they locomote in complex environments epitomized by the rocky, sandy desert. Drawing on the much more mature literature of robot manipulation, this thesis presents the new modeling paradigm of "self-manipulation" that formally generates analytical equations of motion across all contact states. The framework is amenable to many ubiquitous simplifying assumptions (such as rigid bodies, plastic impact, persistent contact, Coulomb friction, and massless limbs) to reduce the complexity of these models despite the obvious physical inaccuracies that each incurs. Nevertheless the models capture enough of the physical world to represent the challenges confronting interesting behaviors in a qualitatively correct manor, including the effects of impulsive transitions between the various contact modes. More than numerical simulation, our goal is the distillation of these physically parametrized models into formal design insights (platform design, behavior design, and controller design), utilizing a variety of analytical and numerical methods. These behaviors are only possible with a robot designed to be both robust and powerful, and they make use of the unique capability of legged machines to interact with the environment in varied and, possibly, unpredictable ways. Careful actuator modeling is needed to achieve such acrobatic results, and so this thesis presents a spectrum of motor sizing tasks to ensure that the platform is up to the task. These tools are used to gain insight into various dynamic transitions for RHex, and we conjecture that their generalization will be of importance for a broad class of legged robots operating in remote and unstructured terrain.
A firefighter robot is capable of detecting fire, it is a critical operation that is currently performed by humans. It aides the human in suppressing the fire and provide the situation awareness. The use of firefighting robot is to analyse the rescue condition of fire on its own with in no time which was not available in past years. By this innovation, individuals and properties can be protected with minimal harm brought by the fire.