Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

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Subtypes of developmental dyslexia and developmental dysgraphia

Subtypes of developmental dyslexia and developmental dysgraphia

R ubin (1991) co n clu d ed th a t the focus of sp ellin g a n d read in g in stru ctio n sh o u ld be on the developm ent of structural analysis skills at bo th m orphem ic and phonem ic levels. This is congruent w ith V ellutino and Scanlon (1991) w ho investigated the influence of different instruction m ethods on read in g strategies em ployed by bo th dyslexic an d norm al children. R egardless of w hich type of teaching m ethod w as used (e.g., phonological coding, w h o le-w o rd , or a com bination of the tw o), the strategy em ployed in reading by poor and norm al readers w as influenced. The b est outcom e, in term s of read in g perform ance, w as o b tain ed by teachers u sin g a m eth o d of in stru ctio n th a t com bined "phonics" an d w hole-w ord strategies. In addition, they found poor readers h ad particular difficulty w ith phonem ic segm entation, w hich they a ttrib u te d to either phonological processing deficits or to problem s storing an d retreiv in g phonological inform ation. The im plications for reading skill acquisition is th a t a m eth o d of in stru ctio n in co rp o ratin g b o th p h onological an d orthographic strategies leads to the best outcom e. The finding of distinct groups of dyslexia in this study, w ith deficits in either phonological or orthographic processes, supports this view, as both skills are indicated to be im portant. It is critical for the education system to actively prom ote this view in teaching children in order to prevent deficits in read in g skills w hich are based in the instruction m ethod em ployed.
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Social Design in the System of Interaction Between Schools and Institutions of Additional Education

Social Design in the System of Interaction Between Schools and Institutions of Additional Education

Thus, the study allowed us to draw the following conclusions. Many parents participating in the study are not aware of the importance and necessity of organizing interaction with school specialists on the prevention of dysgraphia and dyslexia. Most parents also do not care about the lack of a speech therapist at school. Most of the parents do not consider that they should take the child to a speech therapist, as the correction of speech will be carried out by the forces of teachers and school specialists. Many parents believe that speech disorders will pass on their own with age. The existing speech disorders, in the opinion of such moms and dads, will not prevent the child from mastering the letter and reading, and the child will “outgrow” the existing speech disorders. School specialists, in general, realize the importance of involving parents in the prevention of dysgraphia and dyslexia of students with ONR, but their activities for parents are not focused on this topic. In addition, experts believe that the majority of parents themselves contribute to a decrease in the quality of interaction with specialists due to lack of time and the desire to carry out such interaction. Teachers believe that the school requires a speech therapist. Thus, we can conclude that the surveys and
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LEARNING DISABILITY : A CASE STUDY

LEARNING DISABILITY : A CASE STUDY

We may categorize learning disabilities into dyslexia ( difficulty in reading), dysgraphia ( difficulty in writing ), dyscalculia ( difficulty in arithmetic), dysphasia ( difficulty in speaking) to name a few and also executive functioning in which the child is not able to memorize. He does make an effort to learn but after some time he totally forgets each and everything that he has learnt so far. In the present case we are dealing with a child who has the last kind of learning disability i.e. executive functioning. Such a child therefore fails to keep up with a normal class. A learning disabled child is of average I.Q. but his only limiting situation is his inability to learn.
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Parent child relationship and dyslexia among children

Parent child relationship and dyslexia among children

Research and diagnosis of learning disabilities in children have been popular in western countries, but relatively new to the Indian educational system. The term learning disability was introduced by Kirk in 1962 to sweep away variety of confusing levels. According to him “a learning disability refers to a retardation, disorder or delayed development in one or more of the processes of speech, language, reading, spelling, writing or arithmetic, resulting from a possible cerebral dysfunction and/or emotional or behavioral disturbance and not from rdation, sensory deprivation, or cultural or The term reading disability refers to a group of children of average or above average intelligence, who despite of adequate school attendance and teaching, with reading disabilities have been classified in variety of terms as alexia, word blindness and minimal brain dysfunction. Recently the term dyslexia has been used to identify children with learning disabilities in ed to be the most important cause of school failure as 85% to 90% of all LD
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Recently identified university students navigate dyslexia

Recently identified university students navigate dyslexia

Student-participants in this study did not feel that they were part of a homogenous group of students with dyslexia. In fact, on the whole, whilst students were generally positive about the fact that they had been identified with dyslexia at university, they did not see it as a defining characteristic of identity. Students enjoyed creating their artefacts, felt that doing this helped them to better understand how to describe their dyslexia to others and elected to photograph their creations so that they could use these to facilitate conversations with family, friends, lecturers and fellow students. In this instance, for these students, social identity theory did not appear to underpin the understandings they had developed about their dyslexias. Students did have a wide variety of experiences in terms of how they navigated their dyslexias from the point of screening to assessment to identification and support. This variety was reflective of their individual perspectives, actions and artefacts. Therefore a recommendation for practitioners within universities is that they consider how they approach the conversations about dyslexia and offer alternative ways for students to represent their experiences and understandings.
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Safe and effective prescribing with dyslexia

Safe and effective prescribing with dyslexia

We suggest that dyslexia might influence a doctor’s choice of a medicine. Where multiple medications are available to treat a clinical problem, a doctor with dys- lexia who cannot spell a first-line agent might prescribe an alternative with an easier to spell name. There is no published research on this within medicine/medical edu- cation, but it poses a potentially significant challenge for the doctor who has dyslexia – and subsequently a poten- tial risk for patient harm. Research is required to identify the challenges and to see how junior doctors with dys- lexia cope. Furthermore, supports that could help them cope more effectively need to be determined.
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Developmental dyslexia and vision

Developmental dyslexia and vision

Abstract: Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye’s visual input.
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THE INCIDENCE OF HIDDEN DISABILITIES IN THE PRISON POPULATION: Yorkshire and Humberside Research

THE INCIDENCE OF HIDDEN DISABILITIES IN THE PRISON POPULATION: Yorkshire and Humberside Research

Consistent with the above argument, it is interesting to note that there are relatively few who have a profile of dyslexia of the kind that is often seen in the university and other adult populations, where it is often the case that literacy skills are within the average range but lower than might be expected given other skills. The implication from this research is that it is those with dyslexia and other hidden disabilities who lack other cognitive and cultural resources who are more likely to be found amongst the prison population. It is acknowledged that other factors contribute to literacy difficulties, but our argument is that the presence of a dyslexic pattern of strengths and weaknesses can be identified even amongst those who have other risk factors for educational failure and social exclusion.
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The Views of Students with Dyslexia on the Transition to Secondary School The Importance of Self Advocacy

The Views of Students with Dyslexia on the Transition to Secondary School The Importance of Self Advocacy

Noted above, one outcome of the current research was the creation and refinement of five self-advocacy based materials (Appendices 26 to 30) intended to support students with dyslexia to successfully manage the transition to secondary school. The original motivation of the researcher was to also to develop these into an intervention which could be trialled with year six students with dyslexia, in order to ascertain some degree of their efficacy in practice. This has now become the next stage of this research process. The focus of this present research remained on understanding the young people’s issues and creating a solid base for any intervention programme. By interviewing participants on their views regarding the self-advocacy materials, the current research offers some insight into their potential. Yet this can offer only limited information of the actual efficacy of their ability to support students with dyslexia to successfully transition to secondary school. Further research is warranted which investigates the use of these materials with year six students who are transitioning to secondary school. Future research could qualitatively explore students’ experiences of transition having received an intervention based on the self-advocacy materials. Additionally, empirical measures could be used to investigate the impact of the materials on academic, social and emotional outcomes, pre- and post-transition.
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An integrated approach to the study of written communication in students with dysgraphia

An integrated approach to the study of written communication in students with dysgraphia

Annotation . The article is devoted to the problem of an integrated approach to the study of written communication in fourth-grade students. The topic was not touched upon by chance, since a significant number of schoolchildren are moving to the level of basic general education with uncorrected dysgraphia, which causes difficulties in mastering not only the program in the Russian language and literature. The article presents: analytical data on the number of schoolchildren with impaired written language, methods that include not only the study of the oral and written language of schoolchildren, but also those functions that provide the written communication process. The author describes the author’s methodology for examining communication, which is based on French technology, called the “Pedagogical Workshop” in Russia. The article presents some survey results.
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Sub-types of deep dyslexia: A case study of central deep dyslexia

Sub-types of deep dyslexia: A case study of central deep dyslexia

The profile of results strongly indicates deep dyslexia of a central type, similar to Hillis (1990) et al’s patient KE. In addition to problems with reading JAH also had problems with the repetition of words and non-words; word repetition was strongly affected by imageability. Although the majority of her responses when asked to repeat words were neologisms, a substantial proportion of the responses were semantic substitutions. These problems are indicative of deep dysphasia. Impaired semantic knowledge is not exclusive to deep dyslexia and deep dysphasia and cannot explain the myriad of symptoms seen in these disorders; other aspects of lexical processing are also affected. We attempt to interpret these problems by appealing to current cognitive neuropsychological models of lexical processing.
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Lay Knowledge of Dyslexia

Lay Knowledge of Dyslexia

This study looks at the extent to which lay people believe many myths associated with dyslexia. It exam- ined attitudes and beliefs about the causes, manifestations and treatments for dyslexia in a British popula- tion sample. A community sample of 380 participants (158 Male; 212 Female) completed a 62-item ques- tionnaire on their attitudes to, and beliefs about, dyslexia. The statements were derived from various “dyslexia facts and myths” websites set up to help people understand dyslexia; academic research papers; and in-depth exploratory interviews with non-specialist people regarding their understanding of dyslexia. Item analysis showed participants were poorly informed about many aspects of dyslexia. Factor analysis returned a structure of latent attitudes in five factors (Characteristics, Biological and Social Causes, Treatment and Prevention). Regression analysis revealed that participant political orientation and educa- tion (formal and informal acquaintances with dyslexia sufferers) were the best predictors of attitudes concerning the behavioural manifestations, aetiology and treatments of dyslexia. Limitations and implica- tions of this research were considered.
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Interventions for children with dyslexia: A review on current intervention methods

Interventions for children with dyslexia: A review on current intervention methods

11 years old, were distributed into two groups. The first group consisted of 10 students diagnosed with developmental dyslexia while the second group comprised of 10 students with good academic performance. The reason for selecting this control group of students was that they were students without learning disabilities but may have poor quality of handwriting. The perceptual and visual motor intervention was applied to both groups. The result showed group 1 increased the average of correct answer in Test of Visual- Perceptual Skills (TVPS-3) and improved quality of handwriting. The comparison of group I and group II was not appropriate as group II have discrepancies in academic performance.
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Relation between Visual Motor Integration and Handwriting in Students of Elementary School

Relation between Visual Motor Integration and Handwriting in Students of Elementary School

A correlation analysis was carried out on the measures of VMI, VP, MC and dysgraphia classification for the whole population. A Bonferroni correction was applied (significant at p < 0.0008). Results are reported in Table 7 showed that only group GV there was two positives correlations with moderate force (Zou, Tunacall, & Silverman, 2003) between VMI and MC (suggesting that as the stu- dents improves MC performance, it impacts the performance of VMI), and be- tween VP and the classification of dysgraphia, suggesting that as the VP skills plays an important role in the classification of dysgraphia for this group.
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A comparison of errorless and errorful therapies for dysgraphia after stroke

A comparison of errorless and errorful therapies for dysgraphia after stroke

The skills required for effective writing and spelling are extremely sensitive to brain damage and are nearly always disrupted in instances of generalised neurological damage (Kaplan, Gallagher & Glosser, 1998). This reflects the inherent complexity of writing and spelling, requiring the active integration of linguistic, motor, perceptual and spatial processes (Rapp, 2002). Acquired dysgraphia refers to an impairment to the linguistic and cognitive aspects of writing and spelling and typically co-occurs with other symptoms of language impairment, often to several linguistic modalities (e.g., spoken word retrieval, auditory comprehension, reading etc.) in individuals with aphasia (Damasio, 1998). Aphasia is a multi-modal language disorder resulting from acquired brain injury, infection, surgical removal of brain tissue, brain tumour, or most commonly, stroke affecting the left hemisphere (Hallowell & Chapey, 2008).
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ATP2C2 and DYX1C1 are putative modulators of dyslexia related MMR

ATP2C2 and DYX1C1 are putative modulators of dyslexia related MMR

for the strongest associated SNP (Table 2). The inconsistent distribu- tion of the effects of the other nominal significant SNPs on the late component of the MMR amplitude may be related to the well- known phenomenon in genetics called “flip- flop” association. Among others, it can be explained by differences in the underlying population struc- tures where a causal variant in close proximity to the analyzed SNP arises from distinct founder mutations. These independent mutations manifest in divergent allele frequencies for the observed SNP in dif- ferent populations. This in turn can lead to contradicting risk alleles in distinct populations for this SNP (Lin, Vance, Pericak- Vance, & Martin, 2007). In fact, these “flip- flop” associations are relatively common in dyslexia studies. For example, Taipale et al. (2003) identified an asso- ciation of two SNPs (rs3743205- DYX1C1 and rs57809907- DYX1C1) with dyslexia, thereby reporting −3A and T as risk alleles. Two sub- sequent studies replicated these findings for rs57809907, albeit with the opposite effect direction (Scerri et al., 2004; Wigg et al., 2004). Furthermore, several studies failed to replicate the initial association of rs3743205- DYX1C1 found by Taipale et al. (2003) (Bellini et al., 2005; Brkanac et al., 2007; Marino et al., 2005, 2007; Newbury et al., 2011; Saviour et al., 2008; Wigg et al., 2004).
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Saints in the Making: The Quasi Religious Rearing of Soviet Children

Saints in the Making: The Quasi Religious Rearing of Soviet Children

Majority of the teachers who had responded mentioned the phonological problems of dyslexia such as unable to identify letters; unable to pronounce correctly; difficulties in pronouncing words and commit mistakes in letters (spelling); substantial number of teachers also had risen the issues such as unable to identify [n], [ņ], [l], [ḻ] and [ļ] sounds such as in the words like –‘gdk;’- ‘palmyrah’- / pεnəm/ ‘gzk;’- ‘money’- / paņəm / ; ‘thy;;’- ‘tail’ - / va:l / , ‘ths’;- ‘sword’- / va:ḻ / ‘tho;’ -‘live’- / va:ļ /; problems in learning long & short sounds; errors in pronouncing the vowel symbols [a:] , [e] ,[ e:, ] as in ‘fhfk;’ - ‘crow’ -/ka:kam/ the child reads as ‘ffk;’ - /kakam/ ; for the word ‘Nty;’- ‘speare’ /ve:l/ reads as ‘nty;’ – ‘win’ /vel/ or vice versa; difficult in using the vowel symbol [a:]= ‘h’, reads the sounds of [t] ,[r] without any differences such as for the word ‘kuk;’- ‘tree’- /mεtam/ he / she reads as ‘kwk;’ which gives the meaning opposite to charity ; doesn’t spell the last letter sound of the word; careless in spelling words and vowel symbols etc connected the dyslexia problem among the students . However less number of teachers had also mentioned phonemic problems of dyslexia such as errors in spelling while reading, having difficulty while reading the sounds [tu] = ‘U’, [ļa] = ‘o’, [mu] = ‘K’, reads without noticing the vowel symbols among the students for whom they were teaching.
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An Investigation of Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia

An Investigation of Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia

learning disabilities (1,4). Substantial evidence has established that the children with dyslexia have deficits in phonologic awareness, which consistently distinguish them from those who are not reading-impaired (5) and the primary problems of the children with dyslexia are, language-based, reading and writing. However, dyslexia consist of multiple neurocognitive deficits and not solely related to a phonological system dysfunction, and parents and professionals (6) often report other symptoms such as lack of concentration, disorganization, and forgetfulness. Moreover, there are functional anomalies in medial and left lateral frontal lobe reported in children with dyslexia (6–9). Thus, the executive functions have been explored as a contributing factor to dyslexia recently (1,10–14).
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Contribution to the study of the impact between the phonological and the verbal memory deficits on reading comprehension of pupils with learning difficulties.

Contribution to the study of the impact between the phonological and the verbal memory deficits on reading comprehension of pupils with learning difficulties.

The findings indicate clearly that students with learning difficulties need specialist support at least in the early years of their education. This is particularly the case for children with dyslexia who are bilingual or for children coming from families with a low educational level. With this knowledge, teachers of all disciplines should work to help the pupils and so the family. It is clear that the use of some kind of tools, such as flashcard or multisensory learning helps students with dyslexia to cope with their difficulties. Teachers should not only use these strategies in class, they should also help students to learn to enjoy reading and face their fear of it. It is also important the teacher makes the students feel comfortable in classrooms and not feel inadequate towards other classmates. The goal is that as the student is growing up to be able to do his/her homework without help, to be more self sufficient and to have conquered the strategies learned. These skills will be a valuable asset as they continue with their education.
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Semantically Enchanced Personalised Adaptive E-Learning for General and Dyslexia Learners: An Ontology Based Approach

Semantically Enchanced Personalised Adaptive E-Learning for General and Dyslexia Learners: An Ontology Based Approach

which we may highlight the size and heterogeneity of the content or the need for simple ways of interaction with users, keep this line of research open to further improvements. The paper also discusses a theoretical approach of designing a e-learning system that provides learning content to improve the understanding of structures of alphabets for dyslexics. But still for the evaluation of this system, we have to reach to special education schools for dyslexia, which is taken up as a potential future direction of the work. Also practically, it requires preparation of more learning objects; and feedback system which would help in conducting large experiments.
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