This study explored and identified success social-technical factors related to the information security effectiveness in organizations. It explored these factors based on literature view, and documents, the study based on the Socio-Technical approach (STA) and the Security by Consensus (SBC) model. Quantitative analysis of the organizations’ employees’ experiences were analyzed and discussed to validate the questionnaire. The aim of this paper is to propose conceptual framework for understanding, clarification and investigation of the socio-technical factors involved in improving e- governmentsecurity effectiveness in developing countries.
Mote (2001) report of the National Workshop on Internet Voting discussed some security issues in adopting evoting which says that remote Internet voting systems pose significant risk to the integrity of the process, and should not be fielded for use in public elections until substantial technical and social security issues are address. The security risks associated with these systems are both numerous and pervasive, and in many cases, cannot be resolved using even today’s most sophisticated technology. Internetbased voter registration poses significant risk to the integrity of the voting process, and should not be implemented until adequate authentication infrastructure is available and adopted. Online registration without the appropriate security infrastructure would be at high risk for automated fraud, that is, the potential undetected registration of large numbers of fraudulent voters. This is because computerbased voting systems as well as other distributed computing systems are vulnerable to attack at three main points, the server, the client and the communication path. The current hardware and software architectures, a malicious payload on a voting host can actually change a voter’s vote without the voter or anyone else noticing, regardless of the encryption or voter authentication in place, because the malicious code can do its damage before the encryption and authentication is applied to the data, and the malicious module can then erase itself, so no evidence of fraud is left behind to correct or even detect (Rubin, 2002).
Eventually, there are no specific rules for e-government risk management, but it’s required an initial scan and detect on both internal and external environment of e- government systems that include a further checking on the weakness of the system. Apparently, that follows a complete analysis of e-governmentsecurity risk and then relevant security plan and measurements. Following that, tracking and monitor those predefined plan for the initial implementation stage will be added as in important task and finally adjustment on the risk management that involved any time based on environment changes and draw advance disaster recovery plan. Considering the essence of e-governmentsecurity, it is therefore urgent to dispose on whole effective and purpose countermeasures which is to minimize the potential risk and security bugs.
These tensions sometimes stymie e-government development and, by putting governments in the unaccustomed position of telecom. customer, force them to confront precisely the same roadblocks that are often faced by their private-sector, e- commerce counterparts. In Lebanon, for example, we were told that initial efforts to electronically link the various national government ministries were stalled for a time because the rates proposed by the MPT (one arm of the government) were not affordable by the ministry responsible for the e-government initiative! Although telecommunications reform in Lebanon continues to face many political and other obstacles, we believe that the insight provided by this experience has contributed to the momentum for change.
context, as the model accommodated the adoption stages, which defined how a user could adopt the offered services. As the findings of the assessment suggested that the Nepali government had achieved the first stage of the implementation of e-government services, we decided to initiate the second stage of the proposed maturity model. Meanwhile, we found that the e-government services offered by the government had failed to attract users. Therefore, we decided that the adoption stages were to be started immediately. The case study was limited to the implementation of the second stage of the maturity model, as it was not practically viable to implement all stages. Furthermore, since we defined sustainability as efficiency in the delivery of government services, and the adoption of those services, we could mostly achieve this in stage two. The other stages can be achieved as the government moves toward more advanced technology, and gradually makes progress. These stages can be further evaluated in future research.
E-Government may be defined as efficient, speedy, transparent and cost effective government services and administration activities that are accessible and controlled with the electronic means. The government uses information technology and particularly the Internet to support government operation, engage citizen and provide government services . According to World Bank E-government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet and mobile computing) that have the ability to transform relation with citizens, business and other arms of government . E-Government is the use of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector organizations .
Abstract. E-government is an effort to utilize information and communication technology especially internet to improve public service quality which generally implemented in a web based application. Usability is one of the important quality criteria for the success of a web. In this study we developed a framework for evaluation of usability in e-government consisting of eight stages: (1) determining the evaluation objectives, (2) determining the usability aspects, (3) determining the metrics usability, (4) selecting usability evaluation method candidates, (5) determining the required criteria of the method to be evaluated, (6) evaluating the method, (7) selecting and making the instrument, and (8) evaluate usability. . The results of the application of this framework in the case study of e-finance resulted in two methods used: user testing and questionnaires. The evaluation of usability in e- government for e-finance case studies using the proposed framework results in usability level of e-finance in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction are 96%, 92%, and 70 respectively. Which can be identified to be grouped into 16 problems consisting of aspects of effectiveness and efficiency.
The interviewees also shared some cases that highlight the reasons for E-government. An interviewee who is presently a key position holder shared the following. FM3 states that, for tourists, Dubai has been quite an attraction, and this is mainly because it has been innovative in all its activities in a proactive manner. In this, the city (Dubai) has evolved from the 1980s to the 2000s with a fascinating story. He further states that Dubai understands that, to be a global leader, implementation of an E-government system was imperative. This is because an E-government system leads to the removal of all barriers or system delays and enhances the quality of services in a significant manner so much so that users and citizens become active participants. M18 has been asked to consider a scenario in which, a few years ago, an individual stood in the Dubai desert and thought about the developments of Dubai. There is no way he could imagine such a city with so much life. World merchants are participating in the development, and it is the Ibiza of the east. Such developments would be considered a fantasy a few years ago specifically for an individual who is standing under the scorching sun, dipping his feet in the desert grains. However, it is now a reality. Dubai has transformed itself into something that was impossible. During the 1990s, there was a vision that Dubai must transform itself as the major business hub. To attain this vision, red-tape and bureaucratic delays were to be removed completely and the system had to be effective, efficient and valuable. Hence, it was necessary to make sure that the new developed economy has a re-invented government system through E-government service delivery.
GCC countries have consistently outperformed several countries in the e-Government domain during the past 3-5 years. From e-Government to m-Government to now Smart- Government, the region is focusing on as many possible methods to transform the way services are delivered to citizens, businesses, governments and all other stakeholders of their country and the region.
he current e-government initiatives provide a strong foundation for meeting the government’s objectives of increased reach and impact of e-government. Achieving the next step will require increased demand for and maturity of e-government, supported by improved management practices. Australians are well known for early technology adoption. At the time of the survey, over 46 per cent of Australian citizens and 57 per cent of businesses (Mellor, Parr & Hood 2000) were interacting with the Commonwealth government via the Internet and indicated a desire to increase their use of this channel. This study identifies many examples of significant benefit to citizens, businesses and intermediaries through the government’s adoption of online delivery of services. Evidence from the study demonstrates that the Government Online Strategy has:
Over the past decade, governments across the world and at all levels have adopted electronic government. However, many developing countries still face difficulties to implement E-government initiatives, leading to a high level of failure  . The most experienced challenges and barriers across the relevant studies include technological barriers, lack of resources, cost, digital divide, poor management and infrastructure, and lack of IT infrastructure  -.
One main advantage of using public clouds in e-Government is that public authorities do not have to spend money for setting up their own cloud or IT infrastructure. Public clouds provide as many IT resources as required to its customers, which will be governments or public authorities in this case. Hence, for governments or public authorities there is no need for plan- ning required IT resources, as they can be easily consumed just on demand from a cloud service provider. This advantage can save the public sector a lot of costs. In addition, costs can be saved due to lower maintenance demands. For instance, operating system updates or security patches for application servers are installed by the public cloud service provider and do not require any manual interaction from the cloud customer. Finally, the public cloud offers high availability and high elasticity to governmental applications. High availability is guaranteed because public cloud providers usually operate several huge computational centers distributed. By relying on public cloud providers, public authorities do not need to specifically maintain extra replication services. In terms of elasticity, there is no need for public authorities to develop or design their applications for high load, if high load can only be expected at peak times. Peak times at online applications are easily absorbed by the infrastructure of the public cloud.
economic drivers especially profitability and strategy to have a competitive advantage that has nothing to do with goals and performance Achieved by government (e-Government). Private or corporate organizations protect SI and Information as proprietary assets, while Government Information through e-Government is public property. The more revolutionary e-Government model developed is assessed to increase public participation. Strategic planning requires a strategic thinking to produce strategic and rapid action through e-transformation. Public sector strategic planning models should continue to be developed and modified to keep pace and focus on the current needs of the era of web services.
Figure 1 shows the fourth stage of online service data in Yemen based on United Nations E-government Survey from 2003 to 2014 including emerging information services, enhanced information services, transactional services and connected services. Figure 1 compares the rates of online services indices (emerging, enhanced, interaction, Transaction and connected) from 2005 and 2014. It can be seen that the rates for emerging, enhanced and interactive are high in 2005 and 2008, which can be attributed to the government`s decision to start implementing E-government in 2002. But due to certain problems, these stages reached their lowest levels in 2010. In the other hand, the value for the transaction and connected was zero in the same years. But in 2010 the rate connected increased to 4.
gress came within the continued efforts of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MOICT) through the E-government program, where the number of electronic services provided through the E-govern- ment portal is increased, activate the e-participation and the means of social communication, and start activating the open data on the gate, in addition to the work and cooperation with the most important ministries that re- present key sectors such as health, education, environment, finance, labor and social development to improve the quality of services provided to citizens . As you see in Figure 2, Jordan achieved 0.5197 points in the over- all index for online services which is higher than the global average which stood at 0.3919 degrees, and achi- eved 0.3104 in the telecommunication infrastructure index which is less than the global average of 0.3650 de- gree with small drop. This indicator measures the spread of fixed telephone lines, internet users, personal com- puters, use of mobile, in year 2008 new indicator added to them which is fixed broad band. In year 2012 the availability of personal computers changed to fixed internet subscriptions and in year 2014 changed to wireless broadband subscriptions. The third indicator, which measures the human capital, Jordan has recorded 0.7202 de- gree outperforming the global average of 0.6566 degree. This indicator reflects the literacy rate and enrollment in primary and secondary education .
The paper extraction process occurred in two steps. First, the focus was on extracting papers where inte- gration was our central focus, therefore the keyword was “integration”. It was searched for in title, ab- stract or keywords of the sampling described above. This yielded 27 papers from different collection of journals and 6 from a conference. Given this relatively small number of papers, we extended the search, this time extracting papers using different keyword which is “e-government integration”. We tended to get almost the same papers for using the integration keyword. We included those in which appeared to be relatively more prominent, based on our limited information. In the first step, all sources from which the primary papers originated were added. Second, those sources in which more than one paper mentioned ‘integration’ in the body-text were included. As mentioned, we searched these criteria using the search facilities of the journal and the host databases. From the new sources, 27 further related papers which mentioned integration somewhere in the text of the paper in a meaningful manner were identified. The 27 articles were filtered carefully reviewed all papers to determine their relevance. In general, we followed a comprehensive approach for extracting papers which is the suited for this study. We do acknowledge that there may be some papers which may be relevant but excluded due to our defined scope and the applied approach. It is worth mentioning that this can be expected from any literature review (Vom Brocke, et al., 2009). A researcher can only try to define feasible and appropriate scope, clear approach and demonstrate in a transparent manner how all relevant papers that matched the specifications were included in the analysis (Chiasson et al., 2008).
E-Government is defined as a system utilizing the Internet and the world-wide-web for delivering government informa- tion and services to citizens. This system reduces the processing costs, improves service delivery, and increases trans- parency and communication between a government and its citizens. The aim of this paper is to propose a new model to measure the readiness of e-Government according to cultural factors. By assessing to which degree these cultural fac- tors are present/absent in a country and which of them have a significant impact on government readiness, the govern- ment will be able to identify their weakness and strength points, then build a preparing plan that can help them to achieve the readiness required toward a successful implementation of the e-Government systems.
E-government implementation in developing countries is confronted with many barriers which require winning strategies in order to successfully implement the projects (Ebrahim and Irani, 2005; Ndou, 2004; Chen et al, 2006; Molla and Licker, 2004; Reffat, 2006). Inter alia, the barriers include; weaknesses in governance systems, ineffective political structures, lack of requisite technical skills, proficiency and weak implementation capacity, ineffective information provision and access, poor infrastructure, a non-conducive policy environments and legislations. The fundamental aspect of e-government is that it must deliver public information and services in ways that citizens and businesses want them using internet and other ICTs as enablers. Thus, e-government serves as a platform of infrastructure that governments today are building to transform the way they fulfil their missions, values and aspirations. This should have direct impact on the effectiveness of public services and governments’ continuous contacts with citizens, especially those living in remote areas. Winning strategies are therefore needed for successful implementation of e-government. Fundamental to successful e-government project and adoption by citizens is the readiness of the environment. In order to achieve success in e-government, the government stakeholder commitment, strategic guide and conducting e-readiness assessment should become high priorities and prerequisites must be to ensure that e-government reaches all the citizens regardless of geographic dispensations, economic, social and political status, age, language, or access to Internet. People with low income, women, youth, disabled, disadvantaged and those living in rural areas should systematically benefits from newer technologies.