Over the past ten to fifteen years, there has been much discussion in academic circles on the death of the library, the rebirth of the library and latterly the rejuvenation of the library as a centre for learning on campus. Many academic libraries have pondered redesign, rejuvenation, or revolution in the light of decreasing face-to-face use, technological ascendance and the rise of the independent learner. In some cases, libraries have become resigned to their fate, but in many others a new service model has taken root. This new service model is the Information Commons. What started out as a computer lab within a library has developed into an integrated service facility supported by the library and its collaborators. Its primary focus is support for learning. This article will provide a short history of the development of the information commons as a collaborative service. There are a variety of service models which support e-literacy and they vary according to the vision and mission of the collaborators. Key questions to consider in the development of partnerships and collaborations to support learning are highlighted. And, finally, there are case studies of two different models of collaborative Information Commons, each successfully supporting learning and literacy.
The study investigates the moderating effect of e-literacy and business information strategy on the relationship between ICT adoption and performance of women- owned SMEs in Southwestern Nigeria. The theories of information technology trilogy by (J Strateg Inf Syst 10:77-99, 2001) coupled with the ICT literacy of (MediaSmarts, Digital Literacy Funadamentals, Canada ’ s Centre for Digital and Media Literacy MediaSmarts, 2017) which in this study is conceptualized as e-literacy were adapted, and five hypotheses were formulated towards proposing an e-literacy-adoption model for enhanced SMEs ’ performance. The study adopted the correlational survey research design and consists of women-owned SMEs in Southwestern, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling was employed in the study, and a sample size of 240 women- owned SMEs was drawn. However, 236 were retrieved, giving a 94.4% response rate. The questionnaire was used to obtain information, and the correlation analysis was used to analyze the data obtained. The result of the study revealed that e-literacy and business information strategy are significant to the adoption of ICT for effective performance among women-owned SMEs in Nigeria. The study recommends that governments and various NGOs committed to enhancing the growth and development of women-owned SMEs in Nigeria should provide necessary grants and sponsorship towards providing necessary ICT workshops and trainings that could enhance women-owned SMEs ’ e-literacy and skills and also the adoption of ICT towards a better performance.
e-literacy: the need for leadership change in the business of higher learning 3
The business of learning is being radically transformed: the way we teach, the way we learn, university revenue models and governance. The best-placed leaders to surf that transformation are those who confidently adapt to the new reality, navigate their institutions with nimbleness as competitors emerge, bring along all constituencies – faculty, students, donors, investors, employers, policymakers – and avoid parochialism by fostering diversity at the executive leadership and board level.
Allan Luke does not represent the entire field of critical literacy, but his work was selected for three reasons: First, his work is developed within educational contexts, second, he is a Canadian scholar, and third, his work reflects theories aligned with e-literacy. He believes “the term critical literacy refers to the use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life” (Luke, 2004, as cited in Luke, 2012, p. 5). For Luke, critical literacy should be applied to all types of media form and content in the selection, consumption, and production of information for communicative purposes to improve social contexts. A second purpose of critical literacy is to determine the veracity of media form and content. Luke describes truth verification as a process of inquiry centred on questions and reflections constructed by an individual: “What is ‘truth’? How is it presented and represented, by whom, and in whose interests? Who should have access to which images and words, texts, and discourses? For what purposes?” (Luke, 2012, p. 4). These self-directed questions, along with others, aid individuals in developing habits that promote critical
The PLEIADES project team determined that in order to provide an equivalent study experience for incarcerated students as compared to non-incarcerated students enrolled in Studying to Succeed, it would be necessary to replicate the course Study Desk. This alternate instance of the LMS could have no possible communication to the internet. It would have to be wholly contained on the correctional centre education server with installation and harvesting of results being conducted using flash drives by USQ’s Division of ICT or SQCC education personnel. USQ has been working closely with Queensland Corrective Services to define the functionality of the SAM Study Desk that would comply with ICT and security constraints. This modified LMS will be installed on the educational server at SQCC and will be accessed via the network of computers available to students in a designated education lab located at the correctional centre. Incarcerated students will be able to access course materials as well as to complete quizzes and participate in discussion boards via the SAM LMS. The discussion boards will only be accessible to the incarcerated students while located in the correctional centre’s education computer lab and under the direct supervision of Education Officers. It is expected that Education Officers will ‘strip’ the course assessment items prepared by students from SAM and submit them directly into the USQ online assignment submission system. Education Officers will have administrative rights to this system to streamline the process. In this way, incarcerated students will be able to gain many of the e-literacy skills they will need in a simulated online environment without having or needing access to the internet, thus completely avoiding those security risks engendered by prisoner access to the internet.
The LSE find that one to one training and support at the point of need is the most valuable type of e-learning support for academic staff. In this way staff can be offered integrated advice about pedagogy, copyright issues and technical issues, which are often inter-related. However, this model of one to one support is increasingly difficult to support as the demand for the service rises. In response to this in 2004/5 the CLT and the Library are launching E- literacy for E-learning classes as a trial. Staff will be trained in small groups on specific issues relating to e-learning and information literacy. In the past, generic information skills training was offered to staff alongside students. However, staff attendance was generally very low as they were reluctant to attend classes alongside their students. When staff did attend it could be difficult for library staff to manage a session that had a senior professor working alongside an undergraduate student because of their differing needs.
The DIDET digital library and VLE approach places much of the responsibility for managing the digital library work flow into the hands of students, as well as academics and librarians. Student responsibilities include the application of metadata, as well as conventional information literacy competencies such as ascertaining information resource provenance, investigating intellectual property rights and/or digital rights management implications, before depositing digital resources within the library. This has obviously laid bare numerous research issues relating to future digital library and VLE design, student information literacy, the use of ICT in education and design, and related pedagogical issues, all of which are worthy of further investigation within the UK HE community and will be elucidated in this paper. More importantly, this paper will argue that such a model signifies a definite impasse in the evolution of e-learning models and questions the degree to which current information literacy models are effective in specific e-learning contexts. The paper will conclude by further recognising that greater student information literacy skills are necessary to unlock the potential of such radical approaches to e-learning and digital library creation.
Over the past decade, the FMBS of Yaoundé, Cameroon  has increased its computer equipment and improved the access to Internet on its campus with the support of the ministry of higher education and international academic partners. To date, FMBS has about twenty computers dedicated to public use in the library. The Internet connection is provided to the cam- pus by an optical fiber and distributed via cable or wireless to all the FMSB computers. This Internet con- nection has a theoretical bandwidth of 1024 kilobits per second. Currently, there is no policy or strategy on e-learning in FMBS. Furthermore, there are no formal educational content for students or medical residents relying on information technology (ICT). However, ef- forts are made to encourage community members to purchase computers for personal use. In addition, since 4 years, a basic training is delivered on the introduction to computing. Designed for undergraduate students, the objective of this course is to provide them basic com- puter skills.
Out of the 250 questionnaires administered 239 students returned their questionnaires, indicating a response rate of 95.6%. The age range of responding a student was 18 – 47 and above. Among this group of students 40.6% were literate in information communication technology (ICT), 36.1% of literate students and 3.5% of ICT non literate students visited internet sites daily. Generally a considerable number of students were using ICT related applications irrespective of ICT literacy level, however more literate students than non – literate students were using such resources. A difference in the usage of ICT resources by gender was significant. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics among students in the two groups (Table 1). Background characteristics as summarized in Table 1 indicate that none of the demographic variables influence the level of ICT literacy.
Typical ‘Virtual Learning Environment’ (VLE) software deployed in the UK includes applications such as WebCT, Blackboard and Learnwise. Whilst a debate continues as to what constitutes a VLE, the JISC provide a useful and succinct working definition by stating that a VLE is "the components in which learners and tutors participate in online interactions of various kinds, including online learning" (JISC, 2002, p.1). VLE’s usually provide controlled access to components of a specific curriculum, interactive online learning activities, online assessments, course materials, learning objects, resources, and tools such as email or discussion fora for communication purposes. Yet the need for sound student information literacy skills underpins and is absolutely essential to the overall pedagogical merits of a VLE (Johnson, 2003; Bundy, 2004; Bridgland & Whitehead, 2005). VLE models are continually evolving and the use of digital libraries within VLEs indicates a further evolutionary step for ICT enhanced learning, as demonstrated by the 'Digital Libraries for Global Distributed Innovative Design, Education and Teamwork Project' (DIDET) ( http://dmem1.ds.strath.ac.uk/didet/ ).
According to a 2003 national literacy survey, approximately 30 million American adults scored at the “below basic” level in prose literacy, 27 million in document literacy, and 46 million in quantitative literacy (Kutner et al., 2007). The barriers persons with low traditional literacy encounter in their attempts to navigate our health care system, and manage their own health behaviors are significant (Berkman et al., 2011). According to a systemic review of studies on the impact of low literacy on health outcomes, low literacy levels resulted in greater hospitalizations, lower receipt of preventive screening and vaccinations, reduced medication compliance, poor interpretation of health messages and higher mortality in the elderly (Berkman, et al., 2011). Health education materials should be written at a 5th-6 th grade reading level (Cotugna, Vickery, & Carpenter-Haefele, 2005). However, research reveals that patient education materials are frequently written at reading levels above 8 th grade (Cotugna et al., 2005). There’s an increasing emphasis on methods to simplify health messages by simplifying language (Schwartzberg, 2005; Zaracadoolos, 2010), but there’s no general agreement on the efficacy of this approach (Zarcadoolos, 2010).
More important in the management of e-journals in university libraries is the effective use of the resources. Students need to possess the skills required to explore electronic resources. Adeleke and Olurunsola (2010) submitted that the ability to use library resources effectively is increasingly becoming recognized as an integral part of the undergraduate study and a great concern to library practitioners the world over. In recent years, there have been calls for changes in the education curriculum to improve the quality of education to sufficiently train students to adapt to the workplace (Robles & Braathen, 2002; Brown, 2000) especially with work that involves the use of computer technology. Umeji, Efe, and Lucky (2013) argued that literacy is fundamental to national development, and thus nations subscribe to global literacy development agendas so as to eliminate illiteracy which often affect social development. The authors stressed that individuals need to be adequately and functionally literate in order to be fully capable of living healthy, enjoying a long life, participating in the information is driven and the digital world. Information literacy helps to define a problem, find information to solve the problem. Issa, Amusa, and Daura (2009) in their paper on information literacy opined that locating electronic information online requires the ability to locate, manage, critically evaluate and use information for problem solving, research and decision making. The authors enumerated certain skills required for effective and efficient use of library resources to include; specific online searching skills, ability to select appropriate search terminology and construct a logical research strategy and to evaluate information appropriately. Helping students on how to learn, in other words, lifelong training learners are among the most important task of educational institutions. Kodani (2012) notes that the ability to locate information is necessary for quality research. A person must be able to recognize the need for information and have the ability to locate, evaluate and effectively use the needed information. Students should be able, after graduation to continue their creativity and reach higher levels of education by combining the new and old information set (Azin, Kolabi and Bigdeli (2009).
Chile, a growing economy and recently accepted member to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), is one such evolving country. While proud of its economic progress over the last ten years, it is also very aware of its deficiencies, especially in education. It has been in the spotlight for several years as students have taken to the streets demanding solutions to these issues (The Economist, April 12, 2012). A high degree of social stratification is partly at the root of these protests and the deficiencies in education they seek to address. Indeed, a 2009 OECD report placed Chile in the bottom quarter of the list of thirty-one nations in terms of literacy. Reports on English language literacy skill rates project an equally dim picture (SIMCE 2012, Dowling, 2007). At the same time, heavy investments in technology in public education by government have made little dent in these statistics (FP.cl, 2014). The first ever ICT Sistema de Medición de Calidad de la Educación/Education Quality Measurement System or SIMCE, conducted in the country in 2011, revealed that 50% of secondary students in this country have basic to intermediate digital literacy skills and only 3.3% use computers for their learning. Interestingly, Chile leads the rest of South America in the numbers of mobile devices. A surprising finding of a 2010 OECD study on the connection between technology use and educational performance revealed that the new digital divide is no longer solely about access, but rather the one existing between those who have the right competencies to benefit from computer use and those who do not.
illiteracy.’ The frequent use of ’ummiyyah when dealing with the literacy context gives a special social connotation to the meaning and place of the ‘literacy’ effort in the Arabic speaking region and shifts the locus from the linguistic reality of the phenomenon to the social conditions and attitudes which are closely attached to it. This terminological void, which is detrimental to a clear understanding of the nature of the problem, would end with the coining and use of a new word such as qirā’iyyah, which would link Arabic literacy to its etymological source (Maamouri 1999).
difficult by students. One topic that is difficult for students is geometry. The teacher does not provide appropriate learning media in the classroom so students are less able to understand that topics. Teachers only provide explanations and simple exercises from books in school and are limited in class without practicing reading skills and understanding problems by giving specific student worksheets that result in low reading interest. This has an impact on students' daily test scores, where only about 10% or 3 students out of 30 students complete the topic. Literacy skills can be trained using appropriate media , student worksheets for e-learning models based on environmental projects. That student worksheets in the form of an environmental project. The project is defined as a plan of tasks that must be done. Assignments are given with an environmental approach. According to Siwa (2013) with definition project in learning as a process, where knowledge is constructed through the transformation of experience . The design of assignments with the approach and use of environmental materials is expected to be an experience for students. The project-based student worksheet is packed with e-learning models. The student worksheet is expected to be an attraction for students to be able to culture reading with the help of e-learning technology. According to Hanum (2013) effective learning can be said to be learning that utilizes information and communication technology optimally in the learning process as a tool. One of the utilization of information and communication technology in learning is to apply e-learning .E-learning according to Chandrawai (2010) itself is a learning process carried out through internet technology . Whereas Ariesta (2012) defines e-learning as an educational concept that utilizes information and communication technology in the teaching and learning process . E- learning can connect between educators and students in online learning room .Characteristics of e-learning , among others. First, Utilizing electronic technology services; where teachers and students, students and fellow students or teachers and fellow teachers can communicate relatively easily without being limited by protocols. Second, Utilize the advantages of computers (digital media and computer networks). Third, Using self-learning materials stored in computers so that they can be accessed by teachers and students anytime and anywhere if they need them. Fourth, __________________________
In a study by Kozminksy & Asher-Sadon (2013) who compared e-picture book reading to printed books reading through the medium of pair reading. They looked at 50 four to five- year-old children, half were provided with e-picture books and half printed picture books. This study importantly noted they had a control for the teacher’s influence. They asked teachers to only passively respond to the children during the experiment. This is important as the role of the teacher and/or other adult during the reading process is a key element in the success of developing emergent literacy skills (Booth, 2005). In contrast to Bebell and Pedulla (2015), Kozminsky and Asher-Sadon (2013) concluded that those who read from the printed books improved their literacy skills considerably more than those with the e–books, especially with their concepts of print, understanding of plot, and vocabulary knowledge. The vast difference in results of these two studies may be related to their pre and post testing. Bebell and Pedulla (2015) used a standardised literacy test, common in the United States of America and gave children the iPads over nine weeks, without detailing or controlling how, when, or amount of time they used them. The researchers could not control for the interest factor. Children are often drawn to use new and different materials more than traditional ones. This may contribute to children spending more time exploring the iPads than those who were doing the activities in a more traditional manner (Bepell & Pedulla, 2015). Whereas, Kozminsky and Asher-Sadon (2013) controlled the interest factor though having controlled group experiences and activities, rather than giving the children complete undocumented access (Kozminsky & Asher-Sadon, 2013).
opportunities throughout life. Every school needs a rigorous whole-school literacy policy which is implemented systematically across the curriculum and all teachers should view themselves as teachers of literacy, regardless of their subject specialism. Some schools have achieved this and as a result young people are able to not only access the curriculum, but have the tools to extend their thinking and knowledge with outstanding results.
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, firstname.lastname@example.org
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VOLUME 9, NUMBERS 3 & 4 73 T he two training programs de scribed in this article were designed to help women of native ancestry develop the knowledge and skills they require to bet ter control and mak[.]