The Platform Sutra(LiùzǔTánjīng 六祖坛经)of the Sixth Patriarch exists in ten chapters; namely an account of the origins, prajnā, questions, meditation and wisdom, seated meditation, repentance, encounters, sudden and gradual, proclamations, and transmission. It is a fundamental text of Chinese Chán Buddhist fraternity. The fourth chapter of this Sutra is named „meditation and wisdom‟. It is extremely important to study the resemblances between Chán and early Buddhist tradition regarding meditation and wisdom. Therefore, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch is utilized as the base for this exploratory study and it is compared with the standpoint of earlyBuddhism. After the passing away of the Buddha, the Order bifurcated as Sthaviravāda and Mahāsānghika based on doctrinal and disciplinary matters. With time, these deviations got further divided and interpreted the teachings according to their own standpoint what they believed as the real teachings of the Buddha. However, during the 8th century AD, there were three major schools of Buddhism; Theravāda, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna. From the past, there were resentments among Buddhist schools regarding culture and philosophy grounded on practice and theory. Therefore, this paper will be helpful in understanding, correspondences of the sixth great patriarch‟s teachings of the above- mentioned chapter with the early Buddhist sources, written in Pāli. It demonstrates the relationship of Chán Buddhist standpoint depicted in the fourth chapter of the Platform Sutra to early Buddhist teachings.
This interpretation draws out the contrast with other prominent religious ideas being taught at the time of earlyBuddhism, notably those of the early Upanisads, which stated that in fact the essence of a human being, one’s real Self, is identical with the immortal and unchanging essence of the universe. This is usually expressed by the well-known formula atman is Brahman. Atman is the Sanskrit form of the Pali word atta, meaning self, and Brahman refers to the universal Absolute. A famous Upanisadic way of putting this is ‘you are [all] that’ (tat tvam asi). 8 So the Upanisadic teaching, given within what is called the Brahmanical religion of India, was that if one realised, in the sense of existentially experiencing, this micro– and macro-cosmic identity, then one achieved liberation (called moksa by the brahmins) from the cycle of lives on earth in which all human beings otherwise continue. The Buddhist teaching was similarly experiential, but, it was suggested, it was the experience not of what your self is, but that you do not have one: ultimately, you are not.
All the people seem to be in a hurry; it leads to various health problems. Various studies had proved that it is a very serious negative state of the mind. Scholars have argued that this state develops into a tendency to suicide. (Goleman, D. 2000) Therefore, if anybody suffers from stress, it would be a burden to society. Everybody should try to prevent this condition. But it is not very easy. So through this detailed study of facts of Ayurveda and Buddhism the main aim is to get more satisfactory and beneficial answers for this burden to the world. In this study Ayurvedic elementary books and the books written regarding Buddhism, were referred to and analyzed in detail. Both Ayurveda and Buddhism consider man’s mind and body as one entity.
Though change is inherent in nature, Buddhism believes that natural processes are affected by human morals. Several suttas from the Pali Canon show that earlyBuddhism believes that there is a close relationship between human morality and the natural environment. This idea has been systematised in the theory of the five natural laws (panca niyamadhamma) in later commentaries. According to this theory, in the cosmos there are five natural laws at work: namely, physical laws, biological laws, psychological laws, moral laws and causal laws. This means that the physical environment of any given area conditions the growth and development of its biological component, i.e. fauna and flora. These in turn influence the thought pattern of the people interacting with them. Modes of thinking determine moral standards. The opposite process of interaction is also possible. The morals of humankind influence not only the psychological make-up of the people but the biological and physical environment of the area as well. Thus the five laws demonstrate that humankind and nature are bound together in a reciprocal causal relationship with changes in one necessarily bringing about changes in the other. The world, including nature and humankind, stands or falls with the type of moral force at work. If immorality grips society, humankind and nature deteriorate; if morality reigns , the quality of human life and nature improves. Thus greed, hatred and delusion produce pollution within and without. Generosity, compassion and wisdom produce purity within and without. This is the reason the Buddha pronounced that the world is led by the mind, cittena niyatiloko. Thus humankind and nature, according to the ideas expressed in earlyBuddhism, are interdependent.
Sayadaw of Burma. Patrick has trained extensively in the Mahasi approach to insight meditation, both as a bhikkhu (Buddhist monk) and a layman. His principal teachers in this lineage have been Panditarama Sayadaw and John Hale. He has also trained in the Diamond Sangha lineage of Zen Buddhism. His original teacher was Robert Aitken Roshi. Patrick has studied earlyBuddhism at post-graduate levels, and continues to study Pali, the language of the earliest surviving Indian recension of the Buddha's teachings.
This chapter begins with a fairly long discussion of Buddhism in the ancient Guge Kingdom and Amdo after the fall of the Tibetan Empire. According to the author, by this time the worship of Vairocana had pretty much become the most important religious ritual in the region, and Vairocana had been seen as the center of the universe by the people in the region, more revered than any other Buddha. The author argues that the Guge rulers were deliberately leading the people to worship Vairocana to cement their legal claim to ruling power in Guge. She also pointed out the Tabo Monastery built in 996 as a case in point, remarking that the making of Guge Buddha statues in this period was influenced by Kashmir’s sense of beauty, favoring almond-shaped eyes, decorations on both sides of the Buddha’s crown, and the use of precious metal to make the statues appear more valuable.
Hinduism and Buddhism being one of the oldest religions in the world are very much influenced by the music. The mantra whether it is Aum, or Nam Myoho Renge Kyo or Aum Mani Padme Hum, they all have positive effect on one who chants if sung melodiously. When these mantras are chanted, mind is not invaded either by greed, hate or delusion. His mind is quite upright. And by absence of the invasion of greed, etc., his mind faces the subject of meditation with rectitude; then his applied and sustained thoughts occur with a tendency towards the special qualities of the Buddha and happiness arises in him. And then with his mind happy, his bodily disturbance and mental disturbance are tranquillized by tranquility which has happiness as proximate cause. Bodily bliss and mental bliss arises in one .There is lots of positive impact on body as well as on one’s health. Therefore we could conclude that music hasvery important impact and rumination on Buddhism though this paper is still in its infancy stage and more work could be done in this area.
Theravāda Buddhism is one of the three major branches of Buddhism. There are many Yogic teachings residing in the Theravāda literature but most practitioners are unaware of them. In Theravāda Buddhism, the path of purification includes three main principles that are also parts of Yoga. They are Śīla, Samādhi and Prajñā. The Visuddhimagga, a main Theravāda text that was written by the great Buddhist master Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa in the 5th century A.D., gives a detailed description of Śīla, Samādhi and Prajñā. These comprise the Noble Eight Fold Path of Buddhism, which is connected to the eight limbs of Yoga as explained in the Yoga Sūtra by the great Sage Patañjali (see Table 1). Georg Feurstein in The Yoga Tradition says, “Like Patañjali‟s Yoga, the Yoga of the Buddha comprises eight distinct members or „limbs,‟ hence it is known as the noble eightfold path.” 1
In this regard, it continues to puzzle me that I quite often encounter an unwillingness to acknowledge Buddhism as a religion. This is related, I think, to a refusal to take Buddhism seriously. I would be a happy man had I a nickel - that’s a small denomination American coin - for every time I have been told that Buddhism is not a religion, but rather a philosophy, a way of life. This is more than a rhetorical strategy by which an interested Westerner allows himself to explore Buddhism without feeling an apostate for doing so. For it derives its validity only by denying Buddhist traditions their intrinsic identity, and Buddhists - traditional, Asian Buddhists - their autonomy. Once one denies that Buddhism is a religion, it ceases to be an integral part of anyone’s life. Buddhism becomes something optional, adventitious, incidental even to the people whose lives it structures. For Westerners disaffected with religion, this may be a happy solution. But at least for the scholar, it is an impossibility, for it constitutes a refusal to acknowledge the tradition in its multiplicity and complexity, or even in its most intrinsic nature. At the same moment, why and how Buddhism, even if transformed, is gaining ground in the West is also an important topic of inquiry in its own right.
• Any class about Buddhism will necessarily entail mastery of basic geographic knowledge: you must be able to distinguish Magadha from Mongolia, and Kyōto from Kaśmīr. To this end, we will have a short geographical quiz. A study map will be handed out one week in advance. Commit this map to memory, as you may be asked about any aspect of it on the quiz. Keep your geographical knowledge fresh over the course of the semester, as the final exam will also feature a map section.
the would-be wheel-turning king whose errors cause society to tip irrevocably into decline makes the fateful mistake when he fails to provide adequate support for the poor, who are then driven to crime to supply their needs. The Buddhist monastic community, the saૻgha, traditionally operated as a directly democratic community (albeit with a hierarchy of sen- iority and experience to which deference was expected) that made decisions by consensus. Buddhism argued for the moral equality of all people centuries before Jesus of Nazareth did (even if the practices of the saૻgha retained some troubling inequalities between men and women). Buddhists have traditionally been vegetarians, 25 argued for treating non-human
Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 75 haiku verse with Zen Buddhism. In Basho's haiku, critics find brilliant and succinct statements on the nature of Zen enlightenment “ Even the greatest of saints cherishes his child. Who, then, among the living creatures of this world could fail to love children claimed as one's own?"1Further , it is said in the Man'yōshū that mention the name of Buddha Śākyamuni /an honorific title of Siddhartha Gautama, Buddhist temples , monks and nuns”2
conceptions of time which I shall now attempt to sketch briefly. Buddhism, one could say, is fundamentally atemporal. The saṃsāric cycle is in principle endless, as is the succession of kalpas or world-ages within which it continually manifests itself. Final liberation (mokṣa, mokkha) severs all bonds with the karmic process which, akin to a law of nature, sustains the circle of rebirth (saṃsāra). The outcome of liberation in the reality-beyond-reality called nirvāṇa or nibbāna is strictly speaking ineffable, beyond the reach of language and conceptual thought; as the Sutta-Nipāta (1076) puts it with admirable simplicity: “When all conditions are removed / All ways of telling are removed”, and the Buddha teaches in the same vein: “A monk whose mind is thus released cannot be followed and tracked out even by the gods” (Majjhima-Nikāya I, 135).
“Now that people around the world have unprecedented access to all tradi- tions of Buddhism, a growing number of Buddhists find themselves drawn to theories and practices from different traditions. This makes this book especially valuable, for it presents clear and accurate comparisons between the Pāli-based and Sanskrit-based schools of Buddhism, showing the com- mon ground and significant differences in their interpretations of key themes of the Buddhist path to liberation. I highly recommend this volume for everyone seeking a more global understanding of the many traditions of Buddhism, all inspired by the one Teacher, Buddha Shakyamuni.”
In the present time, the temples in Thailand have been designed to stand out by architecture view, along with expressions of Buddhist stories of which are relation to local beliefs. The temples current build indicates the economic status of the community because of the high cost of building temples in order to be the beautiful place or similarly the heaven that is the land after death in Buddhism believe of Thais.
enlightenment is intimately bound up with the nāga or sacred serpent which protects him in its coils; the Rainbow Serpent of Aboriginal mythology draws on the same archaic and tellurial symbolism. Buddhism in East Asia has always revered sacred mountains as privileged places for withdrawal from the social world and closeness to nature (in Japan the kami or spirits of the place are identified as Bodhisattvas and thus integrated into the Buddhist scheme of things). The Aboriginal relationship to the features of the landscape as the ‘abiding events’ (Tony Swain) embodying the deeds of Dreaming heroes has its affinities with this. Like Buddhist wisdom (pañña/prajñā), which underpins