Early Chinese in New Zealand

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A close look at Chinese immigrants in New Zealand : my language, my identity

A close look at Chinese immigrants in New Zealand : my language, my identity

All three documentaries talk about Asian immigration history in New Zealand, from the Chinese poll tax to ‘white New Zealand’ and the ‘yellow peril’. Reviewing these documentaries, I became aware of the importance of the Chinese immigration history when making my documentary. Furthermore, in all these films, the parents pointed out that it is important to teach their children the Chinese language because they want to keep their children’s Chinese identity. In both The Footprints of the Dragon and Being Kiwi , the characters mention that early Chinese immigrants were deemed as ‘lower class’ and racially inferior because they could not speak English and were doing low-class jobs. Yet their descendants were more easily accepted because the language barrier had vanished. This is a typical example of Erikson’s (1963) definition of identity: people from the same ethnic group can be treated differently because the people around them see them differently. What’s more, considering that most immigrant children and children of migrants speak both English and Chinese, their being able to shift between languages brings to mind Montaruli’s argument of language shaping identity (2011). In Being Kiwi and New Faces, although the parents can speak fluent English and identify as New Zealanders, people are still tending to blame them for a variety of problems – they are not accepted by mainstream society and suffer random racial abuse. New Faces explores this more deeply by telling stories from more demographically diverse filming subjects, from a hundred-year-old first- generation immigrant to a Korean wife who married a Pākehā. In this second example, the Korean woman was trying to survive in her new environment, and in doing so she lost her identity and became confused as to who she really was, even though she was an adult in her twenties.
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Managerial sex role stereotyping among Chinese students in New Zealand

Managerial sex role stereotyping among Chinese students in New Zealand

that the liberation of women, who constituted half the population of China, was necessary for the country to realise complete emancipation and make a progress (Zhang, 1999). The new government made a series of laws, policies and regulations that were used to protect women. The Chinese Constitution of the early 1950s clearly stated that Chinese women enjoyed rights as equally as men in politics, economy, social, culture and family life (Hao & Zhou, 1985). The state protected women’s rights and interests, practiced equal pay for equal work, and provided equal opportunity for women’s training and promotion. Compared with the old society, women can now be employed; however, women continue to take the primary responsibility for bearing and rearing children, and doing their housework (Zhou, Dawson, Herr, & Stukas, 2004). However, three thousand years of feudal stereotyping could not be eradicated in a short period. Therefore, Chinese men still occupy more powerful positions than women; moreover, males play a role of leaders in most of the organisations.
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Conditional Convergence: A Study of Chinese International Students’ Experience and the New Zealand Knowledge Economy

Conditional Convergence: A Study of Chinese International Students’ Experience and the New Zealand Knowledge Economy

In his last two books, volumes two and three of The History of Sexuality, Foucault shifts his attention to Ancient Greece, Rome and the early Christian period and examines the idea of ethics in relation to sexuality and self-formation. He makes a distinction between moral codes and ethics or morality of behaviour and holds that the ethical practice of the self is closely related to aesthetics, known as “the arts of the self”. The notion of ethics and aesthetics has been critiqued for valuing taste, privileging beauty, de-politicising people with a shifting focus on private life and encouraging elite pursuit and self-indulgence (O'Farrell, 2005, pp.113-118). However, Foucault argues that an emphasis on ethics and aesthetics is not meant to encourage people to make themselves look beautiful but is concerned with empowerment and resistance to normalising power of self-creation and self-presentation (Danaher, Schirato & Webb, 2000, pp.159-163; O'Farrell, 2005, pp.113-118; Oksala, 2008, pp.91-99; Fendler, 2010, pp.95-100). Considering Foucault’s notion of ethics of self- formation is useful when examining the study plans of Chinese international students as it focuses attention on how these students intend to form themselves as morally respectable people, and how this is achieved through the normalising power of tastes such as policy intentions and cultural beliefs. In addition, it is useful in addressing how both Chinese and Western moral codes influence their project of the self.
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Critical multiculturalism: The challenge of multiculturalism within a New Zealand bicultural context - A Chinese perspective

Critical multiculturalism: The challenge of multiculturalism within a New Zealand bicultural context - A Chinese perspective

Ministry assumes early childhood centres are better places than homes as sites for the learning and development of young children from these two ethnic groups. Rhedding-Jones (2002), with regard to her Norwegian context, talks about how minority parents keep their children away from childcare centres to avoid being Norwegianised too early. Perhaps some of the collectivist Māori and Pasifika families do not agree with the culture and practice of childcare centres and they prefer to have their extended families to provide the childcare rather than sending their children to centres to be ‘Kiwi-ised’? Furthermore, just like the ethnic families in Norway, some Māori and Pasifika families may also have a belief that they are unable to influence what happens in childcare centres.
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The politics of identity, belonging and exclusion : Chinese immigrant parents' involvement in New Zealand early childhood education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Arts, Massey Unive

The politics of identity, belonging and exclusion : Chinese immigrant parents' involvement in New Zealand early childhood education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Arts, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in New Zealand ECE. As previously established, contemporary Chinese immigrants in New Zealand are a diverse group who come from varied countries. It was, therefore, a primary consideration to decide upon a specific group of Chinese immigrants to be invited to participate. Much of the previous research, carried out in English-speaking countries, that compares parenting styles and parental expectations between immigrants and locals of European descent tends to involve diverse Asian groups, such as Korean, Vietnamese, Cambodian; and usually Chinese is included as just one of many different ‘Asian’ ethnicities (Ebbeck & Glover, 2000; Guo, 2005; Lahman & Park, 2004; Parmar, 2008; Sy & Schulenberg, 2005). These studies often essentialise ‘Asian’ and ‘European’ families as one homogeneous group and fail to recognise the heterogeneous values, practices, experiences and needs of individuals. Sometimes, even using the collective term ‘Chinese’ to represent all Chinese immigrants from diverse countries can be problematic. The terminologies fail to distinguish and reflect the differing social and cultural values and beliefs of each Chinese immigrant community.
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The politics of identity, belonging and exclusion : Chinese immigrant parents' involvement in New Zealand early childhood education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Arts, Massey Unive

The politics of identity, belonging and exclusion : Chinese immigrant parents' involvement in New Zealand early childhood education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Arts, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

Parental involvement and parent-teacher partnership are key notions promoted in the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, and their value for children’s learning and development is nationally and internationally recognised. This study employed a life story methodology and a range of relevant theoretical frames, including theoretical and conceptual approaches concerning identity, social spaces, transnationalism and critical multiculturalism to explore Chinese immigrant parents’ participatory experiences in their children’s early childhood education in New Zealand and the factors that influenced their involvement. A documentary analysis identified many of the dominant discourses and practices prevalent in New Zealand early childhood education. Ten Chinese immigrants from the People’s Republic of China, recruited from three public kindergartens in Auckland, participated in two phases of individual face-to-face interviews, which focused on their involvement in the kindergartens and their perspectives of parenting, teaching and learning.
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A study on the motivations and experience  value of Chinese working holiday maker in  New Zealand

A study on the motivations and experience value of Chinese working holiday maker in New Zealand

early “working holiday” is that young people went from one country to another to tra- vel during the summer vocation, as short-term unpaid farm workers [1]-[3]. They may view work as part of the travel experience. Formal working holiday system was devel- oped in 1970 in the United Kingdom, allowing young people in Commonwealth coun- tries of Canada, New Zealand and Australia to visit to Britain in short-term before be- ginning formal career and marriage (Cited from Wilson et al., 2010) [4], which has be- come a cultural tradition in New Zealand in recent decades, a mitzvah ceremony, which is well known as “overseas experience.” The modern meaning of working holiday, as a form of travel, allows resourceful, self-reliant, adaptable young people work overseas to supply their travel funds (Clarke, 2004) [5].
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Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early
Childhood Centres

Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Centres

the eventual goal. For many Chinese, this provides the fuel for upward social mobility and reflects the achievement of a person. Along with academic achievement, Chinese culture stresses the importance of working hard (Li & Wang; Shek & Chan, 1999). In Chinese culture, the most important dimension of seeking knowledge is the concept of “haoxuexin” (Li, 2004, p.126), meaning having a heart of learning. Chinese consider that hereditary factors are not as important as social environment and “they believe that one can go beyond what nature has given” (Li & Wang, p. 419). A bright person will not achieve much if he or she does not work hard, while a slow person can achieve more if that person continues to strive. A similar view is even expressed by Chinese preschoolers, who were reported by Li and Wang to have claimed that “people who make the effort are smart, and smart people work hard” (p.417). Socialization for academic achievement in childhood involves building academic skills and cultivating a hard working spirit so that a child can succeed in the school environment (Chao, 1995). According to Li, this spirit does not simply reflect one’s determination for academic achievement but has social and moral implications because “if a person is perceived as refusing to learn, he or she may be regarded as socially irresponsible (for parents and family), and worse yet, immoral (not wanting to strive to be good)” (p. 126).
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Chinese international students' experience of studying online in New Zealand.

Chinese international students' experience of studying online in New Zealand.

In fact, it is inevitable that we influence by the Chinese social environment. Since we were a little, we were expected to go to the best kindergarten for the early child education. And we started to learn some other skills such as playing piano or painting just for getting extra marks when I took the national exams when we completed high school. We have been arranged to be sent to the best primary and secondary schools by parents, and we have been told that we need to get the best marks in the class. In order to get a good job, we have been told that we need to get into good university. Because of the huge population in China, we need to be the best then we can compete with others. Another reason is about culture. Exams have existed for a long time since the old time in China. The dynasty selected government officials by exams, like people who got the first, second, third or forth place were selected to be government officials. Lots of ordinary people could change their lives by exams. (P3)
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The Trans-Tasman Early Warning System. Processes in Australia and New Zealand

The Trans-Tasman Early Warning System. Processes in Australia and New Zealand

Once the communication has been approved it will be published on the TGA and/or Medsafe websites. New alerts will be highlighted in the news section of the regulator’s home page. Dependent on the urgency and content of the alert communications, these will be actively shared with relevant stakeholders such as health professional and consumer organisations. Stakeholders can also subscribe to an RSS feed (Australia only) and/or email lists to receive notification of new alert communications published on the regulators website. Alert communications will also be linked into other electronic systems over time.
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Early Maori settlement impacts in northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand

Early Maori settlement impacts in northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand

initial human disturbance of the vegetation began much later in the study area, in the mid-17th century, and brought about small shifts in vegetation composition. These intitial changes indicate patches were cleared in the forest, most likely for swidden horticulture. Initial human impacts in this region began about 200 years after similar changes are recorded in pollen records from wetlands on Mount Taranaki and in South Taranaki (c. AD 1500), and c. 450 years later than the major forest clearances of the drier regions (mostly eastern) of New Zealand (McGlone and Wilmshurst, 1999). These results suggest a mosaic pattern of human colonisation and settlement in northern coastal Taranaki and a relatively late expansion of Maori settlement into difficult terrain. Settlement of previously avoided, wet coastal environments may have been related to population pressure and conflict. The data presented here collectively reveal that numerous indicators of human presence (archaeological sites, extinctions, kiore presence and fire disturbance) are required for a comprehensive picture of settlement. It may be difficult to use vegetation change alone to
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Towards the Right of New Zealand Children for Free Early Childhood Education

Towards the Right of New Zealand Children for Free Early Childhood Education

Amidst the current international debates and reviews concerning public policy and early childhood education (Hasan, 2007; Moss, 2007a) the New Zealand experience is of interest. Described as ‘leading the wave’ during the 2000s (Moss, 2007b), the New Zealand government, in partnership with the sector, has engaged in cohesive strategic planning (Ministry of Education, 2002) towards realising the visionary possibilities of the widely supported bicultural early childhood curriculum Te Whãriki (Ministry of Education, 1996) translated as a ‘woven mat for all to stand on’ (Reedy, 1995). Strong sector advocacy from the 1970s has ensured that early childhood issues of equity and rights have been high on any political agenda (May, 2001). Advocacy also laid the necessary foundations in the 1980s for a policy infrastructure that embedded the integration of care and education and the tenets of quality provision (Smith, 1987). Advocacy, too, was the impetus for the principles and goals of Te Whãriki in the 1990s (Carr & May, 1999; Nuttall, 2003), that became both the ‘mat’ and the metaphor for teachers, parents and children from many cultures and
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Mass-customisation and self-reflective frameworks: Early developments in New Zealand

Mass-customisation and self-reflective frameworks: Early developments in New Zealand

individualised learning and the benefits of economies of scale derived from mass delivery need to be balanced. The challenge for tertiary providers is to acquire the agility and flexibility to mass customise their educational offerings, in high volumes, at a reasonable cost. Institutions are meeting this challenge by pre-designing standardised learning modules for high volume consumption, while achieving customisation through learner-specific arrangement of these modules. This paper will explore “mass customisation” and the key building blocks required for mass customisation to occur. It will illustrate how this concept is being tentatively explored at a New Zealand institution.
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Foregrounding Harmony: Chinese International Student’s Voices in Communication with Their New Zealand Peers

Foregrounding Harmony: Chinese International Student’s Voices in Communication with Their New Zealand Peers

talk to Kiwi student, she speak pretty fast, and she looks like really passionate and honest, and really energized, and but, when she turn around, the way that she talk to me, is like I never been involved in that conversation before. She just speak slowly first and then ask me a question that much, much easier than that what she ask to the Kiwi student. I don’t feel really good about this, I have to be honest, because we’re studying the same paper, no matter which level I on, we study the same thing. (ZQ) Not only did the NZ student disrupt inter-relational harmony, but she also ignored role parity. In the Chinese student’s eyes, despite the NZ student being older, as students, they shared equal roles. Differences of language and age were perceived as unimportant by this Chinese student.
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Art in health and identity: visual narratives of older Chinese immigrants to New Zealand

Art in health and identity: visual narratives of older Chinese immigrants to New Zealand

In recent years, researchers have also paid attention to art-making and identity work. Research suggests that artistic activities have particular potency for promoting positive identity (Reynolds & Vivat, 2010; Stickley, 2010). Carlson (1997) contends that art-making helps people construct enriched identities and construct a new preferred life-story. Camic (1999) argues that art can help people living with chronic symptoms, such as those caused by ageing to live more fully in the present. As stated by Daykin, McClean and Bunt (2007), art, as a therapy tool, is a means of reinstating identities that have been damaged by the experience of illness. Such ideas help to challenge the perception of being shackled and rendered powerless by illness (Reynolds & Vivat, 2010). In research conducted amongst people who engaged with a community–based arts project promoting mental health in England, Stickley (2010) suggests that community engagement through the arts such as painting satisfies a person‟s need for social belonging. Such relationships help create a sense of social identity which is ultimately positive for the person. In sum, research in health and social sciences suggests that creative products communicate both to self and to others the reality of the illness, helping to gain social acceptance for their condition. Moreover, art and art-making bring stimulation and meaning to everyday life, and offer people a means of reconstructing or transforming identity (Reynolds & Vivat, 2010).
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Ethical reasoning and the importance of ethics: a comparison of New Zealand and Chinese accounting students

Ethical reasoning and the importance of ethics: a comparison of New Zealand and Chinese accounting students

characteristics to their resident counterparts, but different from counterparts in their home countries. However, this study found that COS were not different from CIC, not from NZL. Because PIE is not significantly different among CIC, COS and NZL, the focus will be how ER levels changed from significantly different between CIC and NZL to not significantly different between COS and NZL. The explanation for this change could relate to the living environment changes. When making decisions, COS may have to consider what is appropriate to do in New Zealand, with the influence of their cultural background. Such a consideration could come from the living experience, from which COS identify and learn what is not acceptable to do in New Zealand. Such a consideration could also be the result of the different education system they have gone through. Unlike CIC, most of COS immigrated to New Zealand after they completed their high school courses and before they started study in universities. COS do not receive pressures and influences from the Market Economy values as CIC do. Instead, COS are influenced more from the humanity in developed countries. This then explains the no-significant difference in ER levels between COS and NZL.
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Life around and beyond study: Chinese students’ voices on their experience in New Zealand

Life around and beyond study: Chinese students’ voices on their experience in New Zealand

The findings reported that Chinese students did not seem to integrate into educational institutions and into New Zealand society to the same degree as other international students. They had less contact with their New Zealand peers and had fewer friends than students from other Asian and ESANA countries. They reported more discrimination than ESANA students and saw New Zealanders as having more negative attitudes toward international students.

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Life around and beyond study: Chinese students’ voices on their experience in New Zealand

Life around and beyond study: Chinese students’ voices on their experience in New Zealand

The findings reported that Chinese students did not seem to integrate into educational institutions and into New Zealand society to the same degree as other international students. They had less contact with their New Zealand peers and had fewer friends than students from other Asian and ESANA countries. They reported more discrimination than ESANA students and saw New Zealanders as having more negative attitudes toward international students.

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Identity and diaspora online: a study of a Chinese network in New Zealand

Identity and diaspora online: a study of a Chinese network in New Zealand

This is a direct quotation from an actor‘s line in the most popular TV drama in 2009 in China which represented the positive spirit of Chinese soldier ―Xu Sanduo‖ (TV drama‘s name: Soldiers‘ Sortie 士兵突击 ). The quotation is straightforward since the slogan was actually said in the drama. This example reveals that local Huaren are also influenced by popular culture in China and have close ties with China even though now overseas. Moreover, the quote is certainly a significant influence for Chinese diaspora in New Zealand, as the writer doesn‘t have to explain it to readers and describes it as common knowledge. It leads to another discourse model:
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Between people and things: understanding violence and theft in early New Zealand transactions

Between people and things: understanding violence and theft in early New Zealand transactions

thus enhanced by the layers of meaning they had thereby accrued. For Māori the ‘things’ that participated alone and with their ‘owners’ thus would have been regarded as having a mana and tapu of their own, and as previously mentioned the cooked food was noa with the ability to, by contamination, remove tapu. All of them were present and ‘acting’ at the time of the transition points in the sequence that led to violence. Without the seals, the Europeans are unlikely to have been there. The whaleboat, with or without its ‘owners’ was a desirable item for Ngāi Tahu as much as it was essential for the survival of the sealers, and the same could be said for the camp oven and the muskets. It needs to be re-emphasised here that, although both Perkins and Honoré had lived amongst Māori, had Māori wives, and probably understood a substantial amount of the Ngāi Tahu dialect and customary practices, Boultbee was a more or less ‘raw recruit’ who had served in the British navy, attended a private school and learned about ‘savages’ (which made him apprehensive) and ‘south sea islanders’, which gave him rather different expectations of New Zealanders at this early stage when he had just arrived aboard the mother ship of the ‘agent’ responsible for his being in New Zealand (Ross, 1978). He certainly would not have appreciated fully, for example, the risk that they took leaving the boat 30 yards away on the beach when there were Māori people wandering around. Perkins and Honoré should have known better. This goes some way to explaining Boultbee’s quick reaction to perceived threat, and his over-riding of Perkins’s recommendations to ‘run to the boats first’. Thus, as in the situation Surville had found himself in at Doubtless Bay in 1769 (Chapter two) where an unattended boat was a source of misunderstanding that led to violence, so the negligent behaviour of Perkins’s crew in leaving their boat some distance away, also led to violence. It is suggested that this was partly because they both failed to understand how Māori regarded unattended items and especially boats, when they are in the domain of Tangaroa, god of the sea.
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