not imposed a single term for the research methodologies invoked by contributors in the belief that, in this shifting field of earlymodern studies, each of these similar but subtly different terms indicates a balance of concerns, or a precise approach to the interaction between performance and writing, whether this is weighted towards text-into-performance, or to using performance to think through and around the text. The terms invoked are therefore individual to both particular scholars and particular projects. Nevertheless, it is possible to say that there is either a methodological tendency to see performance as the ultimate destination of the research—an attempt to capture and disseminate the research questions, uncertainties, and discoveries in a final piece of theater—or, more usually, of seeing performance as the first stage of discovering which questions to ask of dramatic texts; a way of contouring research concerns that will then usually be developed through further writing, reports, or other forms of critical reflection as a more durable means of dissemination. We would hope that, as the field develops, we will see more interchange and reciprocity between practice and research; that publication and performance can become mutually informative and generative; and that different projects can be perceived and understood in dialogue with one another.
I argue that many of the innovations identified by critics of the play are necessitated by the different mode of performance required by the commercial stage. Outlining his ground-breaking performance theory, Richard Schechner contrasts the different trajectories and forms deployed by conventional theatre (which he characterises as “triangular” in plot shape) and more modern “happenings” (identified by Schechner as “open”). In fact, his outline of the latter works remarkably well as a description of the folk dramas discussed above, and therefore presents a useful means of comparing the Robin Hood games with more literary texts such as the Huntington plays. Amongst other features, Schechner outlines the “triangular” play’s emphasis on story, plot, and characterisation; its use of (more or less) linear time; and its momentum towards resolution. On the other hand, “open” plays make use of games and rules, rhythms and patterns; time is circular or non-present in these dramas, and their emphasis is on activity rather than action (Schechner 25-26). It should be noted that the notion of the circularity of time is particularly interesting when considering the folk plays, given their close connection to an established, cyclical calendar of festal events, and their depiction of a central combat or contest which, once enacted, does little to revise the dynamics in place at the beginning of the drama. Rather than depicting a trajectory as in a
conflated scenario based on the three versions of the gravedigger scene would reveal something about the Hamlet texts and their earlymodernperformance. Where the shorter Doctor Faustus A-text contains more nonstructural linguistic play than its longer counterpart, however, Hamlet’s Q1 does not. The scenario I produced for the gravedigger scene revealed immediately that this scene, in all its incarnations, has a very different dramaturgical design. In all three versions, the structural role is played by the principal clown (the gravedigger) rather than his stooge. Whereas Faustus’s clown has numerous opportunities to improvise upon the various open offers made by his partner, Hamlet’s is tied to specific jokes: when Q1’s Second Clown remarks that Ophelia “did not drown herself” (16.5), for example, the line is a setup for the First Clown’s punchline “No, that’s certain, the water drowned her” (16.6) rather than an open invitation for repartee. Similarly, the gravedigger’s claim in Q2 and the Folio that Adam was the first gentleman “that ever bore arms” (5.1.33) only really makes sense in the scene when it gets a payoff, as it does in just the Folio, that “The Scripture says Adam digged. Could he dig without arms?” (5.1.36-37). Hamlet’s subsequent dialogue with the gravedigger is broadly similar in all three texts, taking the form of a series of questions from Hamlet and witty replies from the Clown, though the questions occur in a different order in Q1.
Today, children’s lives develop through a continuous and dynamic exchange between school and home. In this exchange teacher and parents are widely thought of as the most important agents of children’s learning success. As was pointed out earlier, good education does not happen by chance. It is a product of effective teaching and learning coupled with the conscious effort of the teacher, the school, the students, parents and their various home environments. Therefore, a child for excellent academic performance requires in addition to other factors a good home environment. Children vary in their ability and attitude to learn, parents should therefore recognize this and attend to their children as an individual. They should also try to establish and maintain a good home environment where love, hardworking and excellence are encouraged in order to bring out the children’s best academic performance. The role of the home in the child’s development becomes clearer when we appreciate that formal institutions other than the family cannot provide the motivation for intellectual achievement and the continuous and close interaction among individual people that are important for full human development. Healthy home environment could improve the Learning process and as a result make learning more meaningful, significant and pleasant.
We propose new techniques for classifying char- acter speech in the works of seven moderndrama- tists. We show that SAGE models achieve the highest classification scores. Our results suggest that, in many dramatic works, characters are dis- tinguishable with relatively high precision; that certain playwrights are better able to create dis- tinctive character voices; and that these play- wrights tend to be more canonical. Given the small size and restricted domain of our dataset, we treat these results are preliminary. Further investigation with a wider range of authors and genres, includ- ing novels, would aid us in drawing more decisive conclusions.
However, the strength of feeling so obvious in the early Church’s anti-feminist outpourings seems to indicate a deeper motivation, which may lie in the circumstances of the Church’s initial struggle for survival as a new reli gion. The first Christians would have had a chance to see, and be sickened by, the worst sexual excesses of the Roman civilisation which persecuted them. Furthermore, they were attempting to spread a religion which,'as well as emphas ising the subordination of the physical to the spiritual, worshipped a father God. This would have presented an obvious challenge to existing cults of nature and ferti lity, which glorified a virgin/mother goddess and offered sex with temple prostitutes as a sacrament. The episode in the Acts of the Apostles in which the disciples travelled to Ephesus and found some of the local people stubborn in their devotion to Diana is evidence that there was at least one such direct clash between Christianity and a goddess- religion. Acts 19.27 refers to ’’the temple of the great goddess Diana... whom all Asia and the world worshippeth”. It is important to remember that the chastity she has come to symbolise was only one of Diana’s attributes: she was widely worshipped in her undecomposed form, combining the
Perhaps one of the most important cuts in this production was the removal of Shylock’s lines, “If I can catch him once upon the hip / I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him” (1.3.41–2). These lines are often cut in performances that seek to present a sympathetic Shylock. Alan C. Dessen makes this point in his discussion of Merchant in performance, stating that, “a viewer should not be surprised to find some or all of Shylock’s aside in his first scene ... gone in production” (“Teaching What’s Not There” 107). These lines indicate that Shylock’s desire for vengeance is consistent with the murderous intent that later emerges. Graham Holderness remarks that, “The vindictive malice that comes to the surface on Antonio’s entrance ... forms the subtext of the ‘merry bond’, and hints at the Jews’ legendary reputation for cannibalism” (68). Cutting these lines allows for the conditions of the bond which Shylock puts forth to be offered in jest (or half-jest), without their constituting a secret plan to murder Antonio. Without these lines, Shylock is driven to extreme hatred through the combination of the mistreatment he suffers on stage, and the pain of losing his daughter and his hard-earned money. The audience is witness to this more gradual transformation. In Cimolino’s production, Shylock had no love for Antonio, but nor did he have a grand plan to kill him: “Scott Wentworth begins by playing Shylock in an almost jovial mood, but when he loses his daughter Jessica ... to a gold-digging gentile named Lorenzo ... this seemingly impervious moneylender starts to lose it” (Ouzounian, “Stratford Festival’s Merchant of Venice gets a lot Right: Review”). His metamorphosis from “jovial” moneylender to vicious outcast is enabled by cutting Shylock’s aside.
Who is this man and what is he trying to tell us? He doesn't exactly teach us anything, at least not any new insights or information. All information is mock information: ‘There's a lot of water in beer’. His act is forged out of gesture, manner and timing, like a kind of physical theatre. It has a strange gravity. The figure on stage is a likeable anti-hero, a caricature of something or other, tragi-comic. He creates a mess of possibilities and questions, which seem to tumble out of his hands onto the table top, like the cards, forming haphazard arrangements. This mess is somehow open to an onlooker, like an offering, chaotic yet generous. He pauses: ‘Do you see the pattern?’ At the same time though his performance seems underpinned by an intangible precision. It has, overall, a definite quality, as though all the haphazardness amounts at some level to an exact proposition. And look at his hands. Large, chunky hands, with fingers like blunt chisels, at once hopelessly clumsy and impossibly nimble.
The goal of this study is to evaluate an ‘off- the-shelf’ POS-tagger for modern German on historical data from the EarlyModern period (1650-1800). With no specialised tagger avail- able for this particular stage of the language, our findings will be of particular interest to smaller, humanities-based projects wishing to add POS annotations to their historical data but which lack the means or resources to train a POS tagger themselves. Our study assesses the effects of spelling variation on the perfor- mance of the tagger, and investigates to what extent tagger performance can be improved by using ‘normalised’ input, where spelling vari- ants in the corpus are standardised to a mod- ern form. Our findings show that adding such a normalisation layer improves tagger perfor- mance considerably.
We Couple at Games: Masculine Sexuality in the Tragedies of Thomas Middleton To examine the relationship between the Renaissance male and contemporary attitudes towards heterosexual congress is to not only reiterate and extend the earlymodern anxiety over the impermanence of masculinity, but additionally to highlight the critical importance played by conquest in guarding one‟s masculine essence against corruption. The cultural belief that masculinity was the natural result of the stable foundation of a divinely ordered English hierarchy made it critical that masculinity be maintained in a manner consistent with such a patriarchal system, as exampled by the household, where the male head could fashion it in his own masculine image and judge it according to its stability. An inescapable part of proving oneself a leader of a household was populating such a dwelling with heirs so as to ensure the succession of one‟s family, necessitating that a man choose a wife and perform his marital and procreative duties with a degree of regularity. Yet, this most critical of duties was fraught with peril, opening the male to both the inherently damaging influence of the lustful and indulgent woman and the risk of becoming lustfully effeminate himself. His barrier against such an outcome was his masculine sense of aggressive conquest, expressed through the language and imagery used to describe sexual coupling as well as his performance of the act, to be viewed and performed as a triumph of the man over the forces of effeminacy. The use of games and gaming that prioritised conquest above all else was one such method by which the male could display his capacity for aggressive masculinity and therefore protect himself against the potentially effeminising influence of sexual congress. The flip-side to such an outcome, of course, was that the man who was unable to conquer another in the scope of games would likewise fail in avoiding the debasement of femininity.
This study emerged from an institutional ‘buddying’ link between different subject areas, designed to promote enhanced practice, through the discussion and sharing of existing good practice. When PGCE secondary English and PGCE KS2/3 Modern Foreign Languages were buddied in 2009, the dialogue centred not only on how the subject tutors might learn from each other, but also on how the student teachers might share their developing knowledge and capabilities. What emerged was far more than an exchange of ideas and knowledge, as a new approach to teaching and learning, using reciprocal peer teaching (RPT), was developed.
According to Hannaford (1995), learners tend to remember more when they are actively involved in the learning process than when they are passively involved. According to this model, also known as: ments.htm), we tend to remember 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, 50% of what we hear and see, 70% of what is discussed, 80% of what is experienced and 95% of what we say and do . Therefore, we tend to learn more when we r do real things in the learning process. It is on this basis that this paper advocates for the use of music, movement and drama in early childhood education – a learner centred method that encourages total participation through seeing, hearing and doing. In this regard, Hannaford observes that music gets the whole child involved in the process of learning. In Kenya, Early childhood education degree programs are offered by various universities. In particular, Moi of Education in Early Childhood and Primary Education. In the four year program course, there are only four courses which focus on the use of music, movement and drama in early childhood education. The first course, which is done in second udy, introduces students to the very basic fundamentals of music, drama/play, movement/dance with reference to their efficacy in early childhood pedagogy. Thereafter, two courses follow in third year: one discusses methodology of using music, movement and drama in early childhood education and the other focuses on creation, choice and use of music, movement and drama materials in early childhood education. The last course zeros in on elementary techniques of nd drama with particular reference to early childhood education. It is last course in the series and is offered in fourth year. It builds on the earlier third year course by introducing relatively advanced techniques in music composition and script , and interpretation in drama/play and dance/movement in early childhood education. This paper discusses challenges and shortcomings in the programme offered at Moi University and
Beliefs, rituals, myths, either in its archaic forms or remodeled forms, are part of the family functioning, which should be referred to the birth rites, beliefs and myths about fate, happiness and disasters, pictures, and superstitions, reminiscent associated with death and the body of the dead, the interaction between the life-death-after death. Dissemination of the Albanian mythology with figures such as the dragon, witch, time, the mother of verge, and others related to the soil fertility, abundance of crops, farming, vineyards, orchards, livestock, removal of disasters and evil forces, are also prevalent and popular devotions such as those on the Day of Summer, Day of Vangjelizmoit, or Nowruz Day of or Our Lady Day, St. George, St. John's St. starch, etc.. All these and more are indicative of real and mythical ethno-folkloric among Albanians. Their rudimentary forms can be found in the way they are respected even today not only in the rural communities, but also in civil, customary and common structures that can be found in their roots deep into the centuries. Of course, this entire clause of myths, rituals, beliefs, tales, legends, etc. has turned itself into a source of subjects, human relationships, artistic images, and likely has enough artistic chances and expressiveness in many of the modern Albanian dramas in Kosovo.
It clearly acknowledges the importance of stage property that constitutes the dramatic spectacle in any representation. The mask, if we consider the classical as well as the popular performance genres of India, is one of the powerful stage properties that constitute the ‘preksa’ or the ‘spectacle’. However, in modern Indian drama that has witnessed experimentation at every possible level, ranging from subject matter to form, from the thematic to the theatric, the mask becomes an interesting stage devise that not only adds an element of ornamentation to the stage but also carries subtle political and psychological bearings that are otherwise difficult to project through the actor’s bare face. Quoting Peter Brook in The Empty Space, Karnad says that unlike modern western drama where the ‘mask is used only as a contrast to the actual face… in Indian traditional theatre, as in the Greek, the mask
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Magisterial social control over lower order games such as football or bowls might be exercised when longbow practice at butts was still taken seriously in some but not all English towns in the early 1500s but these games expanded again as archery declined by the 1560s, whether from bow supply problems, alternative sports, opposition to its Sunday use, longer working hours, poorer diets or the shift to handguns (all contemporary explanations) is unclear. Continental town organisations shifted to handguns even earlier.
Perhaps another characteristic of some new contemporary religiosities – such as the “alternative mysticism in Brazil” itself (Soares 1994) – is to oper- ate with fragments of religious narratives and to seek, through them, authen- tic divine manifestations. I am not sure if the nostalgia mentioned as a char- acteristic of this segment in (post)modernity is that new, or if it has come along the course of time with humankind since segments started represent- ing its separation from the divine in daily life, pointing out the relevance of its reconnection through ritual. The performance would suffice, since at that point in time sacredness would be recomposed and Authenticity, revealed and exhibited. Well, exactly where the search for authenticity is relevant (as in ethnic, cultural, historic tourism, as well as tourism on nature, and where the representation of the Other or of the past is involved) the notion of nos- talgia is also fundamental (although not necessarily relative to sacred things as nostalgia for the Belle Époque, etc).
guistic searches, while also aiming to maximise the performance of automatic annotation tools. We treat the task of normalising spelling variation as a type of pre-lemmatisation, where each word token occur- ring in a text is labelled with a normalised head vari- ant. As linguistic search requires a historically accu- rate treatment of spelling variation, our scheme has a preference for treating two seemingly similar tokens as separate items on historical grounds (e.g. etwan vs. etwa). However, the scheme normalises variants to a modernised form even where the given lexical item has since died out (e.g. obsolete verbs ending in -iren are normalised to -ieren), in order to support automatic tools using morphological strategies such as suffix probabilities (Schmid, 1994).
Samuel Hartlib (1600–1662) has been regarded as one of the greatest intelligencers of the seventeenth century. From a mercantile family and grandson of the head of the English trading company in Elbing, Hartlib settled during the late 1620s in England after fleeing from the war taking place in Central Europe and would become an accomplished scholar as well as one of the most active reformers and connected intellectuals at the time (Webster, 1970). His archive is considered one of the richest in Europe due to the insight it provides in terms of the intellectual advancements provoked by the dissemination of ideas, gathering of information, technical discoveries, and theological discussions taking place in the network he was part of, and fueled by the displacements resulting from the turbulent period he lived in. Written mainly in EME, but also German, French, Dutch, and Latin, and reaching all Europe, as well as Great Britain, Ireland, and New England, his surviving archive is not only extant, running over 25,000 folios but it is also consid- ered highly complex in terms of its geographic, chronologic and prosopographical span (Greengrass et al., 2002, 2013). The first initiative to digitize this material was the Hartlib Papers Project, which finalized in 1996 and created a complete electronic edition with full-text transcriptions and facsimile images of these texts. Later projects such as Cultures of Knowledge 4 and Early-Modern
Kerver’s woodcut series is accompanied by a more limited role for the reader and viewer of the book. Gorgon’s heads and other staring faces including the protagonist’s own, seem to embody a mistrust of the HP’s previous relationship vis-à-vis the reader, in which the book object was presented as a quarry of science to cobble together. Instead the presentational material, the woodcut series and certain narrative choices veer towards a consolidation of the Songe as a romance in which the protagonist is given pride of place, to the exclusion of the inventive reader. Images are frequently cued by text to charge them with a fetishistic gaze. If, according to Sharratt, the glimpse is “the elusively incomplete, though not necessarily fleeting character of the visibility of the divine, of power, even of the sexual” 193 then the Songe delights in offering the reader a meshwork of glimpses without ever allowing the embodied gaze to settle upon its object. Rather than contemplate their fixed forms, for instance, the reader is compelled to animate the five sense-nymphs when he reads, immediately before the image, of their finely- wrought buskins “que lon pouvoit cognoistre quand le vent esbranloit leurs cottes”. And we have seen how the new bath-house series provides more visual material – but obliquely – introduced by text which invites as much as it chastises the reader’s gaze. Sense perception is more immediately correlated to images in the Songe. We noted the text introducing the inferno as it leaves the reader off with an extreme sense of bodily temperature, as well as Poliphile at the river where the illustration is enlivened by a virtual sense of touch and taste. With these sensual and frankly sexual cues, the woodcut series is charged with markedly greater desire on the part of the reader. That desire however does not find the same white space as in its