Early Modern English drama

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Fairies in Early Modern English Drama:  Fictionality and Theatrical Landscapes, 1575 1615

Fairies in Early Modern English Drama: Fictionality and Theatrical Landscapes, 1575 1615

The same competing representations can be seen in the account of the entertainment at Woodstock. The documentation that survives of the Woodstock entertainment derives from various sources, the most important of these sources is an anonymous pamphlet printed in 1585 for the bookseller Thomas Cadman. 177 This is, however, only one eye-witness account and the complex relationship between the fairy figure and its place in the conflation of primary and secondary universes is demonstrative of the nature of early modern English drama as a collective enterprise. Edward Dyer had the keepership of Woodstock manor since 1570, and is known to have written at least one of the lyrics to the songs performed in the entertainment. 178 Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and Sir Henry Lee also assisted in directing and planning the entertainments. Although Lee was an established writer, and was clearly a favorite of the queen, 179 it was George Gascoigne, not Lee, who produced the manuscript of the entertainment at Elizabeth’s request and translated it into Latin, Italian, and French. The elaborate frontispiece depicts Gascoigne, in armor kneeling before the queen and presenting the manuscript to her. 180 In both the entertainments themselves, and the textual reproductions of them, fictionalizing the desired relationship between Elizabeth and her courtiers was a means of achieving actual
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Pray in Early Modern English drama

Pray in Early Modern English drama

In their research into speech-related Early Modern English texts, including drama, Culpeper and Kytö (2010, 372–397) note social variation in the use of discourse markers in Early Modern English among speakers of different gender and social rank, although they do not mention forms of the verb pray. While Busse (2002a, 187–212) found pray to be linked with polite terms of address in Shakespearean drama, our research takes this further by examining pray in other contexts and in drama by other Early Modern English playwrights. Brinton (1996, 35) notes that “pragmatic markers are more characteristic of women’s speech than of men’s speech”, though studies of Early Modern English drama which mention pray and gender do not show consistent results. Akimoto (2000, 79) found that “men use pray more often than women”, whereas Demmen’s (2009, 99–109) analysis showed that female characters in Shakespeare’s plays use I pray you more statistically frequently than male characters (coinciding with what Brinton notes, above). However, there were differences in their data: Akimoto’s results were based on drama by Farquhar, dated 1706, whereas Demmen’s were based on drama by Shakespeare, dated slightly earlier (between c. 1589 and 1613). Our analysis, which takes into account the gender and social rank of characters, will help shed new light on these previous findings.
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Trafficking Women: Interest, Desire, and Early Modern English Drama

Trafficking Women: Interest, Desire, and Early Modern English Drama

body, I contend that Gertrude can just as easily be read as driven by ambition, by a desire for Claudius’ metaphysical “kingly” body. Reading Hamlet alongside Eastward Ho suggests that, for Hamlet’s early audience, Gertrude was defined less by her appetite for sex than for power. This interpretation reflects, moreover, an understanding of the key importance that wealth and property were commonly understood to have in marital negotiations. Tracing the language of “gifts” and “jointure” in both Hamlet and contemporary writings demonstrates the vital significance Gertrude’s appellation as “th’imperial jointress” carries. I use readings of Gertrude as a salient example of larger trends within feminist criticism in general and early modern feminist criticism in particular: namely, the tendency to frame discussions of female characters in terms of sexuality. As I show, examining Gertrude through this lens has stopped us from seeing her as a exercising political and financial, rather than just sexual, agency. Attention to Gertrude’s political actions also causes us to reevaluate her relationship with Ophelia, challenging a tradition that has tended to see Gertrude as maternal and nurturing towards Ophelia and as Ophelia’s sole ally amid a cold, patriarchal Denmark.
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When I am in game, I am furious: gaming and sexual conquest in early modern English drama

When I am in game, I am furious: gaming and sexual conquest in early modern English drama

The magic performances and tricks that many gypsies relied upon to live, along with their seemingly exotic heritage, both exacerbated the fear that they inspired in authorities and some citizens, yet also made them endlessly fascinating to others. The increased knowledge of the classical world by Renaissance scholars included a degree of knowledge about Egypt. The Egyptian procedure of mummification led to the English practice of using „mummia‟ (ground-up and specially prepared embalmed flesh) as a curative substance (Dannenfeldt 17- 18). However, Egypt was also viewed as fundamentally opposite to those values of England. Richard Thorton, a fellow of the Lincoln College, gave two sermons which were published together in a single volume named The Aegyptian Courtier in 1635, spoke of an Egypt that had been led astray by “this prophane Art of Divination . . . a blacke Art, farre beyond the light of flesh and bloud” (11, 10). The 1530 “Act concerning Egyptians” gave voice to more practical concerns that gypsies “by craft and subtlety have deceived the people of their money and also hath commited many and heinous felonies and robberies” (Salgado 158). With “their swarthy faces painted red or yellow . . . embroidered turbans and coloured scarves worn over shreds and patches and with little bells tinkling about their feet”, the Romanys reinforced the xenophobia of officials and the fear of the unusual (156-157). Yet such attire and behaviour made them fascinating to the populace, many of whom carried a belief in the power of the supernatural alongside Christian belief and would, at times, seek to benefit from the skills of divination supposedly possessed by the exotic foreigner (165). Furthermore:
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Religious conversion in early modern English drama

Religious conversion in early modern English drama

of the Elizabethan era the theatre began to flourish as never before. At the same time, the Protestantization of spiritual conversion forced playwrights to reconsider the manner in which spiritual change can be staged. The way in which playwrights responded to this question is shown in chapter three. This chapter reveals how the conflict between the didactic purpose of the popular morality play and the deterministic doctrine of election inspired dramatists to portray failed attempts at conversion, resulting in the (tragic) damnation of the protagonist. By way of illustration, it discusses four major conversion plays that were performed in the first decades of Elizabeth’s reign: William Wager’s The Longer Thou Livest The More Fool Thou Art (1559) and Enough Is as Good as a Feast (1560), the anonymous King Darius (1565), and The Conflict of Conscience (1572) by Nathaniel Woodes. I also argue that Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus must be read in the context of this tradition of failed spiritual conversion plays, and that it presents a dramatic culmination of concerns over predestination. After 1580, when interfaith conversion began to make its way onto the stage, successful spiritual conversion was revived in drama, yet never reaching the high level of prominence that it was given in medieval drama. Chapter four firstly traces three new theatrical significances that were given to successful spiritual conversion in this period: it was used as a plot device to arrive at unexpected happy endings for wicked characters, and it was employed as a source of romance and nostalgia. What these meanings have in common is that they present conversion as an ideal that is far removed from the realities of religion outside the theatre. At the same time, these meanings involve an emptying out of the religious significance of spiritual conversion. Secondly, the chapter shows how sinister implications of this development are explored in John Webster’s tragedy The White Devil (1612), which is a scathing attack on aspects of contemporary religion, particularly the manipulation of faith in conversion. The play demonstrates that this abuse is facilitated by the loss and marginalization of spiritual meaning and by the politicization of early modern faith. Chapter five discusses how interfaith conversion gained currency in the early modern English society, and how it became a factor of disquiet and subversion. This was because it first and foremost
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The presentation of women in early English drama

The presentation of women in early English drama

prove extreme love by self-sacrifice. The story seems, however, to have even more disturbing psychological con­ notations. Whenever an attempt is made to envisage it in realistic terms, the story of a virtuous woman passively enduring and accepting any cruelty her husband cares to in­ flict, acquiescing in the murder of her children and in her own degradation, and helping to adorn her rival to take her place, all because she loves him, the sado-masochistic implications cannot be avoided. In recommending Grissill as an exemplar, moral writers and dramatists were selling women a masochistic idea of love, in which the degree of suffering and self-sacrifice was proportional to the degree of affection, which, encouraged by irresponsible fiction, still persists to this day. A modern story which bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Grissill is ’Pauline Reage’’s Story of 0, one of the best-selling pornographic novels of the early 1970s, 0’s lover, whom she adores obsessively, gives her as a servant and prostitute to a private club consisting of his business associates, who subject her to • a series of perversions of escalating brutality. 0 passively submits to this way of life because she hopes that her complete obedience to his wishes will prove her devotion to her lover and, even if this does not induce him to change his mind and take her away, that this will ensure that he will continue to visit her. Except for the fact that there is no ending, so that 0’s abject love and degradation continue indefinitely, this is the Grissill story all over again, told in terms of sexual rather than social humiliation. At least one reviewer praised the book for its ’’remarkable insight into love as women experience it”. The influence of ’’patient and meeke Grissill” and ’’the good example, of her pacience towardes her husband” is closer to some modern attitudes to love and marriage than we might like to think.
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Hellish enfleshment: embodying anti-Catholicism in early modern English culture

Hellish enfleshment: embodying anti-Catholicism in early modern English culture

talents. The King eagerly replies that the group will head to Oxford. Here, the king explains, Vandermast will encounter “a jolly Friar/ Call’d Friar Bacon, England’s only flower” (1.4.59-60). This last word is perhaps a reference to Edmund Campion, the Jesuit martyr and resident scholar of the new Oxford college of St. John’s. Studying philosophy and theology for several years, contemporaries regarded Campion the flower of Oxford. Travelling to the university to meet Henry’s reputed conjurer, the troupe encounter Friar Bungay. “Now, English Harry”, the Emperor roars, “here begins the game:/ We shall see sport between these learnèd men” (1.9.75- 76). Unable to find Friar Bacon, Vandermast must battle the Catholic conjuror in lieu of England’s best. Staring at the clergyman with an air of superiority, the German magician asks, “what wilt thou do?” Friar Bungay, a nervy fool whose supernatural capabilities are lackluster in comparison with Friar Bacon, waves his arms in trepidation (1.9.77). Summoning a golden tree ornamented with a fire-breathing dragon, the clergyman conjures otherworldly fiends reminiscent of Saint John’s apocalyptic imagery. Waving his hand in a gentle motion, Vandermast raises Hercules to subdue the beast and destroy the tree. Forlorn, Friar Bungay leaves and Friar Bacon arrives onstage. “Now, monarchs”, Henry applauds, “hath the German found his match” (1.9.124). Standing silently by the German doctor, Hercules is momentarily transfixed by Friar Bacon. Unable to regain control of his apparition, Vandermast grows increasingly amazed. “Never before was’t known to Vandermast”, he whispers in awe, “That men held devils in such obedient awe./ Bacon doth more than art, or else I fail” (1.9.145-147). As the drama comes to a close, however, the friar exhibits remorse and recants his mystic arts. “The hours I have spent in pyromantic spells”, he sobs, “The fearefull tossing in the latest night of papers full of necromantic charms” and “Conjuring and abjuring devils and fiends” appear to have left him spiritually destitute (1.13.88-90). Announcing to those around him he will spend the remainder of his life “in pure devotion”, Friar Bacon leaves the stage praying to God, asking for forgiveness (1.13.107).
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Corporeal Returns: Theatrical Embodiment and Spectator Response in Early Modern Drama

Corporeal Returns: Theatrical Embodiment and Spectator Response in Early Modern Drama

Michael Neill calls “the most Vesalian of English anatomical textbooks” (176), or the visually seductive anatomical drawings of Andreas Vesalius, Andreanus Spigelius, Juan Valverde, Jacopo Berengario da Carpi, Charles Estienne, and other famous anatomists of the European Renaissance 24 . Because the more frequently referenced and reproduced texts are so influential to early modern English culture (and to current scholarship on the anatomical Renaissance), they are not entirely omitted from my analysis; however, as is the case with the playtexts I have chosen, I aim to move from works that are at the center of critical discussion to those that have been displaced to its margins. I isolate and bring together certain claims that have already been made within the purview of extant scholarship, in order to establish for my own purposes how the human body, inside and out, is thrust forth into the public eye as an entity that can and should be intimately explored. I will suggest that in turn, the radiating influence of this “will to discover” informs the theatre’s violent manipulations of the body, but that spectators’ confrontations with these corporeal penetrations are structured in an entirely different way inside the playhouse than they are inside the anatomy theatre. In the playhouse environment, the actor/character’s intact but representationally victimized body is able to offer spectators the seeming experience of an idealized mode of corporeal discovery that does not destroy its subject—an accomplishment that early modern culture deeply desired but could not achieve in and through scientific practice.
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Turning to Food: Religious Contact and Conversion in Early Modern Drama

Turning to Food: Religious Contact and Conversion in Early Modern Drama

On the other hand, Chris Hassel considers the literal sense of eating in the play; he sees the food imagery reinforcing the Christian debates on the nature of the sacrament. For Hassel, Antonio is a Christ-like figure whose body and blood are sought after by Shylock, who seeks communion. Shylock intends to literally enact a “bloody sacrifice reminiscent of Christian Communion” (192). Leslie Fiedler’s opinion is that Shylock “does not even really want to eat him [Antonio], except maybe in dreams,” and though he notes the cannibalistic nature of Shylock’s hunger, he believes the “metaphors of eating disappear in Act IV” (111). Julia Lupton argues that Shylock’s adherence to the Jewish dietary laws prevents him from participating in a “common humanity”; for the play’s Christians, Shylock cannot enjoy a “dual citizenship” as a member of Israel and also take part within the general Venetian Christian community because he still holds on to the old laws, specifically the dietary laws (131). And finally, Goldstein, who has written most extensively on eating and Merchant, interprets the dietary laws in Merchant (particularly the laws concerning pork) as a way to explore “Jewishness” and “Scottishness” (“Jews” 316) since both the Jews and Scots were known to abhor pork consumption (323). He argues that the “threat of Judaism and Judaizing to the Venetian corporate body finds stark echoes in the debates about English and Scottish hegemony during the waning years of Elizabeth’s life” (316).
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Linguistic DNA: Investigating Conceptual Change in Early Modern English Discourse

Linguistic DNA: Investigating Conceptual Change in Early Modern English Discourse

In the grandest terms, Linguistic DNA can therefore claim to access and analyse the ‘universe of early modern English print’. Yet we are compelled to be cautious in certain respects. The composition of EEBO is haphazard by nature: it reflects the portion of printed matter that survived to be catalogued and microfilmed. Book historians remind us that there are patterns in what survives: large reference works were more likely to remain secure (and perhaps unread) in libraries, whereas ephemera seldom survive unless someone cared to collect them. Some genres (recipe books, grammars) were eminently disposable as they wore out, or were supplanted by ‘new improved’ versions. The nature of the texts represented in EEBO-TCP is therefore accidentally but in some very particular ways unrepresentative of what was printed (cf. Bruni & Pettegree 2016). In corpus linguistic terms, it is also undesigned: this is not a corpus built through intentional sampling to offer a representative perspective of early Modern English discourse. It is a digital collection, not a corpus. Importantly, it is a collection skewed toward some particular interests, insofar as the subset of EEBO that has been tran- scribed consists of items chosen because of a perceived historical, literary or perhaps book historical interest. These facts about our principal dataset are something to be aware of, and these are limitations we accept. (And of course the discourse of early modern England, like EEBO itself, was not limited to English-language texts.)
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Treacherous Faith: The Specter of Heresy in Early Modern English Literature and Culture

Treacherous Faith: The Specter of Heresy in Early Modern English Literature and Culture

rhetorical strategies under internal stress. The emotional and mental state of early modern writers gave, wittingly and unwittingly, additional texture to the linguistic contrivances of religious controversy. The results could establish or enforce self-fulfilling, self-perpetuating criteria about the nature, scale, and danger of heresy. Here it might be said that the ‘imagination’ pre-figured ‘reality’ so that ‘reality’ could then affirm and embolden the ‘imagination’. Heresy-making was a fraught business which constantly challenged writer, alleged heretic, and various conflicted audiences to review and recalibrate their ideas about heresy, heretics, and associated contexts. The literary imagination also helped to challenge the claims of heresy-makers. In all, heresy-making and heresy-defying writing was a crucial phenomenon of the early modern literary experience; to a greater or lesser extent it was, arguably, also culture-making, particularly with regards to debates about the boundaries of orthodoxy and the spectrum of heterodoxy. More attention should be given to the idea that heresy-making and heresy-defying together form one of the key interpretative paradigms for scholars of the Reformations. Loewenstein’s investigation not only expands our understanding of the Catholic–anti-Catholic, Puritan–anti-Puritan, toleration–anti-toleration, and moderate–radical dialectics at the heart of the English Reformations, but draws them together in a helpful new synthesis which spans the best part of two centuries. This is not an insignificant achievement.
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Implementing English Drama for Engineering Students

Implementing English Drama for Engineering Students

For that reason, English language teachers are struggling to provide alternatives and more refreshing strategies to attract learners‟ interest and facilitate their language learning process. Thus, drama assignment is an alternative way in promoting natural and real communicative development among Second Language learners. (Somasundram, 2011) states that drama is an alternative teaching tool because it gives a context for listening and meaningful language production, forcing the learners to memorize the use of language which evidently helps on other disciplines and, subtly enhances language abilities. Implementing drama in English classes as mentioned by (Wilga, 1983) in (Somasundram, 2011)enables learners to use what they are learning with pragmatic intent, something that is most difficult to learn through explanation. A part from that, by using drama techniques to teach English, the monotony of a conventional English class can be broken and the syllabus can be transformed into one which prepares learners to face their immediate world better as competent users of the English language because they get an opportunity to use the language in operation (Chauhan, 2004).
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Applied Drama in English Language Learning

Applied Drama in English Language Learning

This chapter details a sequence of work that formed a large part of what might be called my apprenticeship into learning to use drama in teaching English as a second or foreign language. The apprenticeship itself was a combination of different programmes: attending drama workshops and drama classes; planning and presenting drama workshops, attending and presenting at drama and language teaching conferences, and other similar activities. The work that is described in this chapter followed a more conventional apprentice-mentor model, which took place in the form of 90-minute lessons that were carried out once a week, totalling eight sessions over the period of two and half months, taking into account certain weeks when classes had to be rescheduled. At the start of the study, I had come with a set of pre-conceived assumptions about teaching and learning using drama, which had been based on previous exposure to drama in my initial teacher training. These assumptions will be further discussed in the paragraphs below. In the reflective analysis of the study, there are two layers that are present when discussing the findings in this chapter. First, because the nature of this chapter is one that describes an apprenticeship, the first layer of findings is the presentation of insights of learning, elucidated from the lens of an apprentice observing the practice of an experienced drama practitioner. These insights were derived from critical episodes that describe what elements of the teaching were found to be interesting, effective or ineffective, and enabled me to critically reflect on the practice of the practitioner, as well as that of my own practice, when given the opportunity to take the lead in conducting the drama in ESL sessions. These reflections are also situated in the narratives themselves to create a flow of between what is happening in the drama, and what personal learning is taking place. The second layer of reflection is that of an ESL practitioner, which allowed me to step away from the introspective space of apprenticeship to reflect on how the students were learning the language, and how the use of drama pedagogies were influencing them in attaining their results. As such, the guiding questions that I had come prepared to investigate in the study were:
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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ABSENTEE CHARACTERSIN SELECTED MODERN DRAMA

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ABSENTEE CHARACTERSIN SELECTED MODERN DRAMA

George Bernard Shaw wrote ‘Heartbreak House’ in 1913, on the eve of the First World War, but had to postpone the production of the play until after the war, in 1921. He gave the play the subtitle „A Fantasia in the Russian Manner on English Themes‟, thus inviting comparison with the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov.The play also deals with absentee characters they are Sir HastingsUtterword who is the husband of Lady Utterword, Captain Shotover‟s black wife in Ziczibar. He had a white wife. Ellie Dunn‟s mother Mrs. Dunn is an absentee character. All these playwrights‟ have made a successful attempt in fulfilling their purpose of using absentee characters in their play.
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Early modern English almshouses in the mixed economy of welfare c  1550 1725

Early modern English almshouses in the mixed economy of welfare c 1550 1725

Chronologically, the parameters for the study will be loosely from 1550 to 1725. The period begins after the dissolution of the religious houses, guilds and chantries, and after the legislation of 1547 which established the principle of parishes providing cottages to house disabled people. It continues into the early eighteenth century, up to the legislation of 1723 introducing workhouses as the preferred solution to the problem of the poor, legislation which gave overseers the right to deny relief to poor people refusing to enter a workhouse. The contention is that early modern almshouses were not just a continuation of their medieval predecessors, despite the emphasis by historians such as McIntosh on continuity between the medieval and Tudor periods, but took on a distinct identity. As part of a mixed economy of welfare, moreover, they were likely to continue to be shaped by developments in other sections of the welfare system. The research intends to address the gap between the sixteenth-century perspective of McIntosh, and the later work of Tomkins and Boulton whose focus is largely on the eighteenth century. Tomkins comments on how difficult it is to assess whether there was change over time in the character of almshouse life because the evidence is dispersed geographically and chronologically. 56 This project aims to have both a geographical and chronological focus, in order to bring together the available evidence in a co- ordinated way which allows judgements to be made about the place of
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Opening the Book of Marwood: English Catholics and Their Bibles in Early Modern Europe

Opening the Book of Marwood: English Catholics and Their Bibles in Early Modern Europe

In Reformation studies, the printed Bible has long been regarded as an agent of change. This dissertation interrogates the conditions in which it did not Reform its readers. As recent scholarship has emphasized how Protestant doctrine penetrated culture through alternative media, such as preaching and printed ephemera, the revolutionary role of the scripture-book has become more ambiguous. Historians of reading, nevertheless, continue to focus upon radical, prophetic, and otherwise eccentric modes of interaction with the vernacular Bible, reinforcing the traditional notion that the conversion of revelation to print had a single historical trajectory and that an adversarial relationship between textual and institutional authority was logically necessary. To understand why printed bibles themselves more often did not generate unrest, this study investigates the evidence left by a subset of Bible readers who remained almost entirely unstudied -- that is, early modern Catholics. To the conflict-rich evidence of ecclesiastical prohibitions, court records, and martyrologies often employed in top down narratives of the Counter-Reformation, this project introduces the alternative sources of used books and reading licenses. What these records reveal is that Catholic lay readers were not habituated to automate critical reading practices in the presence of biblical texts; what they demanded from ecclesiastical authorities and publishers instead were books that could provide them with access to their church's sacred rituals and to its public expression of exegesis. The liturgical context of appropriation apparent in these Catholic books became visible in their evangelical counterparts enabling a cross-confessional history of sacred reading. This broader story is situated within the annotated Bible of one Catholic reader, Thomas Marwood (d.1718). The components of his book expose his overlapping reading communities and the disparate social and institutional contexts that structured them. Contextualizing each part illuminates the extent to which the conditions and traditions for reading the scriptures were shared across confessions and contested within them. This dissertation recovers a place for Bibles and their readers not only within early modern Catholicism, but within the Reformation era generally.
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Why DO dove: Evidence for register variation in Early Modern English negatives

Why DO dove: Evidence for register variation in Early Modern English negatives

practice and the methodology advocated in Lightfoot (1979). Indeed, in his 1989 article Kroch proposed an explanation of just this type. But there is also a further possibility that remains to be investigated: Could the decline be a consequence of sociolinguistic factors? In this article I will use Ellegård’s database to investigate this possibility. The method will have to be somewhat indirect, because Ellegård did not pay attention to sociolinguistic categories when he collected his data, and it is therefore not possible to use such categories as gender or class. But the date of birth of many of Ellegård’s authors is known, so that the age profiling of DO is open to investigation. The internal stylistic properties of texts can also be estab- lished, and the possibility of register variation examined. Between them, these properties of Ellegård’s texts are sufficient to show that a dramatic sociolinguistic change took place between the mid-16th century and the 17th century. I will show that both the drop in DO in negative declaratives and its subsequent continuing low level can be explained in large part not as a grammatical phenomenon but as a sociolinguistic one. My data are a reconstitution of Ellegård’s database of English plays and prose from 1500 to 1710, which I owe to Tony Kroch (see initial acknowl- edgments). My conclusions here leave intact the position that there was a gram- matical change in the English auxiliary system in the latter half of the 16th century, though they remove one of the pieces of evidence from which one might have wanted to argue that position.
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SCAFFOLDING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING and DRAMA THROUGH GAMES

SCAFFOLDING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING and DRAMA THROUGH GAMES

Games can be used in drama to establish trust, set the rules and to build confidence in the learners, as they interact socially and think on their feet. Games are also beneficial in assessing the weaknesses and strengths of a particular group dynamic. If planned and executed properly, these can indeed lead to creative and personal development of the learners. To ensure meaningfulness of the games, they must have a context. The meaning of „context‟ here is that there should be a story or drama from which it emanates.

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Are Fictional Voices Distinguishable? Classifying Character Voices in Modern Drama

Are Fictional Voices Distinguishable? Classifying Character Voices in Modern Drama

We propose new techniques for classifying char- acter speech in the works of seven modern drama- tists. We show that SAGE models achieve the highest classification scores. Our results suggest that, in many dramatic works, characters are dis- tinguishable with relatively high precision; that certain playwrights are better able to create dis- tinctive character voices; and that these play- wrights tend to be more canonical. Given the small size and restricted domain of our dataset, we treat these results are preliminary. Further investigation with a wider range of authors and genres, includ- ing novels, would aid us in drawing more decisive conclusions.
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MYTHICAL APPROACH TO MODERN AFRICAN DRAMA:  A STUDY OF SUTHERLAND’S EDUFA

MYTHICAL APPROACH TO MODERN AFRICAN DRAMA: A STUDY OF SUTHERLAND’S EDUFA

In the same vein, Sutherland’s Edufa shows an indebtedness to oral tradition in the area of sacrifice, which is made to counter the potency of the charm by washing and rites of purifi[r]

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