Early Modern theatre studies

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Researching memory in early modern studies

Researching memory in early modern studies

opportunity to establish a kind of contact with the anterior and the authentic. The particular conjunction of emotional registers involved in these festivals points up how they depend for their success on mapping contemporary interpretative communities onto imagined past communities. Here, however, the potentially reactionary fantasy of enacting ‘continuity with a calmer, more ordered world’ (Kennedy, 2009: 78) is one that memory studies would critique. More positively, the theatrical and cultural practices associated with theatre reconstructions and festivals may be understood as part of the rise of practice as research, a development which can provide ‘an analytical tool and … a provocation’ with which to cultivate ‘informed understandings of the past’ (Dustagheer, Jones and Rycroft, 2017: 173, 174). Ongoing work on and in reconstructed playing spaces, for example, has generated a surer appreciation of the affective and emotional energies which vectors of memory incite in performers and audiences. It also makes possible more sophisticated discussions of location and space, and demonstrates how excitingly historical artefacts can be reanimated for temporally and spatially dispersed readers and interpreters, brought together thanks to technologies of memory that offer new ways of activating the early modern.
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The drama of Ahmed Yerima : studies in Nigerian theatre

The drama of Ahmed Yerima : studies in Nigerian theatre

Adejobi Theatre Company while in Nigeria as a researcher, writes that the “Yoruba popular theatre was capable of attracting audiences from across the full socio-economic spectrum. They could fill university theaters as well as village halls” 111 Nigerian Popular theatre 112 , or Yoruba Popular theatre, has been well treated by Oyin Ogunba, 113 J.A. Adedeji, Martin Banham, 114 Oyekan Owomoyela, Ebun Clark, Alain Ricard, Dapo Adelugba, and Olu Obafemi 115 , Karin Barber 116 , including Yemi Ogunbiyi. Nigerian ‘Popular Theatre’ contains the plays of Hubert Ogunde, Kola Ogunmola, Duro Ladipo, Oyin Adejobi, Moses Olaiya, Isola Ogunsola, Jimoh Aliu, Leke Ajao, Ojo Ladipo and other Yoruba operatic exponents. It is a variety of folk opera of the Yoruba people of south-western Nigeria that emerged in the early 1940s. “It combined a brilliant sense of mime, colourful costumes, traditional drumming, music, and folklore. Directed towards a local audience, it used Nigerian themes, ranging from modern-day satire to historical tragedy. Although the plays were performed entirely in the Yoruba language, they could be understood and appreciated by speakers of other languages with the aid of a translated synopsis.” 117 Awam Amkpa believes that the “Yoruba Travelling Theatre’s use of indigenous themes and symbols within a framework of a multi-ethnic montage of Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa and others constructed by the English made it a celebrated populist dramaturgy Nigeria [as] ever experienced.” 118 The practitioners’ indigenous themes and symbols were products of cross-cultural global and local contacts between the Yoruba and others with whom they crossed paths in the realms of trade, military engagement, and cultural engagement even before colonial presence. These theatre traditions “reflect and knit together a mosaic of cultures spawned by a long story of human movements, incursions, displacements, intermixtures or successions of peoples and of the impacts of these on the beliefs, attitudes and social organization of the people who today inhabit the
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Flows of English Arabic translation in Egypt in the areas of literature, literary/cultural and theatre studies: Two case studies of the genesis and development of the translation market in modern Egypt

Flows of English Arabic translation in Egypt in the areas of literature, literary/cultural and theatre studies: Two case studies of the genesis and development of the translation market in modern Egypt

 The rise of a new generation of literary and theatre translators who detached themselves from the commercial dictates of the translation market: the early decades of the twentieth century saw the considerable activity of a number of translators who, unlike the early generation of translators, were financially independent and were capable of setting new standards of translation quality. This new generation included translators who worked as government officials, physicians, lawyers, judges, teachers and university lecturers. The fact that these translators were financially independent allowed them to set their criteria of selection of titles for translation and disengage themselves from the ‘questionable’ translation practices of freelance translators who dominated the translation market in the second half of the nineteenth century. The second generation of translators, which included such translators as Khalil Mutran, Mohammed Iffat, Mohammed Hamdi, Salih Gawdat, Ilyas Fayyad, Ibrahim Ramzy and Husayn Ramzy, used different strategies to signal the distinction of the translation product they offered vis-à-vis the product of the previous generation. Front covers of published translations of both fiction and drama during the early decades of the twentieth century portrayed a significant picture of the new key players in the literary translation market. On the front covers of their translations, the new- comers to the field of translation highlighted the fact that they were not freelancers by mentioning their jobs and also highlighted their cultural capital in the form of other translations and authored books they produced.
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Italian books in Early- Modern Dutch Private Libraries: Four Leiden Case Studies

Italian books in Early- Modern Dutch Private Libraries: Four Leiden Case Studies

Finally, there was the anatomical theatre, inaugurated in 1595. For visitors it was the most attractive institution of the University. It was housed placed in the Faliede Bagijnen church as well, and from the beginning, it had a dual function: in winter, thanks to the cold temperature, it provided a lecture hall where students of medicine witnessed the dissection of bodies. In summer, when the heat did not allow the preservation of the corpses, it was a museum, where the public could observe a truly remarkable collection: human skeletons raising banners with Latin mottos, as well as the skeletons of animals, from dogs to cows, including a huge shoulder blade of a whale. In addition, there were ‘rarities’ such as misformed bodies, objects from other cultures, such as mummies or Asian seeds and dried fruits. There was also a religious hint, through the presence of two human skeletons representing Adam and Eve. In the words of university historian Willem Otterspeer, ‘it was scary and it was grisly, but everybody wanted to see it’. 26
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British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland

British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland

Having commented briefly on the individual essays, it remains to ask what of the sum of the parts? This is a difficult question to answer in that these pieces came out of a conference and thus were not commissioned with a mind to providing detailed coverage. Nevertheless, there are some omissions worth noting. The lack of attention paid the Scots is surprising – not to mention that it is simply odd that a book entitled 'British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland' would begin with an introduction entitled 'Making good: new perspectives on the English in early modern Ireland'. Moreover, one could get to the end of this book and have no sense that the British were intervening in a place where another language was spoken. Language was one of the great limiting factors in the settler/governing experience, and thus it would have been nice to see some discussion of how the language barrier affected and mitigated that experience. This is merely an effect, however, of the most striking omission: the Irish themselves. Yes, this is a book about the British in Ireland, but what made their experience there fraught with difficulty was their interactions with those already on the ground. 'Negotiation' was less with the land than with its inhabitants, and yet there is precious little discussion of them.
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The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe

The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe

In the book’s final essay, Harriette Andreadis does not address the early modern sciences of homosexuality but issues a call to arms for cultural historians, arguing that by losing sight of the difference between the ‘sexual’ and the ‘erotic’, and by collapsing the latter into the former, we ‘postmodern’ scholars and critics have misconstrued or simply missed much of what was distinctive about romantic or affective relations between women in the early modern era. Andreadis makes use of the seventeenth-century poet Katherine Philips, about whom she has written extensively elsewhere, to highlight this distinction between the erotic – here, the ‘intense affectional relations of women with each other throughout history’ (p. 257) – and the sexual, which she limits to behaviours ‘culminating in genital activity’ (p. 265, n. 10). Andreadis’s objection to the use of ‘sexual’ in contemporary scholarship is predicated, then, on her own conflation of the sexual with the genital. I would agree that we should look in early modern texts (and indeed texts of all periods) ‘for non-genital expressions of desire as markers of same-sex eroticism’ (p. 261), but I’m not sure it’s important whether we label such expressions of desire ‘erotic’ or ‘sexual’ as long as we recognise their variability. Moreover, when the essay ends with the claim that a greater ‘understanding of the fluidity of eroticisms’ may allow for ‘more precise historical reconstructions than we have so far been able to
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The Rule of Women in Early Modern Europe

The Rule of Women in Early Modern Europe

In summary, the papers contained in this insightful collection are a valuable contribution to the fields of queenship, gender studies, early modern history and in some cases, literature. However, I would argue that this collection would be better served by a different title, as the current one, a remnant of the conference from which these papers originate, does not adequately sum up the admirable contents of the volume. A better title perhaps would be ‘The Representation of Female Rule in Pre-Modern Europe’ which I think would both highlight the collection’s focus and include the clearly medieval sovereigns such as Isabeau of Bavaria. The collection would also benefit from the addition of a few supplementary papers on some of the key female sovereigns of the early modern era, as mentioned previously, which would round out this volume and balance out the surfeit of papers on Elizabeth Tudor. Overall though, this is a worthy collection which adds to our understanding of the lives and careers of these female rulers with particular regard to how they wished to represent themselves and how our current perception of them is influenced by the ways in which others have represented their rule.
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Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe

Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe

individual now had to function, the fact of being no longer married, with all that this implied in terms of moral reputation, relationships to one's kin, relationships to property-ownership, and even one's potential as a future marriage partner. The subjectivity of widowhood was the starting point for the symposium on Widowhood: Condition or Construction held at the University of Exeter in 1996, which forms the basis for the present collection of essays on widowhood in medieval and early modern Europe. It is debatable whether any aspect of social history can escape the conclusion that it is a construct. Even the most enduring indices of all, the laws controlling the rights of the widowed individual were constructed in the light of the customs and prejudices of lawmakers. As a result, the question as posed in the original symposium loses much of its force. On the other hand, this collection raises a much more interesting set of questions about the individual experience of widowhood and how successfully widows and widowers negotiated a position for themselves within a complex framework of contemporary attitudes. Cavallo and Warner are to be congratulated for making a contribution not only to the history of widowhood, but also for raising a number of broader issues. The first is the recognition that the experience of widowhood was deeply gendered. Although widowhood was a condition which was shared by men and women alike, their contrasting experiences reflected the patriarchal society in which they lived. While publications on widows began with a trickle in the 1970s and a flood in the last decade, work on widowers has been much more sparse. Explanations for such an
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The human face of early modern England

The human face of early modern England

1648), pp.102 and 103-4. In this period, as earlier, deafness and dumbness were perceived to be absolutely linked. René Descartes assumed this in Discourse on the Method when he wrote of ‘men born deaf and dumb’ who invented their own sign language. Descartes, Discourse on the Method (1637) in John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff and Dugald Murdoch eds., The Philosophical Writings of René Descartes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), Volume I, p.140. The founder of precedent law in England, Edward Coke, links the status of a person non compos mentis with a person incapable of language. Coke, ‘Beverley’s Case,’ The Reports of Sir Edward Coke (London: W. Lee, 1658), Part IV, pp.334-9. Emily Cockayne records the first deaf person drawing up their will as Framlingham Gaudy in Norfolk in 1672. Cockayne, ‘Experiences of the Deaf in Early Modern England,’ The Historical Journal 46:3 (2003), p.507.
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The origins of early modern experimental philosophy

The origins of early modern experimental philosophy

It is now time to draw some conclusions from the foregoing discussion. First, it is clear that there are some salient discontinuities between the experimental/speculative distinction in the early modern period and the practical/speculative distinction that derived ultimately from Aristotle. From the 1660s the experimental/speculative distinction is an all-encompassing division pertaining to natural philosophy. By contrast, the speculative/operative distinction, from Aquinas through Toletus to Johnston, pertains to philosophy in general and not to natural philosophy in particular. The main exception to this obvious discontinuity is the position of Francis Bacon, who restricts the speculative/operative distinction to natural philosophy. It may be that this fundamental Baconian shift was an important factor in the emergence of the experimental/speculative distinction in England in the 1660s. Whatever the case, this shift of domain of application from philosophy to natural philosophy represents a crucial development.
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Medical care in early modern Venice

Medical care in early modern Venice

Midwives made a major contribution to high overall levels of medical engagement in 1796, having attended 26% of those who died in that year (see Table 1). 72 The prominence of midwives in the Necrologi by this time was a dramatic change from 1645, when their work was barely mentioned in the registers. Aside from assisting women with childbirth, midwives were expected to notify parish priests of births, were permitted to perform emergency baptisms, and acted as expert witnesses in trials which required examination of female bodies. 73 Although these responsibilities show that the knowledge and expertise of midwives was valued by both the Church and the Venetian Republic, midwifery was increasingly regulated by a licensing process and by the formalization of training. In the early seventeenth century, midwives were supplied free of charge with a license to practice in the city after an examination by a physician and two qualified midwives had established their competence. 74 By 1689, the requirements for a midwifery license had expanded to include literacy and attendance at public anatomy demonstrations. 75 A school for midwives was established in 1770, run by a surgeon, and trainee midwives were expected to attend twice a week. 76
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Revenge and Reconciliation in Early Modern Italy

Revenge and Reconciliation in Early Modern Italy

were responsible for much of the violence in the first place, notably the plague of banditry. Its power to suppress elite violence, in particular, was limited. In order to function effectively it required the collaboration of local elites, but the new regimes that emerged during the first half of the sixteenth century - whether sponsored or directly controlled by Spain, the Papacy or Venice – lacked legitimacy. After half a century of relative peace, the return of war in the first half of the seventeenth century contributed to internal instability. This explains why factional violence was such a persistent feature of the whole peninsular until the mid-seventeenth century and in some parts beyond. Second, we will look in detail at the application of the science of peace-making to the problem. The ‘Professors’ of this science drew their inspiration from Jesuit teaching and adapted a medieval tradition derived from Aristotelean ethics and Canon Law teaching on satisfaction. Third, I will place Italy in European context. This not only demonstrates the richness and sophistication of Italian discourse, but also highlights its uniqueness. I shall demonstrate that, contrary to what one might expect, the theory of peace-making developed along a different trajectory from the rest of Europe. Finally, I shall conclude with some observations about why this was so and point to some possible consequences for early modern Italian society and political culture.
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Bigamous marriage in early modern England

Bigamous marriage in early modern England

Historians, with the notable exception of Lawrence Stone, have traditionally paid more attention to marriage-formation in early modern England than to its dissolution. We know that some unions ended in judicial separation (divorce a mensa et thoro) through the ecclesiastical courts. Some were annulled, when (for example) it could be proved that there had been a prior contract. Far more collapsed when one partner deserted, and many ended in limbo, with a man going to sea, to the wars, or to seek work, and simply failing to return. The law held that marriage was for life, and judicial separation did not allow the parties to remarry, though a deserted spouse could marry again if nothing had been heard of the absentee partner for seven years, after which he or she was legally assumed to be dead.
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Earls Colne's Early Modern Landscapes

Earls Colne's Early Modern Landscapes

To conclude, MacKinnon’s book contains much of interest, and her case studies reveal some fascinating characters which provide a glimpse of society within early modern Earls Colne. I, though, would have liked to have seen more of an over-arching framework to this book, as though her case studies are revealing, they flounder somewhat in the absence of such a framework. In the epilogue, MacKinnon claims that ‘Historians venture into the foreign place of the past often from the safety of pre-existing debates’ (p. 290), and whilst I appreciate her point, for this reader at least, this book goes too far in the opposite direction, so that her arguments can sometimes feel isolated from debates within which could have been made very useful and relevant observations. MacKinnon notes that ‘this will not be a book for every reader’ (p. 4), and that was perhaps the case for me. I did, though, value MacKinnon’s attempt to consciously do something ‘new and different’, and I hope that this and other works will encourage other scholars to visit the rich treasure trove of evidence, both archival and material, which can point towards the recovery of the fascinating world of early modern England’s rural landscapes.
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Pray in Early Modern English drama

Pray in Early Modern English drama

In their research into speech-related Early Modern English texts, including drama, Culpeper and Kytö (2010, 372–397) note social variation in the use of discourse markers in Early Modern English among speakers of different gender and social rank, although they do not mention forms of the verb pray. While Busse (2002a, 187–212) found pray to be linked with polite terms of address in Shakespearean drama, our research takes this further by examining pray in other contexts and in drama by other Early Modern English playwrights. Brinton (1996, 35) notes that “pragmatic markers are more characteristic of women’s speech than of men’s speech”, though studies of Early Modern English drama which mention pray and gender do not show consistent results. Akimoto (2000, 79) found that “men use pray more often than women”, whereas Demmen’s (2009, 99–109) analysis showed that female characters in Shakespeare’s plays use I pray you more statistically frequently than male characters (coinciding with what Brinton notes, above). However, there were differences in their data: Akimoto’s results were based on drama by Farquhar, dated 1706, whereas Demmen’s were based on drama by Shakespeare, dated slightly earlier (between c. 1589 and 1613). Our analysis, which takes into account the gender and social rank of characters, will help shed new light on these previous findings.
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Theatre talks evolve into talking theatre

Theatre talks evolve into talking theatre

method for gathering and analysing non-theatregoers’ reception of theatrical performance. It was anticipated that this method would provide insight into non- theatregoers’ reasons for non-attendance, into their reactions to theatre productions, and into the likelihood that they might change their attitudes towards theatregoing and become theatregoers in the future. It became evident from my literature search that audience reception studies of the past had focused their attention on regular theatregoers and their experiences. However, there appeared to be no published research about non-theatregoers and their experiences of theatre at this time. I believed that this data was valuable as it could provide detailed profiles of non- theatregoers, their reasons for non-attendance, and their reception of theatre productions and the act of theatregoing (when commenced under study conditions). This information could assist theatre companies to better understand how they and their work were perceived by the broader community. It could give clear direction for those who sought to attract and retain new audiences to ensure steady long term growth. This knowledge could impact on the creation of new work, seasonal programming, marketing and promotion, pricing, and a range of other aspects associated with the theatre industry.
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Morphological studies in modern teratological investigations

Morphological studies in modern teratological investigations

In our laboratory the live foetus investigation includes observation of breeding and examination of some reflexes only. Other studies are performed after hypothermia euthanasia done in liquid nitro- gen mist [3, 6, 7]. Carbon dioxide, oral barbiturane administration or intraperitoneal injection of pento- barbital is also used [24]. After euthanasia each foe- tus is carefully inspected externally (including palate examination) to evaluate potential external devel- opmental abnormalities, and than measured. Foetal weight and crown-rump length are usually checked but the tail length is also routinely measured. In the event of expected cranial anomaly other head mea- surements may be carried out [37].
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Tagging the Bard:Evaluating the Accuracy of a Modern POS Tagger on Early Modern English Corpora

Tagging the Bard:Evaluating the Accuracy of a Modern POS Tagger on Early Modern English Corpora

In this paper we focus on automatic part-of-speech (POS) annotation, in the context of historical English texts. Techniques that were originally developed for modern English have been applied to numerous other languages over recent years. Despite this diversification, it is still almost invariably the case that the texts being analysed are from contemporary rather than historical sources. Although there is some recognition among historical linguists of the advantages of annotation for the retrieval of lexical, grammatical and other linguistic phenomena, the implementation of such forms of annotation by automatic methods is problematic. For example, changes in grammar over time will lead to a mismatch between probabilistic language models derived from, say, Present-day English and Middle English. Similarly, variability and changes in spelling can cause problems for POS taggers with fixed lexicons and rule- bases. To determine the extent of the problem, and develop possible solutions, we decided to evaluate the accuracy of existing POS taggers, trained on modern English, when they are applied to Early Modern English (EModE) datasets. We focus here on the CLAWS POS tagger, a hybrid rule-based and statistical tool for English, and use as experimental data the Shakespeare First Folio and the Lampeter Corpus. First, using a manually post-edited test set, we evaluate the accuracy of CLAWS when no modifications are made either to its grammatical model or to its lexicon. We then compare this output with CLAWS’ performance when using a pre-processor that detects spelling variants and matches them to modern equivalents. This experiment highlights (i) the extent to which the handling of orthographic variants is sufficient for the tagging accuracy of EModE data to approximate to the levels attained on modern- day text(s), and (ii) in turn, whether revisions to the lexical resources and language models of POS taggers need to be made.
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Theatre Arts Film Theatre Arts Performance. Theatre Arts

Theatre Arts Film Theatre Arts Performance. Theatre Arts

This course is the second level of four courses that provide for a work- shop training experience for students working in their second position on the production crew of a modern theatre production. Students inter- ested in technical work interview for positions in stage management, crewing, set construction, costumes and makeup, lighting and sound, box office, and publicity. Students will gain practical experience in the application of production responsibilities in any of the following: stage management, house management, construction, scenery, properties, costume, lighting, sound, and running crews. All students perform- ing in productions may enroll in this class for one to three units at the discretion of the instructor. Students may enroll in this class after the close of late registration at the discretion of the instructor. (C-ID THTR 192)
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Theatre talks evolve into talking theatre

Theatre talks evolve into talking theatre

Participants were categorized according to seven profiles created by the researcher. Each person was asked to provide personal information concerning his or her sex, age, education level, social status/income, socio-cultural activity, theatre preferences, and theatre habits (1988: 452). Those who took part in the study tended to work in institutions such as the following: private companies, state and community services, schools, and hospitals (1988: 453). It was important for Sauter that the groups be homogenous, and acquainted with each other quite well beforehand (1986: 137). One of the central reasons for this was that it is quite usual for couples and groups of friends to chat after a performance about their experiences. Sauter wished that his study would be as close to this common post performance reaction as possible to ensure spontaneous personal reactions would occur within a study framework. »Our aim was that the interview situation should not be too different from what theatre- goers normally would do« (Sauter, 1986: 137).
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