The annual course of the upper air flow above Estonia is typical for north-eastern Europe up to the polar front. Wind speed is relatively large during the autumn season (October– January), decreases considerably during the late winter and spring, and has a clearly defined minimum in mid-summer (Fig. 2). A large part of this variation is caused by changes in the intensity of the zonal flow component. The properties of local weather, however, reveal relatively weak dependence on the wind speed and are much more strongly determined by the direction of the flow. Autumn and winter weather is attributed to a northerly air flow whereas spring and summer conditions are brought to Estonia by a southerly air flow. The switching between the two types of flow is quite abrupt in March–April and smoother at the end of August (Fig. 2). The potential shifts of this time are decisive for many of the pa- rameters discussed above, such as the duration of snow cover or the length of the ice season.
proposed to increase the drainage of the territory by temporary drainage . In some cases, guzapaya (crushed dry cotton stalks with empty boxes) and chemicals were used (complex polymer fertilizers - CPF) . Currently, many lands that were previously developed have again become unusable and require re-development. They partially preserved the irrigation and drainage infrastructure, which requires restoration. The restoration of land and its fertility requires a set of measures, both hydraulic and agricultural. In modern conditions, the use of the whole complex of the above measures does not seem rational, due to the high cost of water for capital washing (more than 10 thousand m3 / ha), high doses of organic additives to the soil, transportation costs for the delivery of organic additives and lack of production CPF. Also requires large costs and restoration of drainage. The purpose of the experiments described in this article is to find ways to restore the productivity of difficultly reclaimed lands, improve their water-physical properties, maintain a favorable salt regime, using both known and modern land reclamation methods. The authors reviewed the results of their own studies on the effectiveness of deep loosening of soil in early spring, as well as on the effect on the saline and gypsum soils of the Biosolvent preparation (analogue of the Spersal preparation), which enhances the leaching of salts from the soil.
There was a strong trend of respiration rate with month, with respiration increasing from late winter/early spring to late summer/early autumn, during the important and energy consuming maturation and regression process of krill, under all experimental conditions; natural Antarctic light cycle versus complete darkness, fed versus starved krill and krill subjected to different temperature regimes (−1˚C, 1˚C and 3˚C). The covariate total length of krill was found to be non-significant and there was no sig- nificant interaction of experimental treatment with month or main effect of each treatment. However, the power to detect a difference was low, due to the low sample num- ber of four krill in each month and treatment. Due to ex- perimental design it was not possible to examine any interaction among the three possible environmental pa- rameters. Nevertheless, although the power to detect a difference was low the results from this study suggest that the three experimental parameters (light, food and temperature) were not the primary factors directly driv- ing the overall seasonal pattern of respiration rates that have been observed through the experiment between September and April.
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Early spring treatment will prevent development of eggs and larvae derived from the first generation of flies emerging from over-wintered larval populations. One study showed that this could significantly decrease the number of adult L. cuprina and the prevalence of fly-strike later in the season. 3 However, no further attempts at evaluating this strategy have been made and it is not commonly used on farms in south- eastern Australia.
• to reach the maximum eﬀ ect she used the perennials blooming gradually from spring to autumn, woody species blooming in early spring (Prunus triloba Lindl. trunk form, to provide the ﬂ ower bed with rhythm), evergreen shrubs (Berberis julianae C. K. Schneid., Prunus laurocerasus L., Vinca major L., Iberis sempervirens L., Helianthemum Mill. species), and other evergreen perennials (Bergenia cordifolia (Haw.) Sternb., Yucca ﬁ lamentosa L., Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd.), and bulbs (Lycoris sanguinea Maxim., Fritillaria imperialis L.);
Sulphur is an element whose soil levels vary greatly over the vegetation season. The amounts of sulphate sulphur determined in autumn are signifi- cantly higher than those found in the early spring (Goh and Pamidi 2003). Therefore, demand for sulphur supply then shall seemingly be established with respect to a soil sulphur level determined in the early spring. In this regard, we attempted to evaluate sulphur fertilization needs in the crops that have both little and high sulphur demand, based on the long-term fertilizing experiment.
As shown in Figure 1 and Table 2, with the increase of decomposition time, the content of soil organic carbon at the surface enhanced, and the fastest increase appeared in the winter and the early spring. At the subsurface, the content of soil organic carbon had fastest increase in the late spring and the summer. This indicates that the decomposition time of litters and the oxygen content in the soil have a great effect on the accumulation of organic carbon in the surface soil, and the temperature has little effect. During the decomposition process in the winter and the early spring, the carbon accumulation at the soil surface was faster, while the temperature at the deep soil was less affected.
A recent biological investigation was conducted to dis- cover if the onset of spring in the western United States has changed with time. The research examined the phe- nological event of the appearance of the first leaf of lilac and honeysuckle each year for the past 55 years. These particular plants respond well to atmospheric variations (especially temperature) and serve as good indications of when the spring season begins. It was found that from 1950-2005, the onset of Spring has advanced 1.5 days per decade . References  and  found that some bird species begin earlier migration treks as a result of earlier springtime onsets. Similarly, reference  per- formed a meta-analysis of 61 previous North American and European studies that investigated over 690 species and species groups including birds during the past 50 years. This assessment found earlier spring arrivals and breeding during warm periods and that the overall mean spring phenology change for all species is 5.1 days ear- lier per decade. Reference  assessed the arrival of the first North American lilac blooms to see if the spring sea- son changed from 1959 to 1993. Regional patterns indi- cated that the northwestern and northeastern United States, as well as southwestern Canada, have phenological evi- dence for a slight advancement of the spring season (as first blooms increased by 0.14 days per year, or, 4.2 days of spring arrived earlier over the past 30 years). Refer- ence  studied the timing of the last freeze days in spring and fall across the United States to see if growing seasons are becoming longer in recent decades. The date of the last spring freeze was found to be occurring earlier, by about 1.3 days per decade. The length of the “frost- free” time (a period between the first and last freeze dates) had additionally increased through time.
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There are no restrictions at present into New South Wales but the other states do have restrictions usually concerning soil. Victoria has restrictions on the entry of spring onions. Before consigning onions, check the quarantine requirements of your proposed market.
Precipitation in the Yukon is also characterized by regional variability. Data from the 18 climate stations showed that 29.8-50.6% of annual precipitation occurs during the summer season (June-August). The majority exhibits maximum monthly percentages in July, though the northern stations (Komakuk Beach, Shingle Point, Old Crow and, to a lesser extent, Klondike) have peak precipitation in August. Three of the southern sites (Swift River, Haines Junction and Teslin) showed slight differences from the other southern stations. Swift River and Haines Junction experienced peak precipitation during September and October, respectively; while the percentages for Teslin were relatively even over the summer months. Correlation and principal component analyses of the data, based mainly on summer precipitation, suggested the identification of four Yukon regional groupings: the “arctic stations” (Komakuk Beach, Shingle Point and Old Crow) and the southeastern, southern and northern groups in the central and southern Yukon. As none of the forest sites examined fell within the “arctic” regime only three regional precipitation series were created: a northern series (Dawson, Klondike and Tuchitua) from 1902-2003, a central series (Pelly Ranch, Mayo, Carmacks and Burwash) from 1925-2010, and a southern series (Teslin, Johnson Crossing, Watson Lake, Swift River, Whitehorse and Ross River) from 1939-2010. Total annual precipitation amounts for the central series were consistently lower than either of the other two regional records, driven mainly by less precipitation during autumn and winter. With respect to trends over time, the three regional series generally exhibited similar patterns. The 1950s were characterized by lower precipitation, followed by a dramatic rise in the early 1960s. From the mid-1960s through the 1980s, precipitation remained relatively stable but increased during the early 1990s. While displaying these overall patterns, each regional series experienced individual years in which precipitation values differed considerably from the other series. With regards to relationships between temperature and precipitation, there appears to be a strong inverse relationship between maximum temperatures and precipitation during summer months in the Yukon.
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with children under two is 3:1; 97 per cent of group-based providers and 94.7 per cent of school- based providers complied with this ratio in 2016. For children aged two, the mandated ratio is 4:1; 96.8 per cent of group-based providers and 93.5 per cent of school-based providers comply with this ratio. For children aged three and four, the ratio is 1:13 if there is a staff member with Qualified Teacher Status (QTS), Early Years Provider Status (EYPS), Early Years Teacher Status (EYTS) or other level 6 qualification, otherwise it is 8:1; over 97.4 per cent of group-based providers and 50.2 per cent of the school-based providers comply with the 8:1 ratio. We could not calculate the exact proportion of providers operating at the 13:1 ratio allowed by the presence of a graduate teacher because the highest ratio coded in the CEYPS data is “10:1 or more”. Nevertheless, we could identify a clear difference between group-based and school-based settings that points to a much wider availability of a graduate teacher in the latter. In fact, 98.6 per cent of group-based settings operated at a maximum of 8:1 ratio and only 1 per cent at a ratio of 10:1 or more. On the other hand, 50 per cent of school-based settings operated at a maximum of 8:1 ratio, with 32 per cent operating at a ratio of 10:1 or higher.
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The soil moisture in Hungary during the spring months (March–April) is usually low; therefore, wind erosion can be especially active at this time of year. The erodibility of the soil was estimated using the texture classes of the Hun- garian Agrotopographical Map based on the data of the de- tailed field surveys carried out for the Kreibig soil map 60– 70 years ago at a 1 : 25 000 map scale. This map gives the most detailed soil distribution available for Hungary and is still commonly used (Pásztor et al., 2010). However, this map distinguishes only the basic soil textures (sand, sandy silt, silty clay); thus, an approximation to the US standards was adopted when calculating the erodibility index of the soil texture classes (sand, sandy loam, loam, clay loam and clay) based on the modelling results of the NAM (2002) and Klik (2004) as developed initially for plot-size applications (Table 2). This limited classification of soil texture class also explains why the digital soil data are interpreted spatially as a fuzzy information set (Fig. 4). In the case of the soil, the fuzzy membership function was fitted to an exponen- tial relation. The X axis of the fuzzy function represents the soil erodibility index, with values that vary between 0 and 494 t ha −1 yr −1 , whereas the Y axis indicates the fuzzy value, which represents the sensitivity. Low values were given to clay, high values to fine sand, and the intermediate values were described by a monotonically increasing J-shaped fuzzy function. The result of this calculation was a regional-scale map of the sensitivity of soil to wind erosion.
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This course will examine the problem of excess during early modern England’s fitful transition from feudalism to capitalism. We tend to think of excess today in terms of discrete realms that correspond to disciplines like economics, medicine, ethics, design and psychology, but no such distinctions existed in the medieval mortal philosophy inherited by early moderns. Yet, England’s sudden wealth put pressure on traditional ways of thinking, and en gendered new habits in commerce and consumption. Associated with this new material excess, even an excess of personal gifts (strength, wit, ambition, etc.) could create friction between exceptional individuals and their communities, confounding all order—the distinctions of familial status, religion, gender, and occupation—that guided social relations. Both clergy and satirists proposed self-restraint as the antidote to all excess until it became apparent that virtuous parsimony—the precondition to our postmodern minimalist aesthetic—way yet another, alienating form of immoderation. Examining textual and visual works from the late fifteenth to the early
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The use of by-products and maize silage are alternatives to supply energy to cows grazing pasture with relatively high fibre concentration. In NZ, due to the high prices of traditional energy supplements (eg. maize grain), by-products such as brewers’ grain, whey, molasses and PKE have become more popular among farmers, however, the use of most of these products is still localized (de Ruiter et al., 2007). Another issue with by-products is the great variation in their composition. Molasses, a residue from the sugar cane industry, is used during spring time in NZ, however, the addition of molasses to spring pasture diets has been reported to be have no beneficial effects, unless cows are under-fed (Kolver, 1998 cited by Clark and Woodward, 2007). The use of PKE has also increased in the last few years in NZ, and its use as a supplement feed for cattle will be discussed in more detail later in this review. Maize silage is the most common supplement used in NZ. Stockdale (1995) found higher milk responses when maize silage was fed to cows grazing low allowances of low quality pastures; however, when maize silage was fed with generous high quality spring pastures, the milk response to supplementation was negative. Bargo et al. (2003) showed that responses in milk production to maize silage supplementation depend on the pasture allowance; milk production may be increased at low allowances, but at high allowances milk yield may be similar to/or lower than the unsupplemented group. Moreover, milk fat percentage was not affected by maize silage supplementation and milk protein presented inconsistent results (Bargo et al., 2003).
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its genetic potential without any effect from other plants. In canopies, single plants have to compete with each other. In crop mixtures, competition is most severe between different plant species. The most usual mixtures in Finland are of cultivars of a single species, either oat or barley, and binary mixtures of a cereal with pea (Pisum sativum L.), where barley shows the most plasticity of growth habit and wheat the least. According to Bebawi and Naylor (1978) growing crop mixtures results in higher yields, less susceptibility to lodging and diseases, superior quality and more stable yields from season to season. In intercropped wheat and field bean (Vicia faba L.) canopies the advantages are efficiency in nitrogen and land utilization as well as suppression of growth of weeds (Bulson et al. 1997). The quality demands by the food and feed industry, however, have limited the use of species or even cultivar mixtures. The differences in crop phenology of species restrict use of cereal mixtures, since the mechanical harvesting is complex when crops mature unevenly. In the future we should pay more attention to utilizing species and cultivar mix- tures, since yield can be enhanced by increasing the number of species in crop mixtures in comparison to monocultures and binary mixtures (Tilman et al. 1996, Jolliffe and Wanjau 1999) and choices for late and early maturing cultivars have increased.
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Brickley and Ives (2008: 80) report that today New York City receives an average of 2,557 hours of sunlight a year. For people living in crowded, industrial, 19th-century New York City, that number could have been much lower. Individuals confined indoors in homes, schools, and workplaces for most of the day would have been exposed to far fewer hours of sunlight. The authors also report that infants need to have skin exposed to approxi- mately 104 hours of sunlight a year (assuming adequate nutrition), and that number increases with age, up to 1,825 hours of sunlight for adults (Brickley and Ives 2008: 77). It is not dif- ficult to imagine conditions under which indi- viduals attending the Spring Street Presbyterian Church in New York City would have had inadequate opportunities for sun- light exposure. Mays and colleagues cite research that suggests rickets was a common seasonal condition “in industrial centres of temperate Europe, with active disease peaking in the winter months of low sun” (Mays, Brickley, and Ives 2009: 413). The same could have been true for industrial areas in the United States, particularly as New York City is 11° farther north than London. In addition, Lewis writes that sickly children in industrial England were often kept covered and indoors, thus making them even more susceptible to vitamin D deficiency (Lewis 2002: 221). Similar behavioral patterns must be considered as a factor for families in industrial New York City as well.
important in determining feeding and growth of estuarine piscivores. The coupling of estuarine pisci- vores with their potential forage species may be especially strong for predators during their first growing season, when small predator body size restricts the size range of susceptible prey. Fitzhugh et al. (1996) hypothesized that low densities of small fish prey led to divergence in growth rates and size bimodality in age-0 southern flounder Paralichthys dentatus; large, fast-growing southern flounder showed a higher degree of piscivory than smaller individuals. Our modeling results suggest that even modest fluctuations in bay anchovy prey densities can generate considerable variation in prey consumption and growth realized by summer-spawned bluefish. High interan- nual variability in the density of bay anchovy is well documented throughout the species’ range (Vouglitois et al. 1987; Nelson et al. 1992; Newberger and Houde 1995) and may be attributable to its opportunistic life history strategy that enables rapid population growth under favorable environmental conditions (Winemiller and Rose 1992; Rose et al. 1999). The strong dependence of summer-spawned bluefish on bay anchovy probably exposes summer-spawned bluefish to large interannual fluctuations in prey availability and may be largely responsible for the highly variable growth observed in the summer-spawned cohort. Robustness of the Spring-Spawned Cohort
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within 8 h of surface application on clay loam soil according to JTI method. Incorporated manures showed even smaller N loss. The low volatilization was due to the adsorption of manure ammoniacal N by peat, and the infiltration of slurry into harrowed, moist clay soil. In another experiment, peat manure was applied on polypropylene fabric without soil contact. Within the first 3 days there was only 9% reduction in the am- moniacal N of peat manure, but the major part of it was lost during several weeks of dry and warm weather. Peat manure did not cause any major improvements on the growth and N uptake of spring barley in spring and early summer as compared with slurry. Moisture deficit limited the availability of ammoniacal N of manures. As compared with surface application, incorporation of manures increased nitrification of am- monium in the soil, and dry matter mass (19–73%) and N uptake of barley. Supplementing manures with inorganic NPK fertilizer increased both dry matter mass (40–98%) and N concentration of barley stand.
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The results of the current study indicate that icefish showed a large increase in body length during spring and autumn, but was delayed in summer. A delay in the growth rate of icefish during summer has also been reported at Lake Wanghu, and was attributed to inhibition caused by high temperatures, as icefish are originally sub-cold water fish (Yin et al., 1997). At Lake Chaohu, heavy toxic cyanobacteria blooms occurred in the summer, which may also be an important factor in delaying the growth of the icefish, since high microsystin contents were detected in the fish tissues from the lake (Xie et al., 2005). In addition, the scarcity of preferred prey items (e.g. larger cladocerans and calanoids) (Deng, 2004) during summer may also contribute to the reduction in growth rates during this period.
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of baptised children versus those born in any given period. Since un baptised children due to an early death would not be registered, the longer the delay between birth and baptism, the greater the discrepancies between the number of children born and those who survived to be baptised. However, child mortality rate was not the driving force behind the observation we made from the delays between birth and baptism. We tested, quantitatively, different factors which we believed could lengthen or shorten this delay, in particular the population's movement1. In literature, this delay is taken into account as far as the estimate of child mortality rates is concerned. The behaviour pattern behind such delays is hardly investigated2. Only in a footnote L. Hubler3 wonders about the significance of such delays. We aimed to observe whether there is a discrepancy between the delay observed in Grandson and other Protestant areas of Suisse-Romande. Moreover, if such delay could bear some specific patterns to this population on the move. A. Perrenoud in his study of Geneva4 and L. Hubler for Vallorbe6, in broad terms, provided data which were similar to those found in Grandson area. That is, a shorter delay in the earlier 18th century tended to lengthen in a later period. This observation also fits the pattern observed by Vender Wad and Mentis for Rotterdam6, or more elaborately, by Wrigley and Schofield in English parish registers7. The patterns of delays for children baptised in different areas were similar to the general pattern of the Grandson's villages. In other words, even if people moved around in baptising their children, the baptism did not suffer undue delays in this respect.
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