Document classification using automated linguistic analysis and machine learning (ML) has been shown to be a viable road forward for readability assessment. The best models can be trained to decide if a text is easy to read or not with very high accuracy, e.g. a model using 117 parame- ters from shallow, lexical, morphological and syntactic analyses achieves 98,9% ac- curacy.
The Edlin toolkit provides a machine learning framework for linear models, designed to be easy to read and un- derstand. The main goal is to provide easy to edit working examples of im- plementations for popular learning algo- rithms. The toolkit consists of 27 Java classes with a total of about 1400 lines of code, of which about 25% are I/O and driver classes for examples. A version of Edlin has been integrated as a pro- cessing resource for the GATE architec- ture, and has been used for gene tagging, gene name normalization, named entity recognition in Bulgarian and biomedical relation extraction.
In the experiments below several filters have been stacked together via the Multifilter metafil- ter, which gives the opportunity to apply several filtering schemes sequentially to the same dataset. BoWs. BoWs is a representation of text that de- scribes the occurrence of single words within a document. It involves two things: a vocabulary of known words and a weighing scheme to mea- sure the presence of known words. It is called a “bag” of words, because any information about the order or structure of words in the document is dis- carded. The model is only concerned with whether known words occur in the document, not where in the document, or with which other words they co-occur. The advantage of BoWs is simplicity. BoWs models are simple to understand and im- plement and offer a lot of flexibility for customiza- tion. Preprocessing can include different levels of refinement, from stopword removal to stemming or lemmatization, and a wide range of weighing schemes. Usually, lexical items in the form of BoWs represent the topic(s) of a text and are nor- mally used for topical text classification. Several related topics make up a domain, i.e. a subject field like Fashion or Medicine. Here we use BoWs for a different purpose, which is to detect the dif- ferent level of lexical sophistication that exists between the easy-to-read variety and standard lan- guage. Intuitively, easy-to-read texts have a much plainer and poorer vocabulary than texts written in standard language. The rationale of using BoWs in this context is then to capture the lexical diver- sification that characterizes easy-to-read and stan- dard language texts.
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Three different methods were use to extract the chosen plants parts, ethanol used to extract polar compounds of krameriaceae (Khawajoawa), and fatty compounds (nonpolar) of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil), used in oil form, Acacia nilotica (Garad) wias been extracted by distilled . The plant extracts were tested using discs method. This method was found to be suitable to screening potential antimicrobial effects of plants extraction Because the results of the extract efficacy is very easy to read, the result had been taken by measuring the inhibition zone by transparent ruler in millimeter The results of Tea tree oil extract against MRSA strains using disc method are shown in Table ( 1 ). Figures (1 ). bacteria was inhibited with large inhibition zone 48mm. There was good result with A. nilotica against tested strains using disc method shown in Table ( 1). Figures ( 2 ). Show inhibition zone of 24mm. But krameria triandraon
called cross-incidents, achieving modular solutions. Given the definition of cut-point rules, a weaving process generates object code of the originally desired solution, as shown in Figure 7 , that can adapt to the case study of this work. Besides, according to  , the benefits of using POA include the production of clean code that is easy to read, less prone to failures or bugs and easier to maintain. As mentioned before, the logging solution in Figure 1 does not respect the SRP, since the Processor class, in addition to its main functionality, presents a class instance to record activities or log, and performs a record of actions before and after Perform the main activity. So, in a traditional POA solution, this class needs to be naive concerning the injection of structure and behavior, an example of implicit dependence of classes on aspects  . In this context, PostSharp allows a class to be displayed gradually or completely since a class explicitly indicates the methods it exhibits.
Drug fact boxes, a concept recently developed in the USA, provide valuable synthetic and comparative infor- mation about the efficacy and safety of drugs. These documents have been shown to be effective for patient information [10,11], but are not detailed enough for physicians. The comparative information is easy to read, but succinct. Several topics of importance to the phys- ician  are not considered: the type of originality of the new drug (e.g. mechanism of action, pharmacother- apeutic group, galenic innovation) and its ease of use (e.g. existence of an antidote, need for laboratory tests during treatment).
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Two related factors reported by both groups shows why too many guidelines are a deterrent to their use, reported by 4 GPs and 3 radiologists. The first factor is that there are too many guidelines and not enough time to keep up with them. According to one GP: “There are so many pa- pers and guidelines you have to relate to, you know?” The other factor is that some guidelines are not high priority because there are so many guidelines in total. At the same time the guidelines are still known, and the users will try to bring them up and talk about them during staff meet- ings, as reported by this GP: “We read them, and try to talk about them in meetings, but many of them are prob- ably not used.” The guidelines that tend to not be priori- tized are those that are either unnecessary or so obvious that they do not need to be written.
This article revisits research on reading automaticity and fluency with the goal of helping beginning reading teachers put confirmed research findings into current classroom practice. The article examines the concepts of automaticity and fluency, how both impact the development of skillful reading. The article reviews research on: a) reading strategies children use, and b) repeat reading teaching strategies to develop fluency. Case scenarios illustrate key findings. Based on the research and case scenarios, four conclusions are drawn: 1) The terms automaticity and fluency are often interchanged; the concepts are not the same; 2) Understanding the differences between automaticity and fluency can impact repeat reading teaching strategies; 3) There is an assumption that rapid word recognition is the same cognitive process as automatic word de- coding ; and 4) There are two pathways to fluent reading, rapid word recogni- tion, and automatic decoding ability. The article presents a theoretical model which aligns with childhood learning theories, offering teachers a variation in repeat reading teaching strategies. Rather than repeating reading the same text, opportunities to read slightly different, decodable text improves decod- ing, builds fluency, and thus strengthens children’s reading comprehension of complex text.
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confidentiality statement especially when patient data is being presented. Indeed, not only could this feature be considered indicative of quality, but one of ethics. Moreover, there also appears to be a legal aspect to including privacy declarations and statements on websites— hence, privacy has been included as a fundamental evaluation category in the proposed quality instrument. Some authors proposed features such as classification of health information into specific genres ; evaluation of hypertext links to other pages ; content that was easy-to- read and understandable ; appropriate website page design and navigation — all features that were deem by the authors to not only have strong affiliation to technical Web design values but outside the objective of developing an evaluative and fundamental information quality instrument.
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Foreign Language(s) (FL) classes, including French as a Foreign Language (FFL) classes. Fostering foreign language skills is essential for a mid-sized emerging economy like Turkey, as foreign language learning contributes to improved national performance in the global knowledge economy . But it is important to determine whether these classes are effective in helping our students become communicatively competent. Learning to read in L1 as well as L2 or any subsequent languages consists of more than learning vocabulary. Lexis is formed often as the most important area one needs to master to become a successful reader. However, one should not overlook other important complementary aspects, some of which are also mentioned by Grabe and Stoller (2002) as desirable reading strategies that should become automatized . In brief, the aim of this study is to investigate the importance of linguistics, reading, and writing areas in French as a Foreign language (FFL) at the A2 (Waystage) language level.
In the proposed method, the measurements of farm characteristics are converted into dimensionless values that represent an easy-to-read score of the raw data according to the desirability of the measured performance. For example, when measuring the indica- tor “ S_1 Quality of the products ” higher scores rationally correspond to higher mea- sures. Furthermore, each indicator can range from a minimum or a maximum score (single scores are reported in Appendix); while the minimum score is always zero, the maximum scores vary depending on the social relevance attributed to the indicator, and therefore, more relevant indicators have higher maximum scores. This weighting procedure derived from a subjective evaluation typical of these types of studies that assigned the scores in accordance to the relevance attributed by the literature (when available) and the characteristics of the case study and its objectives (von Wirén_Lehr 2001). This process, which is convenient for adaptation to the local
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The HX270S is a submersible, miniature 5-Watt portable two-way VHF ma- rine transceiver. The transceiver has all allocated USA, international, or Canadian channels. It has an emergency channel 16 which can be immedi- ately selected from any channel by pressing the 16/9 key. NOAA weather channels can also be accessed immediately by pressing the WX key. The transceiver includes the following features: Memory Scanning, Program- mable Priority Scanning, NOAA Weather Alert, Battery Saver, easy-to-read large LCD display, EEPROM memory back-up, Battery Life displayed on LCD, and a transmit Time-Out Timer (TOT).
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The challenge with this approach is sounds made by this ‘lookup’ are not independent and also unnatural. Humans have the capability to have more emphasis on emotion and they understand what they are saying but machines don’t, they are artificial. Overall the conclusion is NO, for conversational sentences, but YES for pieces of words. Can Computers See? – This is the capability of just beyond Face recognition and is more about object recognition. If we read how humans see, the human brain can map a 2D visual image to 3D ‘map.' Humans can effortlessly recognize objects, recognize and understand the objects in a scene by looking around a room, etc. There are challenges in representing 3D recognition and Visual Learning.Overall computers can only recognize certain types of objects in limited circumstances (e.g. face recognition) but mostly can’t see all.
Abstract—As car navigation becomes practical and more affordable, it is increasingly popular particularly for travelers and commuters who are neither acquainted with the routes nor aware of the new roads and the condition of traffic congestion. However, most navigation system requires a large capacity storage to store detail map interface which can be considered overly complicated to users. This paper presents an inventive and easy-to-use navigation system on mobile phone, namely Mobile Driving Director (MDD). Open source tools and platform-independent technologies, such as J2ME, are used in implementing the system to ensure its light-weight, minimal cost, and wide range of compatible device. Administrative backbends and interface frontends are enabled through advanced database design and the three-tier application architecture. This MDD system, though presented and demonstrated by using Bangkok’s routes and locations, is a general navigation system that can be applied to any area. The usability evaluation on the system was conducted to extensively scrutinize on the user interface and other usage issues.
Official reports about HIV infection in Sudan are alarming because of the increasing incidence of HIV/ AIDS in the country.  The Sudan National AIDS Program (SNAP) which has started in 1987 is continuously on revision to find out the best approach to increase knowledge and awareness among people, to develop suitable protocol for early detection and to get HIV positive people attracted to visit treatment centres to receive antiretroviral drugs and get encouraged for regular follow up. SNAP was established to undertake the implementation of a national protocol of AIDS treatment by using ICT for the diagnosis, which is a very simple, easy-to-read, and rapid test with excellent sensitivity, provide antiretroviral drugs free of charge and offer supportive pharmacological and non- pharmacological treatments to people living with AIDS. 
A corpus of easy-to-read texts and children’s fiction was used in order to retrieve candidates for inclusion into a database of basic Swedish. The hypothesis is that by using a corpus of plain texts produced with the aim of being easy to understand, we can derive appropriate data for further statistical analysis of which words or word forms are to be considered as pertaining to a basic vocabulary. The candidates retrieved by excerption of high-frequency lemmas from the corpus were subsequently compared to the base-form words in a Swedish base vocabulary, where the lemmas obtaining the highest rank in both sets were integrated into a database of core vocabulary. The AAC symbol coverage of these database entries was then assessed by addressing an existing AAC symbol database. Finally, attempts were made to expand the existing AAC vocabulary through a semantic analysis of new words, simple as well as compounds, and in that way make it possible to illustrate new concepts.
When reading the poem aloud, avoid over-emphasising the end of line rhymes. Change pitch at ‘And on Michaelmas night …’, to emphasise the change of mood. Increase the tempo slightly between the two ellipses to reflect the old man’s alarm as he calls out his challenge, pausing after the second ellipsis to emulate the silence that follows. Read the final line quite slowly, allowing the pupils to imagine the scene.
The use of Active Verbs and Positive Language has been measured through counting the number of passive voice and negative constructions respectively, so the lower the scores of these in- dices are, the higher the readability. Use of Per- sonal Words is defined in the guidelines as: “Ad- dress your readers in a direct and personal form”. To account for this aspect we have included indi- ces such as first person and second person pronoun incidence. Abstractness is measured through imagability and word concreteness indices, which aim to identify words that evoke mental images and are thus easier to process, based on human ratings from (Gilhooly and Lo- gie, 1980). Finally, the general Simplicity of Language is measured through two widely-used readability formulae: Flesch Reading Ease where 0=very difficult and 100=very easy (Flesch, 1948) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Lev- el, where 0 = very easy and 12=very difficult (Kincaid et al., 1975).
Here we introduce NucBase, a new program designed to align short reads from large nucleic acid databases to reference sequences or genomes. Mapping short reads can be achieved using other tools like SOAP , BWA , Bowtie  and vmatch , which are very fast, but omit potential matches due to their greedy algo- rithms. NucBase is an easy-to-use program with a graph- ical interface. It identifies nucleic motives with strict identity to input sequences and also finds candidates with one or several mismatches. Furthermore, this soft- ware can identify partial fragments from a read that match a target sequence. The user is able to select the number of consecutive nucleotides within these partial fragments, called “core sequences,” as well as the num- ber of possible nucleotide mismatches. These “core sequences” can be detected regardless of position within the read. Results are exported in a Generic Feature For- mat 3 (GFF3) output format, which permits the visualization of read alignments on target sequences and fast annotation on the GBrowse viewer for a better understanding of potential regulations.