Abstract––In selected part of clayey soil region of Malwa (M.P.),where Black cotton (B.C.) soil is available up to a large extent of depth, normally footing rest on B.C. soil strata having low bearing capacity or on naturally compacted yellow soil strata having considerable bearing capacity. Environmental changes have great impact on the behavior and strength parameter of the clayey soil like B.C. soil or Yellow soil. Skirted footing in which vertical walls surrounds sides of the soil mass beneath the footing is one of the recognized bearing capacity improvement technique. Construction of vertical skirts at the base of the footing, confining the underlying soil, generates a soil resistance on skirt sides that helps the footing to resist sliding. Bi-angle shaped skirt in which vertical walls surrounds two adjacent sides of the footing is a special case of skirted footing. A model study has been performed to investigate the behavior of Bi-angle shape skirted footing resting on B.C. soil and Yellow soil, subjected to two way eccentricload resulting in Bi-axial bending of the footing. The study helps in evaluating performance of skirted footing. The difference between the settlement of near end and far end is known as tilt of diagonally opposite corners of the footing. The tilt of diagonally opposite corners of the footing is affected considerably due to presence of skirts. Skirts have been found to be helpful in reducing tilt due to eccentric loading.
Abstract. Recent years in Malaysia, precast concrete sandwich panel gained its popularity in building industries due to its economic advantages, superior thermal and structural efficiency. This paper studied the structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentricload. Preliminary results were analysed and studied to obtain the ultimate load carrying capacity, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution across the panel thickness at mid depth. The achieved ultimate load carrying capacity of PLFP due to eccentricload from the experimental work was compared with values calculated from classical formulas (if it is more than 1 comparison) developed by previous researchers. Preliminary results showed that, the use of double shear truss connectors in PLFP was able to improve its ultimate load carrying capacity to sustain eccentricload and achieve certain compositeness reaction in between the wythes.
Eccentricload is compression force or end force. The maximum eccentricload refers to how much weight can be placed on top of the wall with buckling or crushing. When the load is applied on a solid wall with an eccentricity greater than t/6, the wall develops tension within a certain zone. The zone is shown in Figure 3.1. It is assumed that this portion of the wall cracks slightly at each joint, in compliance with the assumption of a no tension material. The geometry of the cracked section changes for different values of eccentricity of load application. It is therefore necessary to apply the principles of the basic approach to the remaining uncracked portion of the wall (Kuddus, 2010).
Abstract—the technology development in steel constitution has comprehensive in every discipline corresponding to theory, material, and process. The metal structure is constructed from the junction of exclusive metal member field by means of rivets, high-tensile bolt, welding, and so forth. The paper deals with stress analysis of riveted lap joint subjected to eccentricload intensity. It is trial to prepare the rivet in such manner that riveted joint withstand for highest loading situation by way of altering the association of rivets for the equal no of rivets. For that made some specimen of lap joint of moderate steel plate dimension of 150 × 80 × 5 mm thick joint with 4 rivets in distinct method of arrangement and proven on numerical basis situation to find out maximum load bearing capacity of riveted joint.
The finite element analysis software PLAXIS 3D 2014 has been performed to simulate the chosen model. Figures (1) and (2) show the chosen model superstructure supporting on isolated footing connected with tie beam under eccentric loading. The soil is simulated by a semi-infinite element isotropic homogeneous elastic material using Mohr-Coulomb theory. The chosen superstructure technique model was chosen, as follows: system of isolated footings carrying eccentricload connected with tie beams with all footings along axis's (E-E) and (1-1) are considered neighbors at one and two sides of building. The dimensions of all footings have been calculated according to the column loads of the buildings assumed allowable soil capacity= 1.50 kg/cm 2 . The details of all
The specimens are composed of two kinds of specifications L160×12, L160×14 and the material is Q420, as shown in Fig. 1. The experimental columns assembled together by two equal leg angles are bolted by batten plates. The components under eccentric compression generated by load deviation of angles with λ=30~50 which are L14 series for sectional drawings 1-1 and 3-3, (where, the symbol O is eccentricload action position, e o is load eccentricity which is the distance from this
Recent studies have also reported longitudinal muscle growth in human muscles in response to eccentric loading (Duclay et al., 2009; Potier et al., 2009; Reeves et al., 2009). These studies used eccentric or combined (i.e. concentric and eccentric) contractions in their training protocols, but they did not isolate the possible independent mechanical stimuli that may affect the longitudinal growth of muscle (i.e. magnitude of the eccentric loading, the lengthening velocity of the fibers and the fiber length where the eccentricload is applied). Butterfield and Herzog (Butterfield and Herzog, 2006) have reported that both the magnitude of muscle fiber strain and magnitude of the generated muscle force during eccentric exercise might affect the longitudinal muscle growth. Furthermore, the titin- based stretch sensing and the role of titin as a mechanosensor in sarcomeres for initiating signaling (Lange et al., 2005; Tskhovrebova and Trinick, 2008) suggest an effect of lengthening velocity of the fibers for the longitudinal muscle growth. To our knowledge there are no studies in human that have investigated the longitudinal muscle growth by applying training interventions of controlled eccentric loading.
Basic information of The specimens in this experiment, is summarized in Table 2, consist of 7 concentrically loaded specimens (TA group) and 4 eccentrically loaded specimens (TE group). In the TA group, the stiffening mechanism and the constraint effect for concrete provided by steel tube are key factors to be studied TA1 is RC counterpart( I presume) specimen, designed referred to China code “Technical specification for concrete structures with specially shaped columns (JGJ 149-2006)”; TA2 is non-stiffened CFST specimen; TA3 and TA4 are battlement-shaped bar stiffened CFST specimens; TA5 is tensile bar stiffened CFST specimen; TA6 is non-stiffened steel tube confined concrete specimen; TA7 is tensile bar stiffened steel tube confined concrete specimen. In the TE group, the parameter of eccentricity e was investigated except for specimen type. TE1 is RC referential specimen with eccentricity of 50mm; TE2 is non-stiffened CFST specimen with eccentricity of 50mm; TE3 is tensile bar stiffened CFST specimen with eccentricity of 25mm; TE4 is tensile bar stiffened CFST specimen with eccentricity of 50mm. The location of eccentricload is in the symmetric axis of cross section and offset from physical centroid toward the web.
Abstract: Tendon injuries can be acute or chronic, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, either alone or in combination. Tendinopathies are a common cause of disability in occupational medicine and account for a substantial proportion of overuse injuries in sports. Tendinopathy is essentially a failed healing response, with haphazard proliferation of tenocytes, abnormalities in tenocytes, with disruption of collagen fibres and subsequent increase in noncollagenous matrix. The scientific evidence base for managing tendinopathies is limited. What may appear clinically as an “acute tendinopathy” is actually a well advanced failure of a chronic healing response in which there is neither histologic nor biochemical evidence of inflammation. In this review we report the new options for the management of tendinopathy, including eccentric exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, injections (intratendinous injections of corticosteroids, aprotinin, polidocanol platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood injection, high-volume injections) and surgery. Open surgery aims to excise fibrotic adhesions, remove areas of failed healing and make multiple longitudinal incisions in the tendon to detect intratendinous lesions, and to restore vascularity and possibly stimulate the remaining viable cells to initiate cell matrix response and healing. New surgical techniques aim to disrupt the abnormal neoinnervation to interfere with the pain sensation caused by tendinopathy. These procedures are intrinsically different from the classical ones in present use, because they do not attempt to address directly the pathologic lesion, but act only to denervate them. They include endoscopy, electrocoagulation, and minimally invasive stripping. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to clarify better the best therapeutic options for the management of tendinopathy.
Alikhani and Iranmanesh  have considered the notion of eccentric con- nectivity polynomial ECP (G, x) with the eccentric connectivity index being the ﬁrst derivative of ECP (G, x) at x = 1. Here we obtain the eccentric connectivity polynomial of (T k,d ) e and (T k,d ) 2 e .
The notion that ECC contractions produce greater force than CON contractions (thus implying the use of greater loads in RET program) has prompted some authors to suggest that ECC-type exercise could pro- mote greater muscle hypertrophy and strength gains compared to CON (Roig et al. 2009). Nevertheless, the influence of contraction mode upon the degree of hypertrophy is contentious (Wernbom et al. 2007; LaS- tayo et al. 2014) with some reports of ECC being supe- rior (Higbie et al. 1996; Hortob agyi et al. 1996, 2000; Seger et al. 1998; Vikne et al. 2006) and others showing similar hypertrophy (Jones and Rutherford 1987; Dun- can et al. 1989; Blazevich et al. 2007; Nickols-Richardson et al. 2007; Moore et al. 2012; Franchi et al. 2014). Although our previous findings support the observations of similar muscle hypertrophy induced by CON and ECC when matched for relative maximal load (Reeves et al. 2009; Franchi et al. 2014), we highlighted that the key difference between ECC and CON adaptations is in the specific architectural remodeling. Specifically, ECC training promoted increases in fascicle length (Lf), whereas CON preferentially increased pennation angle (PA) (M. V. Narici, M. V. Franchi and C. N. Maga- naris, submitted). These findings suggest contraction- specific hypertrophy: longitudinal muscle growth (i.e., Lf increase) primarily with ECC (Seynnes et al. 2007; Potier et al. 2009) due to the addition of new sarcom- eres in series (Williams and Goldspink 1971; Williams 1990; Lynn and Morgan 1994), and transversal hypertro- phy highly in CON, due to increases in PA reflecting the addition of sarcomeres in parallel (Gans 1982; Kawakami et al. 1993; Narici and Maganaris 2007). Fur- thermore, disparities in the regional distribution of changes in anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) were also found (Franchi et al. 2014). While ECC resulted in preferential hypertrophy in distal region of m. vastus lateralis (VL), CON did so in the midbelly. Therefore, distinct architectural and spatial adaptations dominate distinct physiological responses to CON versus ECC contractions.
ECP (G, x) = ξ (G, 1), (3) Where ξ (G, 1) is the key auxiliary of ECP (G, x). Another fundamental Eccentricity based topological record is Connective Eccentric file C ξ (G). The Connective Eccentric file is described as:
In theoretical chemistry molecular structure descriptor or topological indices, are used to compute properties of chemical compounds. In this paper, we discuss two topological indices namely, eccentric connectivity index and connective eccentric index [4,5,8]. We define these concepts analogously using the detour distance in graphs. We study the differences between both these indices using some examples. We also derive the relation between these indices and the average eccentricity. Throughout this paper, graph means simple connected graph. A graph is a pair G:(V,E) where V is a finite non-empty set and E isa symmetric binary relation on V . The following definitions are taken from the book by Harary . In a graph, G = (V, E), V (or V (G)) and E(or E(G)) denote the vertex set and the edge set of G, respectively. A graph G = (V, E) is trivial, if it has only one vertex, i.e. |V (G)| = 1; otherwise G is nontrivial. The number of edges incident with a vertex u is called degree of a vertex and is denoted by deg G (u).The complete graph on n vertices is denoted by K n and it is that graph in which there exist an edge between each
Buckley  defines the eccentric digraph ED G of a graph G as having the same vertex set as G and there is an arc from u to v if v is an eccentric vertex of u. The paper  presents the eccentric digraphs of many classes of graphs including complete graphs, complete bipartite graphs, antipodal graphs and cycles and gives various interesting general structural properties of eccentric digraphs of graphs. The antipodal digraph of a digraph G denoted by A G , has the vertex set as G with an arc from vertex v in A G if and only if v is an antipodal vertex of u in G; that is u v , = m G .
We find four long-period candidate companions in systems where an eccentric planet is present. If confirmed, these bodies could be responsible for eccentricity excitation via the Lidov–Kozai mechanism (Kozai 1962; Lidov 1962). In particular, HD 7449b and HD 89744b are highly eccentric planets (e > 0.67) which we confirm to be genuinely eccentric singles. The presence of distant massive companions driving Kozai oscillations would explain the origin of the large eccentricities, though we note that the conditions required for such oscillations are stringent, e.g. the perturbing body must be inclined at i 39 ◦ with respect to the orbital plane of the planet(s).
The chemical information derived through the topological index has been found useful in chemical documentation, isomer discrimination, structure-property cor- relations, etc. For quite some time there has been rising interest in the field of computational chemistry in topological indices. The interest in topological indices is mainly related to their use in nonempirical quantitative structure-property rela- tionships and quantitative structure-activity relationships. Among various in- dices, the eccentric connectivity index and connective eccentricity index involv- ing eccentricity have attracted much attention.
Eccentric graphs of other special kinds of graphs such as intersection graphs , trapezoid graphs  and so on can be investigated. It will also be of interest to examine the role of eccentric graphs of the type considered here in graph based probabilistic models such as Bayesian networks that have wide applications in biometrics, medical image analysis and so on, as for example, the Bayesian network based frame work to recognize complex faces proposed in .
X.C. Liu et al. proposed a type of bolted-welded beam-column joint for modularized prefabricated multi-rise and high-rise steel structures which maintained relatively good seismic performance . Lárus H. Lárusson et al. conducted a study on prefabricated composite and modular floor deck panels composed of relatively thin-fiber reinforced concrete slabs connected to steel substructures. The system indicates that the composite construction concept offers flexibility in the assembly process, the ability to adapt to various load and boundary requirements, and efficient utilization of material properties . Wei Jian Zhao et al. studied the properties of a column-to-wall connection in the prefabricated frame-shear wall structure. The results showed that the mechanical properties of the four prefabricated structures are similar to the cast-in-situ structure .