present study the combined effect of both McConnell‘s taping and eccentricstrengthtraining reduce the subject‘s perception of pain which in turn manifested as increased grip strength. According to Smidt et al patients with lateral epicondylalgia try to avoid pain and rarely challenge their maximal grip. Functional ability may be therefore determined by their pain free capabilities. Pain and disuse of arm have important role in worsening the agonist and antagonist muscle function resulting in overall reduction in muscle performance of involved arm. The reduction of pain following combined protocol of taping and concentric and eccentricstrengthtraining gives the patient confidence to use the upper extremities in daily activities. This was evident in the form of improved scores in combined.
Eccentric muscle-tendon overloading seems to induce increased collagen turnover, with upregulated synthesis of beneficial collagen isoforms (type I collagen, type III collagen no change) Langberg, Aagaard et al, Scand J med Sci Sports 2007
There is a potential positive result in both concentric and eccentricstrengthtraining groups showed that there is a significant difference between the pretest and posttest on 40-yard dash test for the muscle power. Aagaard P et al (2010) and Kisner C et al (2015) found that this could be due to muscle hyper trophy followed by eccentric ecercis- es  and improving neuromuscular control and muscle endurance followed by concentric exercises ; but there is no change in muscle strength between pre and posttest in both groups. This can be explained by Newton R et al (1994), when the type II fibers are selectively recruited when there is a dynamic and explosive movements. The muscle has the ability to produce high force output as the velocity of contraction increases .
els for RAS components it has been shown that accentuated
formation of local Ang II in the heart (20- to 50-fold greater than the levels seen in control groups) was not responsible for the development of the hypertrophy observed. In the same study, using another type of transgenic mouse that overexpressed a degradation-resistant form of Ang II, the hormone levels reached 100-fold the normal levels and began to spill into the circulation. Although an increase in fibrosis was shown, hyper- trophy continued only when an excess amount of cardiac Ang II entered the circulation and caused an increase in BP (30,31). More recently, Xiao et al. (32) reported that in mice expressing ACE only in the heart the increase in cardiac Ang II was not associated with cardiac hypertrophy, indicating that the increase of cardiac Ang II was not sufficient to induce hypertrophy. In addition, transgenic mice harboring one, two, three, or four copies of the ACE gene showed that the magnitude of physi- ological cardiac hypertrophy induced by swimming training was not associated with different ACE levels (25). Taken together, these results suggest that cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II depends on an increase in BP.
Baseline values of absolute strength were lower in female skiers than in male skiers. The use of absolute strength values, however, may not be appropriate when comparing men and women. Instead, body mass normal- isation is recommended. 24 25 Despite there being no sig- ni ﬁ cant difference in concentric peak torque before and after skiing, and no difference in slope kilometres skied between men and women, concentric peak torque values corrected for body mass and body weight- normalised maximal power output during cycle ergome- try were signi ﬁ cantly lower in female skiers than in male skiers. This suggests that concentric muscle action may not be a performance-limiting factor in prolonged recre- ational skiing. This is hardly surprising, because during recreational skiing an eccentric type as opposed to a concentric type of endurance exercise is dominant. 11 Interestingly, previous work shows no correlation between racing performance and concentric peak torque and work for knee extension and ﬂ exion in either sex of elite skiers. 26 Thus, one may speculate that concentric muscle action may also not be a performance-limiting factor in ski racing. 27
Abstract. A total of 12 Q420 dual-angle cross combined section columns were tested under various eccentric compression with either single or double internode. The specimen parameters, experimental setup, and test results are presented. It showed that overall bending buckling appeared for specimens. Based on tests, the theoretical formulas on stability factor were derived by the energy approach. It is shown the ultimate strength from theoretical formulas are basically identical with experiments results.
In last decade, using high-strength steel bars in construction industry has promoted the extensive research in this area. The high-strength steel bars have the merit to lower reinforcement congestion and construction costs, especially in high-rise and special buildings. The use of high-strength steel as longitudinal reinforcement can enhance concrete members’ load capacity, moreover, its use for stirrups may decrease transverse reinforcement amount required to ease concrete placement. In recently years, the continuous development of steel smelting technology has produced new high-strength steel (for example, Grade 100 in USA, Grade 600 in Korea and HRB600 in China). The new developed high-strength steel has a linear pre-yield behavior, obvious yield plateau and comparatively good ductility, while the ultra-high-strength reinforcing bar has high yield strength, but no yield plateau and poor ductility. The typical stress-strain relationships of different reinforcing bars are presented in Fig.1. The yield plateau of new developed high-strength steel is much shorter than that of conventional steel, and the rupture elongation of new developed high-strength steel is approximately 70% of that of conventional steel. Therefore, the new developed high-strength steel with changed mechanical properties has an obvious effect on the performance of concrete members.
A medical evaluation of the child before beginning a formal strength-training program can identify risk factors for in- jury and provide an opportunity to discuss previous inju- ries, low-back pain, medical conditions, training goals, mo- tives for wanting to begin such a program, techniques, and expectations from both the child and the parents. Youth should be reminded that strengthtraining is only a small part of an overall fitness or sports program. Although re- search supports the safety and efficacy of resistance train- ing for children, it is not necessary or appropriate for every child. Youth who are interested in getting bigger and stron- ger should be discouraged from considering the use of anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing sub- stances and should be provided with information regarding the risks and health consequences of using such sub- stances. More patient-friendly information on perfor- mance-enhancing substances is available at www.aap.org/ family/sportsshorts12.pdf. The American Academy of TABLE 1 Deﬁnition of Terms
effects of exercise programmes for tendon injuries may be attributable to either the effect of stretching, with a lengthening of the muscle-tendon unit and consequently less strain experienced during joint motion or the effects of loading within the muscle- tendon unit, with hypertrophy and increased tensile strength in the tendon. It was stated that during eccentrictraining the blood flow decreases in the area of damage and this leads to neovascularization, the formation of new blood vessels, which improves blood flow and healing in the long term 4 . Eccentric
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of resistance training, endurance training and combined training on leg strength, back strength and tidal volume. Sixty male students aged between 17 and 22 years were selected for the study. They were divided into four equal groups, each group consisting of fifteen subjects in which Group I underwent resistance training, group II underwent endurance training, group III underwent combined training three days per week for twelve weeks and group IV acted as control, which did not participate in any training. The subjects were tested on selected criterion variables such as leg strength, back strength and tidal volume at prior to and immediately after the training period. For testing the leg strength and back strength, the dynamometer was used and tidal volume was tested by using expirograph. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to find out the significant difference if any, between the experimental groups and control group on selected criterion variables separately. Since there were four groups involved in the present study, the Scheffé S test was used as post-hoc test. The selected criterion variables such as leg strength, back strength and tidal volume were improved significantly for all the training groups when compared with the control group and the leg and back strength were improved significantly for resistance training group and in tidal volume, the endurance training group was significantly improved.
Strength Coaches, University Of Iowa. “Clinic on StrengthTraining,” January 5, 1990; “Lifting and Learning,” Athletic Management, June/July 1996; Mannie, Ken, The University of Toledo Strength and Conditioning Coach, Toledo, Ohio. “The Hazards of Ballistic Weight Training”, Manuscript, March 24, 1994; Parker, Johnny, Strength and Conditioning Coach, New York Giants. “Modern Principles for the Young Football Player,” National Strength and Conditioning Association, Volume 14, Number 2, 1992; Porcari, John, Ph.D. and Curtis, John, Ph.D. “Can You Work Strength and Aerobics at the Same Time?,” Fitness Management, June 1996; Riley, Dan Strength Coach, Washington Redskins. “Guidelines For Strength Program,” High Intensity Training Newsletter, Volume 1, Number 4, Fall, 1989; Schoessow, Wally and Weaver, D.G. “Sports Safety: Supervisors of Weight-training Facilities Should take Precautions Against Injuries,” Interscholastic Athletic Administration, Volume 20, Number 4, Summer 1994; Stamford, Bryant, Ph.D. “Weight Training Basics,” The Physician and Sports Medicine, Volume 26, Number 2, February 1998; “StrengthTraining: Exercise Selection,” Drug Free Athlete, December 1993; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor. “Four Key Factors in Building A Strength Program,” Scholastic Coach, January, 1986; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor. “How Many Reps Per Set?”; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor. “Integration of Strength, Endurance, and Skill Training”; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor. “Modern Currents in StrengthTraining,” Scholastic Coach, November, 1984; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor. “Muscle Development, Safety Makes Case For Slow StrengthTraining,” The Journal of Physical Education and Program, April, 1986; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor Power, The Critical Factor In StrengthTraining, Scholastic Coach; Westcott, Wayne L., National YMCA Fitness Advisor. “Sensible
strength, decrease the risks of injury while playing sports, and increase bone density in children. Exercise physiologists aren't the only ones recommending resistance training. The American Academy of Pediatrics has also put forth a pro-strengthtraining for children statement. The American Academy of Pediatrics position on strengthtraining supports the implementation of strength and resistance training programs, even for prepubescent children, that are monitored by well-trained adults and take into account the child's maturation level. The only limitation the AAP suggests is to avoid repetitive maximal lifts (lifts that are one repetition maximum lifts or are within 2-3 repetitions of a one repetition maximum lift) until they have reached Tanner Stage 5 of developmental maturity. Tanner Stage 5 is the level in which visible secondary sex characteristics have been developed. Usually, in this stage, adolescents will also have passed their period of maximal velocity of height growth. The AAP's concern that children wait until this stage to perform maximal lifts is that the epiphyses, commonly called "growth plates,” are still very vulnerable to injury before this developmental stage. It is repeated injury to these growth plates that may hinder growth. For this same reason, two of the leading researchers in the field of youth fitness, Fleck and Kraemer, agree that maximal lifts should be avoided. (2) However, Fleck, Kraemer and the AAP agree that a strengthtraining program that doesn’t include maximal lifting is beneficial for prepubescent and pubescent youth. In fact, a strength and resistance training program should be required in certain instances. Let's take a moment to review some of the research:
DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.89049 529 International Journal of Clinical Medicine Our results showed that the muscle torque of the ES + ECC was shown ap- proximately 69% MVC force although that of ES alone was shown 30% MVC force in the experiment 1 In the present study, we have developed the ES with eccentric contraction system from two points of view. First point was to enhance the promotional effects of muscle strengthening by using eccentric contraction system. The principle of overload is generally recognized as fundamental to the strengthening process, meaning that when the target muscle was loaded with re- sistance training, the muscle will adapt to become able to enhance the effects of training involving physiological changes e.g. muscle hypertrophy or neural adap- tations following increased muscle loading  . It has been suggested that eccentric contraction exercise could enhance the loading to target muscle in comparison with isometric and concentric contraction . The results of present study showed that the muscle loading with ES was increased by using eccentric contraction system. Therefore, it has been suggested that ES with eccentric con- traction system in this study would be effective for enhancement the effect of ES alone, which lead to muscle strengthening.
Background: Osteoarthritis is a slowly evolving articular disease, which appears to originate in the cartilage and affects the underlying bone and soft tissues. OA results in pain and functional disability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of isometric exercises and combined concentric- eccentric exercises in reducing pain and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. Methods: Forty individuals who were diagnosed as osteoarthritis by qualified orthopaedics and orthopaedic surgeons were chosen and were randomly divided into 2 groups Group A (N=20) and Group B (N=20). Group A was treated with isometric exercises and Group B was treated with combined concentric-eccentric exercises. The intervention lasted eight weeks and the physical activity was carried out for 3 days a week. Both the groups were assessed for pain and functional disability of knee joint by using WOMAC osteoarthritis index and VAS.
Chemical graph theory  is one of the well-investigated application areas with several researchers working on applying graph theory to mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena. The molecular graph or chemical graph gives a graph- theoretical representation of a molecule and provides valuable information into the chemical phenomena. The atoms of a molecule are represented by vertices or nodes and the edges of the graph stand for the covalent bonds among the atoms. A class of highly branched molecules, called dendrimers  are known to be suit- able for a number of biomedical applications. Many of the structural properties of a molecular graphs have been studied in terms of topological indices that are numeric quantities developed as molecular descriptors. Weiner-Index  is one of the earliest topological indices introduced by Weiner in connection with mod- eling of organic molecules in Chemistry. Several such indices (see, for example, [5, 8] ) have been introduced and investigated subsequently. The eccentric con- nectivity index is a parameter recently introduced  and subsequently studied (see for example [2, 6, 7, 11, 13]) with regard to physical / biological properties of molecules.
Isometric force data was considered as SI provided by MedX clinical equipment. This has been reported previously , where SI represents the area under a force curve created in each isometric test and accommo- dates potential increases or decreases throughout the entire strength curve for all seven test positions. This negates biasing data by seeking an average increase or decrease or only considering specific joint angles. All pre- and post-test data were analysed using SPSS ver. 20 (IBM, USA) and checked for normal distribution using a Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) test. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the effects of the two independent variables condition (CONC and ECC) and time (Pre and Post) upon the dependent variable of isometric strength expressed as SI. Finally, since evidence has shown that persons are 20–60% stronger during ECC actions compared with CONC actions, a paired samples t-test was also performed to compare mean total training volume (load × repeti- tions; TTV) for the duration of the intervention between CONC and ECC conditions. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05 in all cases. Effect sizes were calcu- lated based on Cohen’s d .
StrengthTraining incorporated open chain exercises for Shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, Elbow flexors, extensors, Wrist flexors, extensors. Subject com- pleted two sets of 8 repetitions with proper rest periods (2 minutes after every session). Training load for resisted ex- ercises was determined by 1 R.M. (The maximum load lift- ed once). Initial load was set up at 50% of 1 R.M. increasing to 80% of 1 R.M. Resistance was provided by weight cuffs. GROUP II: FUNCTIONAL TASK RELATED TRAINING The functional training exercises were specific to task to be learned. Functional training was given according to the framed protocol. (Annexure1) It consisted of six activity categories which included work related activities, bimanu- al activities, activities to improve grip and grasp, dressing activities, feeding activities, household chores and person- al hygiene activities. The activities were practiced which progressed from proximal to distal recovery patterns and simple tasks to complex tasks. Task performed by the pa- tient, its progression, missing components were all record- ed. Four steps in tasks related training included analysis of task, the practice of missing components, the practice of task and transfer of training.
Strength is an essential function of the human body, which can manifest itself in various ways, depending on individual conditions and objectives used to perform different actions or exercises (Siff, 2004). The term strength can be employed to identify the force or torque developed be a muscle during a particular joint movement (Knuttgen et al., 2003). However an infinite number of strength values may be obtained depending of the type of action (isometric or dynamic), the velocity of the action, and the load mobilized when the measurement is accomplished (Knuttgen & Kraemer, 1987). Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to review the most frequently used protocols to evaluate muscular strength and to propose a progressive testing protocol, which can be applied to estimate the maximal value of force and power produced with light and heavy load in each assessed resistance training exercise.
biological age (differences with respect to maturity). Even though you have three twelve year olds, maturity wise they can range in age from 10-14.
Strengthtraining is synonymous with the term ‘resistance training’ and is defined as a specialized form of conditioning that is used to increase one’s ability to produce or resist force. Strengthtraining uses the principle of progressive overload to force the body (muscles, bones, tendons, etc.) to adapt in order to be able to produce and/ or resist larger forces. Strengthtraining is not power lifting nor is it bodybuilding or trying to lift the most weight you can. Strengthtraining is a tool that can augment sport performance through improved strength and motor control.