The nature of the ecological governance project is a kind of contractual or- ganization formed by the coordination of state power and private rights on the coordination of ecological public interest. Compared to other public projects, the “incomplete contract” features of the ecological governance project is more obvious due to the complexity of ecological system, the spillover of ecological damage and ecological benefits and the asymmetry of information acquisition . Besides, the ecological compensation mechanism in China is not perfect, resulting in the project funds mainly relying on the central fiscal transfer pay- ment being not able to cover all the ecological compensation investment, fur- ther, there is the obvious imbalance in the distribution of ecological benefits, and the participation will of other ecological governance subjects is not strong, lead- ing to the separation of the development and protection, the obstruction in the implementation of ecological governance policy, and gradually raised project transaction cost. Once the PPP mode is introduced, the ecological compensation can be improved by leveraging the social capital to meet the public’s persistently growing needs for ecological governance. Moreover, combining the manage- ment efficiency and technological innovation of social capital with the develop- ment planning and market supervision functions of the governments, the rea- sonable allocation of ownership and management rights in ecological gover- nance projects can be achieved, forming a more complete contract organization system, improving project management performance, and achieving the restora- tion, reconstruction and maintenance of ecosystems.
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Abstract: The existing US interstate ecological governance system can be divided into three categories according to the governance subject: traditional government governance, inter-governmental cooperation governance and special organizational governance. Traditional ecological governance is a government-led public governance, that is, the use of public power. US interstate eco-governance governance includes administrative control-led environmental regulation, legislative legislative ecological behavior, and judicial system environmental litigation ruling. Interstate issues are essentially intergovernmental relationships, so inter-governmental cooperation mechanisms are the proper meaning of interstate ecological governance. Traditional interstate agreements and central government cooperation governance are two common ways of interstate cooperation governance. The special organization is the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which is a company based in the United States. It is a state-owned company that was established in May 1933 in accordance with the Tennessee Valley Authority Act. Formal operation, it is a regional comprehensive governance and comprehensive development plan, "is the first organized attempt in the history of the United States to skillfully arrange the fate of the entire basin and its residents." The US interstate ecological governance system is effective and relevant. The governance system that basically meets the requirements of multi-center governance plays an active role in dealing with interstate ecological environmental disputes and protection. China and the United States have certain similarities in the field of ecological governance. On the basis of national conditions, China's cross-regional ecological governance can learn from the US's governance experience to achieve "good governance" of cross-regional ecological problems.
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Recognizing that marine management decisions in the Pacific are commonly made in the absence of empirical ecological or fisheries data (Johannes 1998a), the accuracy and validity of local perceptions may strongly influence the types of regimes implemented and by extension the outcomes of management. Recent studies on English Channel fishers found that fishermen there have high capacity to accurately detect changes in fish catches over time (Rochet et al. 2008). In contrast to the UK case, fishing is not typically a full-time commercial activity among Pacific Island residents (Turner et al. 2007), but represents one activity within an area of high occupational diversity (Chand 2005). Would non-fishing residents of Pacific-island communities hold equivalent experiential knowledge as professional fishers in a developed country? Dulvy and Polunin (2004) found that the capacity of Fijian fishers to detect declines in important species was relatively low, suggesting that decisions made on perceptions may not be reliable. However, even if perceptions are found to be incongruent with a measurable ecological reality (e.g. Gilchrist et al. 2005), there is consensus that they have a strong influence on environmental decision-making (Weber et al. 2004) and will undoubtedly dictate the future of MPAs in Vanuatu and other Pacific Islands
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For much of human history the oceans have been considered incomprehensibly vast; an inexhaustible source of goods and services. Over the last century however, that paradigm has proved largely inaccurate. The ocean is in a state of crisis, caused primarily by human overexploitation. A rational reaction to the crisis is to limit fishing, often by designating swaths of the ocean as marine protected areas (MPAs). To be effective, it has been suggested that marine protected areas must cover between ten and thirty percent of the world’s oceans, ideally linked into MPA networks. Protection targets on this scale, however, present critical implementation and governance challenges. While some nations can effectively implement and enforce MPA rules, many are impoverished, and lack the capacity to centrally govern marine protected areas. Experience shows that centrally mandating MPAs and marine use regulations in these contexts is not realistic, and will often lead to management failure.
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Together we (myself + core research team + village volunteers) assumed the role of participant observers. Strong pre-established relationships with individuals and communities ensured that our participant observer status was much farther towards the “intensive dwelling” side of the participant observation spectrum. The entire research team was composed of Nguna and Pele locals, born in the very villages where the research was conducted (I, of course being the only exception). It is clear therefore that our research was far from the ‘outsider looking in’ paradigm of much early anthropological research. The team’s intimate, deep, and life-long knowledge of the social-ecological system eliminated the very real risk faced by foreign researchers that that they will be told what locals think they want to hear (Edmonds 1995). As participant observers in the study communities, we attended village meetings, ceremonial events, fishing excursions and garden trips, all the while critically reflecting on what we saw and heard. At the end of each day, the village research unit would meet to enter data in to the computer, transcribe interviews, download maps, interpret what had been observed and discuss how it related to our research questions.
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Huffer, E., and G. Molisa. 1999. Governance in Vanuatu: in search of the Nakamal way. Page 16. State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Project. Australian National University, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies Canberra, Australia,. Hughes, H., and G. Sodhi. 2008. The bipolar Pacific Issue Analysis. The Center for
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Corporate governance is like the backbone of an organization. It acts as a guide to all the activities and decisions that are made for the company. Through the effective implementation of corporate e board of directors are able to devise efficient and effective strategies in order to achieve the company’s goals. This case on corporate governance and its implementation by the board of directors helps us understand the role, importance and the value of corporate governance. The case is made in light of the recent events that had taken place with the Tata Group of companies which is the removal of Cyrus Mistry from the chairmanship of the Tata Sons (the holding company for the nd from the board of other Tata group companies as well. The case helps in understanding the corporate governance of the Tata Group and the mind-set behind it. Tata Group is a conglomerate which is worth almost a $100 billion dollar and has taken a lot of years of dedication and hard work to reach to the position that it holds today. This wouldn’t have been possible without a strong emphasis on ethics and corporate governance. This case helps the reader understand as to how mented and what the areas are of key importance to the company. It also highlights the relation between 2 major conglomerates namely the Pallonji Group (owned by Cyrus Mistry’s father Pallonji Mistry) and Tata Group. Apart from this it also throws light on the roles and responsibilities that the board of directors have towards the company and the stakeholders. After going through the recent events of the Cyrus Mistry removal the case also tries to analyse and iding such situations of conflict. The major emphasis throughout the case is on relating theory with practical events or happenings in order to understand the relevance of corporate governance in a corporation or a company.
The definition of economic governance has evolved over the last few years. According to Kaufmann et al,  Governance consists of the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them. Good, transparent and efficient governance in host countries ensures the safety of investments and thus attracts foreigners to invest. While there are many international and local authorities which give both subjective and objective information on governance, literature in the field of governance and inward FDI has used four main sources. They are worldwide governance indicators provided by Kaufmann et al.,  under World Bank project, Freedom House measure of voice and accountability and political rights, Polity dataset and International Country Risk Guide (ICRG).
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The research team then analysed and further processed the outputs from the workshop. While the small groups at the workshop identified somewhat different sets of key relationships, the research team was able to synthesise these into a single model by concentrating on commonalities, as well as the logic underpinning relationships. The synthesised model was then further validated and adjusted with reference to supporting literature. With respect to governance, the multi-stage process we adopted ensured that each of the influences ending up in the model, while initially drawn from the literature, has real importance for our case study landscape. Importantly, the selected influences represent Midlands’ governance in a way that is appropriate for an SES approach. Specifying governance influences in terms of qualitative attributes of adaptive
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energy ecological footprint per capita, the ecological capacity per capita, and ecological pressure of the energy ecological footprint in Xiangtan over the years, the changing tendency of each index in the next 10 years could be predicted, based on the grey prediction model. The results show that regional energy ecological footprint in Xiangtan presents a rising tendency year by year. The specific value between the energy ecological footprint and the ecological capacity will be enlarged year by year during the next 10 years. The value exceeded 8, indicating that regional ecological environment has a huge pressure. The influencing factors of energy ecological footprint per capita, industrial structure and population scale are the most significant and the main driving factors of the energy economic footprint per capita.
ecopoetic publications, like other ones in the field, draw insights from New Materialism and the kind of ecofeminist philosophy that saw a resurgence with the materialist turn. Consequently, they reflect not only on matters of language and politics, but also on the language and politics of matter. Reading the poetry of the U.S.-American poets A. R. Ammons, Lyn Hejinian, Susan Howe, and Kenneth Goldsmith, ecocritic Sarah Nolan, for example, proposes an “unnatural ecopoetics” that “focuses on how material elements, ranging from a tree to a taxi cab, intertwine with nonmaterial subjective experiences and express agency through the foregrounded textual space” (13). Comparing the work of U.S.-American poet Juliana Spahr and Turkish novelist Latife Tekin, Meliz Ergin, on her part, investigates an “ecopoetics of entanglement” that “opens (post)human subjectivity to affective connections with nonhuman otherness without compromising the possibility of political agency and accountability” (2). Relatedly, Angela Hume and Samia Rahimtoola propose a “queer ecopoetics” that “pursues human and nonhuman associations beyond the conventions of heteronormative family bonds and anthropocentric ecological ones” (139). By examining conditions of “ecological proximity and precarity” (146), Hume and Rahimtoola assert, queer ecopoetics “exposes ‘the other’ to be a fiction that forecloses possibilities for community, yet also insists on the complexity and reality of our differences” (146) and “imagines new possibilities for attachment, kinship, and care” (146). While the approaches and methodologies of these scholars differ, they all think about the ways in which ecopoetics works to blur alleged binary oppositions—whether of the material and non-material, natural and unnatural, or human and non-human—and helps to imagine alternative relations, ethics, and politics. Likewise, the issues broached by these scholars include, but are by no means limited to matters of embodiment and agency, questions of sustainability and environmental justice, as well as reflections on the politics of form.
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Abstract: The environmental science and technology aesthetics is a new interdisciplinary application aesthetic subject, which arises with the inspiration of contemporary ecological concepts, environmental ideas, and aesthetic thoughts. It is based on the theories of ecological ontology, ecological ethics and ecological value, and it is the perfect combination of science and technology and environmental aesthetics, and it is the science of the general laws in which science and technology are studied, innovated and developed in accordance with the principles of environmental aesthetics. The embedded system is a "dedicated computer system embedded in the object system", and it is technology-intensive, investment-intensive, highly decentralized and continuously innovative knowledge-intensive system. The embedded system innovation has the close and indivisible relationship with the environmental science and technology aesthetics: The environmental science and technology aesthetics is instructive to the embedded system innovation; while the embedded system innovation is concrete practice and application of the environmental science and technology aesthetics theory. The environmental science and technology aesthetics has got rid of the Western traditional dualistic and opposing thinking mode, surpassed the modern tool reason and anthropocentrism, and promoted the environmental development of embedded system. The environmental science and technology aesthetics is the important theoretical resource that guides the environmental development of embedded system, and an important guarantee that makes the embedded system develop and innovate along healthy, scientific, environmental road. The environmental embedded system must have broad development prospects.
The relationship between higher education and social environment has a sim- ilar internal mechanism with that between biology and biology, biology and en- vironment, which is composed of main body, individual, environment and other elements. The element influences and restricts each other while the value of each element is embodied through others, so it is a typical social ecosystem. In this ecological system, the educator teaches the educatee in the school (in fact, the exchange of material and energy information within the system) or through so- cial practice ( i.e. , the exchange of material and energy information between sys- tems) to coordinate the balanced development of the elements of the system and maintain the stability of the system, so as to promote the sustainable develop- ment of the higher education system steadily and continuously.
All the thematic data of the study area were transformed from vector to raster. Through spatial overlay analysis with GIS, we can produce raster data documents displaying the thematic attributes of the various evaluation factors. The data table records each index value. Using a composite index evaluation method (also called synthetic weighted mark method); we can calculate the composite index of ecological sustainability in each grid. Synthetic evaluation results are indicated with the following formula:
Low-rise residential areas (III) occupy the slopes of valleys of the Tashla and Mamayka rivers. The Tashla district is bounded on one side by the North-Western residential area located on the plateau, and on the other side - by the watershed area (the central part of the city). The average toxicity is 38.2%. Phytotoxicity increases in the area quite sharply: in the watershed, it is 24.8%, and in the lower part of the transeluvial landscape, it is 37.3%. This considerable increase in soil toxicity in a fairly short interval is caused not only by side drift from the watershed, but also by the landslide processes that are intensively developed on the slopes, and by repeated contamination of soils by groundwater flooding. According to the methodology of assessment criteria for the ecological situation of territories for revealing zones of adverse ecological situation and the areas of ecological disaster, despite local phytotoxicity increase in some districts of the city to unacceptable indicators, in high-rise residential areas of the South-Western (I) and the North- Western (I a ) neighborhoods and the low-rise area (the area of Tashla) (III), the environmental situation may be characterized as satisfactory. In the mixed residential area (the center of the city), emergency environmental situation is observed, and the Mamayka district (low-rise area) (III a ) may be attributed to the zone of ecological disaster (Table 4).
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If we shift from metaphysics to psychology, in psychological terms, our ecological condition reflects ‟umbrasubjectivity.” Just as influence asymmetry leads me to experience the effects of the system as random (this morning was warm, but it turned suddenly cold), so it precludes my imposing my design on the system (I want the climate to remain hospitable to humans, not to change, but I cannot make that happen). Influence asymmetry makes nature look random to me, and subjects me to nature utterly. The randomness effect and influence asymmetry together point toward a particular form of subjectivity. If “subjectivity” without any qualifiers refers to the self or individual, and “intersubjectivity” denotes the self in more or less symmetrical relation to a similar self, I propose “umbrasubjectivity” to refer to the self in an asymmetrical relation to a dissimilar. When I am the more influenced than influencing party in relation to influence asymmetry, I am ‟umbrasubjected.” The coinage adds the Latin umbra, meaning “shadow,” to the existing compound of sub-, meaning “under,” and jacere, meaning “to throw,” to highlight the overshadowedness of the more influenced party when it comes to influence asymmetry.
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Currently, marine protected areas compose less than 1% of the marine environment. This is in- sufficient to maintain the ecological services of the ocean. Marine protected areas (MPAs) simulta- neously address several of the Lisbon principles. Low et al. (1999) provides a detailed simulation analysis of the effectiveness of protected areas. In the face of uncertainty, marine protected areas offer a way to buffer ocean services from climate change, and degradation by economic activities (such as fishing and depletion of fishery resources) which externalize the actors’ costs. Fisheries can benefit from MPAs, which have been shown to contain a higher density and larger fish than adjacent areas. MPAs may reduce water contami- nation and oil spill damage by zoning areas so that uses in any area are more compatible. MPAs will benefit coastal ecosystems by improving recreational resources, protecting highly produc- tive areas (benefiting commercially important bio- logical resources) and maintaining the resiliency of coastal systems. We recommend an assessment using ecological economics for sustainable gover- nance to set MPAs. In particular, a network of MPAs should be established that is sufficient in size and spatial distribution to assure that ocean services are sustainable in the face of increasing human impacts, environmental variability and ecological uncertainty. Recent professional assess- ments have suggested 20% of marine areas should be designated as marine protected areas.
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Given the unpredictability of climate change, looming sea level rise, increased flooding incidences and the current gross environmental degradation resulting from oil pollution, the ability of the Niger Delta’s coastal socio-ecological system to anticipate, absorb, and recover from disturbances or shocks was investigated. The socio-ecological system framework was used to describe and analyze the Niger Delta coastal system and the social, environmental, governance and economic systems were evaluated using Bhamra (2015) resilience framework for measuring sustainable development and Nemec et al, (2013) methodology which is based on Walker and Salt (2006) resilience indicators to identify inherent vulnerabilities, gaps and resilience level. The research reveals that the Niger Delta coastal socio-ecological system has low resilience. Even though some policies that can address these gaps are in place, implementation is the problem.
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long established paradigm in conducting and delivering global health interventions, viz. the transnational nature of health technology delivery in poorer countries whereby decision making and power are shifted away from national governments to globally interrelated “epistemic communi- ties” that frame problems, generate knowledge and solu- tions, and develop advocacy and funding strategies for taking action [5–8]. These characteristics of global health intervention programmes, particularly their narrowly conceptualized focus on therapeutic access and depend- ence on an extensive external/global locus for problem formulation and solution, have thus come to underpin the features increasingly resembling public health delivery in poorer countries of the global South, particularly in the case of Africa: 1) a hollowing out of state power, 2) a fragmentation of national publics into “communities” gathered around specific needs leading to the “projectifica- tion’ of health care focused on specific diseases and islands of intervention, 3) the enactment of standardized, increas- ingly pharmaceutical-driven biomedical interventions based on narrow worldviews and perspectives emphasiz- ing individual risk factors, and 4) the increasing propen- sities of such biomedical campaigns for controlling bodies and populations through forms of prescribed management and administration aimed at cultivating passive accepting publics [5–8]. While the study of these biopolitical out- comes has so far focused on the tensions that arise between powerful global/state discourses and local per- spectives leading to failure of many of this type of planning schemes [9–11], it is equally important to reflect on the extent to which the governance strategy adopted by these programs, which emphasizes static steady state- based, blueprint-driven managerialist interventions, can effectively deal with the inevitably open socio-ecological dynamics, complexity, uncertainty, and non-linearity that underlie parasitic transmission in human communities [12–14].
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Capital assets and ‘new governance’ processes are two of the three key phases of developing a successful (resilient) BR. Adaptive capacity is a key component of the final phase; the achievement of a resilient working landscape. In the framework, evolution and devolution of a BR occurs in response to social and ecological variables. However, maintenance and renewal of capital assets are crucial to sustaining the first and most fundamental phase of BR resilience.
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