Ecology and conservation of Amphibians

Top PDF Ecology and conservation of Amphibians:

Ecology and Conservation of Rare Amphibians.

Ecology and Conservation of Rare Amphibians.

emerging diseases, and climate change (Houlahan et al. 2000, Collins and Storfer 2003). Among all amphibians, those breeding in wetlands provide an ideal system in which to assess the effects of climate change on population viability, as complete development of their larval stage depends upon wetlands remaining inundated for a certain period of time (typically several months), and wetland hydrology can be linked directly to projected climate scenarios. In addition to this, many amphibian species can be long-lived, which makes them more suitable subjects for evaluating the effects of climate change. A short- lived species might suffer local extinctions when climatic conditions first become stressful, but populations of longer-lived species would track longer-term shifts in the environment, as has been demonstrated in a number of studies. Church et al. (2007) demonstrated that some tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) may live a relatively long time for a small vertebrate species, and adults may choose to avoid breeding during dry years. Griffiths et al. (2010) showed that survival of adult newts was affected by weather conditions during the time of year when newts were not in breeding ponds and used closed population mark-recapture models to assess demographic processes
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Cost-effective conservation of amphibian ecology and evolution

Cost-effective conservation of amphibian ecology and evolution

and evolution Felipe S. Campos, 1,2 * Ricardo Lourenço-de-Moraes, 3 Gustavo A. Llorente, 1 Mirco Solé 4 Habitat loss is the most important threat to species survival, and the efficient selection of priority areas is funda- mental for good systematic conservation planning. Using amphibians as a conservation target, we designed an innovative assessment strategy, showing that prioritization models focused on functional, phylogenetic, and taxo- nomic diversity can include cost-effectiveness –based assessments of land values. We report new key conservation sites within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hot spot, revealing a congruence of ecological and evolutionary patterns. We sug- gest payment for ecosystem services through environmental set-asides on private land, establishing potential trade- offs for ecological and evolutionary processes. Our findings introduce additional effective area-based conservation parameters that set new priorities for biodiversity assessment in the Atlantic Forest, validating the usefulness of a novel approach to cost-effectiveness –based assessments of conservation value for other species-rich regions.
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Wetland Ecology: Value and Conservation Greg Yarrow, Professor of Wildlife Ecology, Extension Wildlife Specialist

Wetland Ecology: Value and Conservation Greg Yarrow, Professor of Wildlife Ecology, Extension Wildlife Specialist

Animals have also adapted to wetland conditions. Fish extract oxygen from the water through their gills. Amphibians, such as salamanders and frogs, spend much of their time on land but must maintain a moist skin in order to absorb oxygen. These animals also come back to the wetland areas to breed and lay their eggs. Many insects lay their eggs in or on the water’s surface. Some aquatic insects periodically float to the surface to obtain air bubbles that they use in the same fashion as scuba divers. Therefore, animals and plants that live in wetland systems have developed specialized adaptations that allow them to live in these environments. Wetland Productivity
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Chemical ecology and conservation biogeography of Rhododendron ponticum L

Chemical ecology and conservation biogeography of Rhododendron ponticum L

A lthough translocation outside o f a species' historical range has been justifie d accordingly, on hypothetical grounds, fe w practical examples have emerged so far, lim iting insight into the technical processes and risks associated w ith this conservation strategy (McLachlan et al. 2007). In particular, significant challenges are presented in the form o f identificatio n o f recipient sites suited fo r translocation, and risk assessment o f negative impacts such as potential aggressive invasion (M ueller and Hellmann 2008). As such, translocations are generally considered the last line o f action for averting species extinction, due in part to these relatively high cost and risk factors (Shoo et al. 2013). W hile the intention al m ovem ent o f species at in ter-contine ntal scales has given rise to many invasive species and serious unintended impacts globally (Dehnen-Schmutz et al. 2007, Ricciardi and S im berloff 2009a), such types o f translocation are not advocated under assisted colonization fo r conservation purposes (Thomas 2011). W hile the theoretical foundations w hich underpin this conservation strategy, and in particular assisted colonization, have steadily progressed and refined over the last tw o decades; deliberation w ith in the specific context o f clim ate change rem ains in urgent need o f address. Recent elaboration o f the concept o f clim ate change refugia (Ashcroft 2010, Keppel et al. 2012), has provided a theoretical basis fo r the iden tifica tio n o f species-specific safe havens under fu tu re changing clim ate. Depending on the dynamics o f such safe havens, these may be term ed as m icrorefugia, holdouts or stepping-stones th a t facilitate species range shifts (Hannah et al. 2014). Despite the p otentia l to b e tte r guide translocation practise, however, specific fram ew orks to support the selection o f clim ate-stable habitat along these lines rem ain in need o f developm ent.
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The Thar of Rajasthan (India): Ecology and Conservation of a Desert Ecosystem

The Thar of Rajasthan (India): Ecology and Conservation of a Desert Ecosystem

Abstract This paper highlights the Thar Desert and its ecosystem. The work reviews and presents the natural condition of the Thar Desert within Rajasthan State. The diversity of the vegetation and of higher animals is discussed on the basis of earlier works and surveys. Major problems and conservation issues are presented along with their possible solutions. Recommendations are made for the protection of this ecosystem.

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Molecular ecology, evolution and conservation of hydrophiine sea snakes

Molecular ecology, evolution and conservation of hydrophiine sea snakes

Hydrophiine sea snakes are the most speciose group of extant marine reptiles. Species occur in a variety of shallow-water habitats throughout the Indo West Pacific with highest species diversity in northern Australia and South East Asia. Each of these regions hosts a suite of endemics but they also share widespread taxa. Viviparity distinguishes hydrophiine sea snakes from many other marine taxa, and reproductive outputs are low and dispersal potentially restricted. These life-history characteristics predict strong population subdivision for marine hydrophiine species. Nonetheless, species preferentially occur in different habitat types that are predicted to restrict dispersal and gene flow to varying degrees and result in divergent genetic signatures among species. These ecological, evolutionary and life-history characteristics make marine hydrophiines an excellent group for comparative study, yet surprisingly little is known about their genetics, evolution and conservation. In this thesis I use molecular genetic
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Molecular ecology, evolution and conservation of hydrophiine sea snakes

Molecular ecology, evolution and conservation of hydrophiine sea snakes

representative hydrophiine sea snake species, using modern molecular approaches. The thesis met its stated research objectives and, in combination with its associated publications (Lukoschek et al., 2005, 2007a, b; Lukoschek, 2006; Lukoschek & Keogh, 2006), presents the first information on the molecular ecology and evolution of hydrophiine sea snakes. The phylogenetic results presented in Chapter 2 revealed a temporally distant period of rapid evolution within the Hydrophis lineage, which gave rise to the diverse array of species that we see today. By contrast, the evolutionary history of the Aipysurus lineage does not appear to have included a similar adaptive radiation. The phylogeographic and population genetic component of this thesis, presented in Chapters 3, 4 and 6, revealed that relatively recent Pleistocene paleoclimatic events profoundly shaped the genetic signatures of two marine hydrophiine species around northern Australia. These results are consistent with evidence from other studies that have documented the importance of Pleistocene events for population genetic processes of a range of tropical Australian marine taxa (Ch. 3). In addition, the thesis and associated publications (Lukoschek et al., 2007a; Heatwole & Lukoschek, In Press) present the first detailed analyses of the long-term metapopulation dynamics for a marine hydrophiine species, Aipysurus laevis. The results from classification tree analyses presented in Chapter 7 indicated that recent local extinctions have occurred for A. laevis in the
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Conservation and Population Ecology of Manta Rays in the Maldives

Conservation and Population Ecology of Manta Rays in the Maldives

I would like to acknowledge my funders, without whom I would not have been able to collect the field data for this research, or have the funds required to undertake the many cold months back in the UK behind a desk writing up my findings. Firstly, a massive thank you to the Save Our Seas Foundation (SOSF) for providing grants to the Manta Trust and the MMRP, but also for placing your trust in my research and conservation endeavours from the very beginnings. A big thank you first and foremost to the Founder, the Board, former CEO Chris Clarke, and current CEO Michael Scholl. Thank you also to the entire SOSF team for their support during the creation of this thesis, especially Nadia Bruyndonckx and Sarah Fowler. Many other organizations have also played an important role in supporting the MMRP and my research during the creation of this thesis, and chief among those are the Four Seasons Resorts Maldives. One man especially whom I owe a huge debt of gratitude towards is the Regional Vice President and General Manager of Landaa Giraavaru, Armando Kraenzlin. When I approached Armando in 2005 with a very rough and poorly conceived plan of starting a manta research project in the Maldives, he had the vision to take a chance on something new where others would not. To this day, the support of Armando and the Four Seasons is integral to the operations of the MMRP’s work in the Maldives. Equally as passionate about ocean conservation and manta rays is the General Manager of the Six Senses Laamu Resort and Spa, Marteyne van Well, whom the MMRP also owes a great deal. To Armando, Marteyne and all the staff at the Four Seasons, Six Senses Laamu and other HPL Properties in the Maldives, thank you for your support.
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The ecology and conservation of the Flock Bronzewing Pigeon : Phaps histrionica

The ecology and conservation of the Flock Bronzewing Pigeon : Phaps histrionica

The Magpie Goose Anseranas semipa/mata is an iconic species of the wetlands of northern Australia, but was formerly abundant in southern Australia. It has been the focus of 30 years of ecological research due to its abundance and importance to tourism and for recreational and traditional harvest. Habitat suitability of breeding swamps vary depending on the timing and extent of wet season rainfall, and geese undertake an annual chaotic redistribution of breeding sites (Whitehead et al. 1992). Geese build floating nests of sedges and aquatic grasses in deep water on floodplains and swamps. The depth and timing of filling of these swamps varies between years due to rainfall variability. Successful rearing of young depends on fine-scale spatial linkages as goslings require access to seeds of annual grasses and herbs present in shallow margins of deeper swamps, and family groups move distances up to 15 km per day from nesting to nesting grounds. Post-breeding birds move between swamps to exploit a succession of resources available throughout the dry season. Throughout much of the dry season they are dependent on corms of the aquatic sedge Eleocharis dulcis. Foraging for corms can only occur in relatively shallow water; as waters dry and the mud hardens they are no longer available and birds seek alternative food. Life as a Magpie Goose is a “long convoluted series of linkages” (Woinarski et al. 2007). Conservation of the species as an abundant wetland species will entail protection of the full suite of options provided by the extensive wetland estate in northern Australia: disruption of these linkages by for example, displacement of annual grasslands and aquatic herblands by monocultures of introduced pasture grasses will sever important links. The conservation challenge is to maintain options in landscapes providing a shifting mosaic of opportunities. The requirement for a succession of resources provided within different vegetation communities is demonstrated by other predominantly granivorous waterfowl species in the Top End, including the Green Pygmy-goose Nettapus pulchellus (Dostine, unpublished data).
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Applications of step-selection functions in ecology and conservation

Applications of step-selection functions in ecology and conservation

The first stage allows for subject-specific inferences and variance decomposition between and within groups, and, more importantly, can accommodate variable habitat selection responses among individuals [4]. Coefficients estimated for each individual can be analysed to portray personality traits [53], or to test specific hypotheses on the behavioural ecology of a target species, e.g., functional responses in habitat selection [8]. For instance, individual estimates of beta coefficients can be processed using conventional statistical packages (e.g., linear and non-linear regression, generalized linear models GLMs, and general- ized additive models GAMs) to test the effect of continuous covariates such as body weight or age on habitat selection (Figure 5a). Other statistical tools (e.g., independent sample t-tests) also can be used to test for variation in beta values estimated in animals characterized by different reproductive status (e.g. female with offspring vs. females without offspring, Figure 5b), movement strategy (e.g., migratory vs. non-migratory), or future survival (e.g. depredated individ- uals vs. survivors).
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Tasmanian bat ecology : conservation of native fauna

Tasmanian bat ecology : conservation of native fauna

Determining the distribution and abundance of animals associating with the causes is fundamental question and is high conservation importance as current understanding suggested the accelerating degradation of habitat and alternation of ecosystem are apparent to many organisms (Jaberg & Guisan, 2001). Examining coarse grained features of the landscape including latitudes and longitudes, elevation, and predominant habitat types is necessary for understanding broad distributions of animals (Warren et al., 2000). Identifying distribution in bats requires a considerable amount of efforts due to nocturnal activity, wide home range and the difficulty to remote identification without aides. Alternatively, species-habitat relationship could be a useful tool to develop models to predict potential distribution from habitat descriptors (Walsh & Harris, 1996; Jaberg & Guisan, 2001; Milne et al., 2004). The essential habitat requirements of bats, like any other animals, can be divided into two major components, foraging areas and refuges (Taylor & Savva, 1988). To predict accurate distribution of bats, these two components are necessary taken into account.
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Spatial ecology and conservation of parrots in New Caledonia

Spatial ecology and conservation of parrots in New Caledonia

Little Fire Ants occur in a variety of habitats on the mainland, including dry sclerophyll forest, rainforest on ultramafic and acidic substrates, and maquis, and they have also been int[r]

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Political Ecology and its Engagements with Conservation and Development

Political Ecology and its Engagements with Conservation and Development

Conflict prevention and management is another explicitly political subject of interest to both development and conservation programs and projects working in the region. Political ecologists and others have provided important critiques of the environmental security (Peluso and Watts 2001) and depictions of social conflicts as simply common property institutional failures (Peters 1994, Turner 1999a). These critiques have followed the typical pattern described above -- political ecologists reacting to underlying narratives and approaches to conflict management and prevention – critiques that to a policy maker or practitioner may be interpreted as simply “its more complicated.” This is neither a compelling “counter narrative” nor a framework for action. “Action research” provides a possible option for those political ecologists having strong relationships with local communities to work with them to develop solutions for the prevention and management of conflicts. Such work would claim agendas through results and the development of action frameworks – outputs that arguably have greater potential to influence development and conservation practice.
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Spatial ecology and conservation of the critically endangered swift parrot

Spatial ecology and conservation of the critically endangered swift parrot

This research highlights the importance of accounting for spatial autocorrelation, not only for modelling the occurrence of spatially aggregating mobile species and the detection process, but also for understanding the links with abundance (Howard et al. 2014; Buckley et al. 2017). I demonstrate that devising a sampling design that captures the underlying spatial structure of the study system, combined with effective sampling protocols is fundamental to generating data that can inform conservation planning. Thus, without an understanding of the ecological mechanisms driving these processes in temporally variable and spatially structured systems misleading inferences can be drawn from monitoring data (Hui et al., 2010; Martin and Fahrig, 2012; Welsh et al., 2013). The approaches utilised in this study are likely to be particularly relevant to surveys conducted at large spatial scales in dynamic systems when few ecologically relevant covariates are available, or when the scale and/or influence of an environmental factor is unknown or varies across multiple temporal and spatial scales. Improving models and associated predictions in this way not only reduces uncertainty about the species distribution, but also provides land managers with more confidence to make decisions that affect other stakeholders.
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Conservation of the longleaf pine ecosystem : ecology and social context

Conservation of the longleaf pine ecosystem : ecology and social context

conservation stakeholders are developing in many areas, including within major fire- adapted ecosystems such as ponderosa pine in the US southwest and longleaf pine in the US southeast (Sisk et al. 2006, Compton et al. 2006). These partnerships necessarily include stakeholders whose priorities for burning and perceptions of risk may differ from one another. Stakeholders from public agencies and private conservation organizations may make risk-averse decisions due to systemic biases at higher organizational levels (Maguire and Albright 2005, Christensen 2003). In particular, individual landowners and small, non-industrial private companies who conduct prescribed burning may perceive more risks from burning because they are more directly liable if found negligent. Balancing the risks associated with burning, the ecological benefits of burning, and the risks that may result from not burning presents challenges to decision making in these multiple-stakeholder partnerships. A
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Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal

Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal

that provided to other animals [1,2,8,64]. More recently Nolan et al. [65], has also shown that snakes and “wugs”, a taxon that include invertebrates like snails, crabs, but also vertebrate as lizards and turtles, were the least appreciated animals when compared to other tax- ons as mammals, birds or fishes. As the authors state [65], that emotional responses to animals comprise an important dimension in the retention and articulation of ethnobiological information. It can be concluded that these wrong perceptions, resulting from folklore, can clearly influence the attitudes people have towards these animals. However, it must be taken into account that not all of the wrong perceptions about amphibians and reptiles result directly from folklore, such, as it was already referred, evolutionary responses, or lack of infor- mation, can lead people to picture these animals as dan- gerous, lethal or aggressive. Reptiles were more misunderstood than amphibians, and, in fact, amphi- bians showed lower negative valorization than reptiles. Table 2 Univariate statistics and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of scales used
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Coffee and Conservation: The Ecology and Marketing of Bird Friendly Coffee

Coffee and Conservation: The Ecology and Marketing of Bird Friendly Coffee

companies, rewards for ecosystem services, building relationships, aid from consumers, conducting research and uniting objectives. 6.6.1 Higher Premiums Farmers are more likely to benefit from Bird Friendly certification if they receive a higher net income and if costs can be better controlled and distributed. Premiums should be higher for shade-grown coffee, especially BF, than other certification programs that do not negatively affect yield. 153 The costs of complex certifications, in addition to diminished crop yields and higher labor costs due to certification requirements, fail to earn farmers the necessary premiums to justify them for both organic and BFC. These higher premium prices do not need to come from market forces alone (higher prices from consumers willing to pay for biodiversity friendly practices). Governmental or non-governmental conservation programs could provide funds for the price premium, which would improve farmers’ returns without increasing the prices paid by the consumer. If these conservation programs do not provide funds, the high price for shade-grown coffee is ultimately paid by the consumer, which can negatively impact
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The invertebrate cave fauna of Tasmania : ecology and conservation biology

The invertebrate cave fauna of Tasmania : ecology and conservation biology

Bubs Hill: caves BH5, BH8, BH19 Clarke 1989a Tp Eugenana: SherriIs Cave E201 Tb Flowery Gully: Flowery Gully Cave FG201 Franklin River: Kutildna Cave F34 Tb Gordon-Sprent: Cave 4 GS-x4 T[r]

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The distribution, ecology and conservation needs of Colobanthus
curtisiae West

The distribution, ecology and conservation needs of Colobanthus curtisiae West

This paper maps the known distribution of the species, places it in its environmental and phytosociological context, describes the germination behaviour of one lowland population, reports the responses of the species to different grazing regimes in three lowland populations and draws conclusions on the conservation needs of the species.

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The ecology and conservation of bryophytes  in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest

The ecology and conservation of bryophytes in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest

In Chapter 2, the diversity of old growth mixed forest bryophytes, and relationships between bryophyte species richness, and composition, and the environment are investigated.. This chap[r]

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