Economic and Cultural History

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The American Dream: A Cultural History

The American Dream: A Cultural History

Adams, a blue-blooded Yankee who viewed the New Deal as a mistake and thought Americans were a little too prone to self-congratulation, viewed the American Dream an idea that was too easily conflated with mere consumerism, as did many leftist intellectuals at the time. And yet, as Samuel shows, there was a surprising vein of optimism surrounding it in the 1930s – more evident in political and psychological terms than economic ones – which only intensified with the coming of the Second World War, which led even Adams to describe it as an instrument in the fight against totalitarian oppression.
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The Renaissance in Italy: a Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento

The Renaissance in Italy: a Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento

widened and hardened across the peninsula. In some ways, this story of the rise of the popolo grosso and their economic and cultural success during the Rinascimento reads like an Italian version of the ‘American Dream’. An ‘Italian Dream’ one might say. Just as the ‘American Dream’ emphasises a strong personal ethos and self-improvement so at the heart of Ruggiero’s Italian Dream, or ‘suggestion for a new paradigm’ (p.14) for the Renaissance as a period and movement lies the notion of virtù, which ‘stressed reason,

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Historical Perception of Architecture and Cultural History Approach

Historical Perception of Architecture and Cultural History Approach

The stage of art sociology in the cultural history, i.e. 1930s and 1940s, was si- multaneous with the growth of Marxism and attention of researcher to the im- portance of social and economic matters as well as the position of the inferior people in the history. The well-known historian for the art and architecture in this respect is Ernest Gombrich. His most important book “The story of art” is placed among the works for the cultural history, due to the paid attention to the historical and social points of the art and architecture works and attempts for perceiving them by the people in that period. Gombrich has also discussed about the theories of cultural history. His long lecture, which was later published as a book “In search of cultural history” became the basis for transformations in the cultural history. That book is about the intellectual paradigm of the first genera- tion historians of the cultural history, regarding each historical era that consists of a cultural integrated generality. According to Gombrich, such an idea is re- jected, since any art movement or style is mainly originated by the people rather than time. Thus, a cultural historian should be more precise in identifying the past events, and if the origins of the styles and artistic styles are dealt with, he should also consider the effective styles and relations in the artists dealing with the related styles (Ditto). The principles of the new cultural history were gradu- ally formed according to such points of views, and changes were imposed to the past viewpoints.
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Facets of the Cultural History of Mathematics

Facets of the Cultural History of Mathematics

The special character of the Greek view towards mathematics found its expression in Euclid’s Elements. This book has been regarded for more than two millennia as the paradigm of the acquisition and organisation of a body of knowledge. Starting from clear foundations expressed in terms of defini- tions and axioms, the book proceeds to prove proposition after proposition with inexorable logic, in the most economic manner, and with aesthetic per- fection. (Needless to say, the rigorous modern mathematical point of view is slightly more critical, but cum grano salis this statement still holds.)
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Britain and the Weimar Republic: The History of a Cultural Relationship

Britain and the Weimar Republic: The History of a Cultural Relationship

The book is organised into seven thematic chapters, each of which serves well as a stand-alone section while also fitting nicely into the bigger picture. Moreover, this thematic approach emphasises that diversity and those commonalities Storer has set out to highlight. Chapter one examines ‘British travel and tourism in Weimar Germany’ and expounds various motivations for visiting the Republic. Storer notes that at that time, Germany, and in particular Berlin, was a crossroads for European travel on both an East-West and a North- South axis. The war had temporarily interrupted British travel to Germany – which had been developing since the 18th century – but was quickly resumed after hostilities ended, albeit in considerably altered circumstances. Having distinguished between various groups of visitors to Germany, ranging from military personnel and diplomats to holiday-makers touring the western and southern regions, Storer outlines the diverse nature of British ‘intellectual travel’ to the Republic, setting the scene for the rest of the book. An unprecedented number of British intellectuals visited Germany after the war; some purely for pleasure, some in search of career opportunities or in professional capacities as correspondents or in order to research for books and articles, others wanted to observe the exciting and turbulent situation in the new Germany for themselves, seeing their trips as educational and, in some cases, acts of self-discovery and rebelliousness. The number of intellectual visitors peaked in periods of crisis – 1921–4 and 1929–33 – suggesting that it was precisely the Republic’s instability, and the general feeling that history was being made in Germany, which attracted them to it. One could add other reasons for visiting Germany to those described here, for example, intellectuals who were invited by German political, social or cultural institutions or who travelled with the specific task of fostering intellectual understanding and co-operation, but since it is not Storer’s intention to give a comprehensive account – he points out that this would be impossible in one volume (p. 6) – such examples would be welcome enhancements rather than necessary additions.
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Social and cultural dynamics in early Marquesan history

Social and cultural dynamics in early Marquesan history

The presence of the muskets, and the fact t h a t the body was in a house by the shore, (to which lotete had himself moved sometime earlier), rather than a sacred place on the fringe of society, deep in the valley, suggest t h a t a reorientation at a deeper cultural level may have been taking place. While the basis for w hat Darling called Iotete’s ‘pride’ about the innovative tre a tm e n t of his wife’s body is impossible to identify, it probably had some connection with the fact t h a t the source of new forms of power and prestige, namely European shipping, was obviously associated with the sea, rath e r than with places such as caves and m ountains with which indigenous spirits were usually associated. There was clearly some ritualisation of events typical of contact: on one occasion the missionaries persuaded some people a t Vaitahu ‘to refrain from making something in the shape of a ship... for men and women to go on board in imitation of w hat they do when a ship c o m e s . T h i s seems to have been p a rt of adapted ka'ioi ceremonies, w hich, Darling was told, were ‘for the worst of purposes... for both sexes to meet, they say, for... preparing
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[E572.Ebook] Free PDF A History Of The Canadian Peoples By J M Bumsted Michael C Bumsted.pdf

[E572.Ebook] Free PDF A History Of The Canadian Peoples By J M Bumsted Michael C Bumsted.pdf

Why must select the problem one if there is simple? Obtain the profit by getting guide A History Of The Canadian Peoples By J. M. Bumsted, Michael C. Bumsted right here. You will certainly obtain different way to make a bargain and also obtain guide A History Of The Canadian Peoples By J. M. Bumsted, Michael C. Bumsted As understood, nowadays. Soft data of guides A History Of The Canadian Peoples By J. M. Bumsted, Michael C. Bumsted become incredibly popular with the viewers. Are you among them? And also here, we are providing you the new collection of ours, the A History Of The Canadian Peoples By J. M. Bumsted, Michael C. Bumsted.
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The cultural construction of history in museums and heritage attractions

The cultural construction of history in museums and heritage attractions

"If you have a lot of men producing figures in The Viking Centre then they are likely to be immersed in the culture that said men went out to war, men did the work, women did the domestic things, I think also it worries me slightly that there might be a trend the other way 'we mustn't depict women in any domestic role whatsoever', because that is as false as to suggest that women played a very secondary and subservient role. I don't believe they did in history" (McDonnell 1992).

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Inhabiting the border - A Cultural History of Privacy & Photography

Inhabiting the border - A Cultural History of Privacy & Photography

The 'right' to privacy however, was not truly acknowledged until the twentieth century. From its mere beginnings there was discussion about the boundaries of this 'privacy-law'. The right of privacy, which protects against intrusion by other persons, finds its roots in certain cultural and technological developments, which occurred during the Victorian age (Mensel 24). One of the most important technological developments was photography, and more specifically snapshot photography. Prior to 1884, cameras were large, expensive, and barely portable. When people wanted to have their photo taken they needed to sit still for extended periods of time. In 1884, the Eastman Kodak Company introduced the "snap camera," a low-priced, handheld camera that could instantly take photographs of people in public (Zeronda 1). With the introduction of this technology and the growing popularity of print media it was feared that these instant photos would threaten 'the right to be left alone'.
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Regionalism in history, 1890-1945: The cultural approach

Regionalism in history, 1890-1945: The cultural approach

The ascendancy of the various European Fascist parties constituted an important turning point in the history of regionalism. Many of its activists accepted or even supported the new Fascist regimes, as they hoped to realize their ideal of a harmonious society in line with national and regional traditions within the new state. In general, the Fascist parties agreed with part of the regionalist program, like the idyllic notion of an untouched countryside as the heartland of the nation. They also recognized the importance of local traditions and popular culture. Nevertheless, other aspects of their ideology were openly opposed to regionalist thought and practice. The strong centralism of the new regimes, their populism, cult of violence, modernism, totalitarian character, and (in the German case) racism were incompatible with the mostly very multiform regionalist movements. This was also visible because Fascist dictators generally preferred huge constructions in a monumental, neo-classical style rather than small-scale buildings that respected local construction traditions. Contrary to the expectations of many regionalists, regionalism did not really prosper in the new states. Some of its projects were realized, but in general the regional movement was purged of undesirable elements, had to follow the instructions of the new leaders, and finally was openly deployed to realize the goals of the Fascist regimes. 13
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Ordinary and exotic : a cultural history of curry in Australia

Ordinary and exotic : a cultural history of curry in Australia

Sheridan has observed the popular impact of the magazine in introducing “new” foods and flavours into the Australian diet. Susan Sheridan, “Eating the Other: Food and Cultural Difference in the Australian Women’s Weekly in the 1960s,” Journal of Intercultural Studies 21.3 (2000), 320, 323; See also: Frances Bonner, “The Mediated Asian-Australian Food Identity: From Charmaine Solomon to Masterchef Australia,” Media International Australia 157 (2015), 108: “The ordinariness of the magazines and the regularity of with which they provided recipes for their readers made them arguably more important than cookbooks for the introduction and normalisation of new tastes”; Solomon can be understood as Australia’s equivalent to Madhur Jaffrey, who should also be recognised as influential in Australia. Jaffrey initially rejected the term curry, “the word ‘curry’ is as degrading to India’s great cuisine as the term ‘chop suey’ was to China’s…lumping it all under the dubious catchall title of ‘curry’, yet later published books with titles such as Madhur Jaffrey’s Ultimate Curry Bible (2003) and Madhur Jaffrey’s Curry Nation: Britain’s 100 Favourite Recipes (2012), Parama Roy, Alimentary Tracts: Appetites, Aversions and the Postcolonial (London: Duke University Press, 2010), 157. Solomon, in contrast had no such qualms, choosing instead to explain her conception of the term, as will be discussed later.
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Quest for Place  through  the  Reconstruction  of  History, Cultural  and  Ethnic  Belonging in Sally Morgan ‘s  MY PLACE : A  Postcolonial Study

Quest for Place through the Reconstruction of History, Cultural and Ethnic Belonging in Sally Morgan ‘s MY PLACE : A Postcolonial Study

Legitimation of one’s existence and place gets determined by history. As elaborated in the previous section that Sally has been displaced both by the white society and by her family for her mother and grandmother have denied and kept hidden their Aboriginal history, cultural, and ethnic belonging. When she grows up she becomes conscious of the fact that something about her family is unusual and particularly when one of her classmates informs her, ‘’ you’ve got the most abnormally I’ve ever come across.....the way you all look at life is weird.’’ (Morgan 105). Sally was facing identity crisis and to legitimate her existence she needed history of her Aboriginal ancestry for ‘’history and legitimation go hand in hand;’’ (Ashcroft, Postcolonial, 317). She builds up her historical belonging by visiting the Battey Library, Alice and Judy, the stepmother and half- sister of Sally respectively. Arthur, uncle of Gladys, played the most crucial role in the
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Socio cultural and economic development of rural cooperatives with respect to the performance of the media (case study: lorestan province cooperatives)

Socio cultural and economic development of rural cooperatives with respect to the performance of the media (case study: lorestan province cooperatives)

Also Ghasemi (2002) in an article titled "People's Participation in Rural Development" stated that attitudes, personality traits and capacities and structures, structural-social and conceptual structures including motivational factors are involved for the participation of those living in rural areas. In general it can be said among domestic studies, incoherence, inconsistency and, most importantly, lack of purposefulness and effectiveness of rural development policy of non-economic objectives (Musharraf , 1992), the role of local organizations in the development of rural hospitality (Mobaraki , 1994), unequal relationship between town and country (Fakhradin Tafti, 1995), environmental factors, human, economic and physical migration and depopulation of rural villages and the role of immigration in untapped natural and human resources (Mohammadi Yeganeh, 2004). The effect of solutions based on the increase in unemployment in rural areas (Niaiegabie 2004), poor performance in improving social and economic conditions of rural councils (Ahmadi, 2007) and the impact of agricultural development on social development such as education, participation and immigration (Mansouri, 2009) have been investigated and addressed. In foreign studies as well as studies about different aspects of rural development, such as the importance of decentralization as the most important tool for rural development (Parker, 1995), the need for cooperation and joint efforts of the four elements of government, productive sectors, social sectors and markets in rural development (knowledge October, 2009), the need to strengthen partnerships has been made between public and private actors in achieving sustainable rural development and the importance of infrastructure (Kostov and Lingard, 2004). We suggest that the current situation of rural social forces as in the past the village to the village do not pay social reproduction of components and elements. There is also a lack of serious weakness in terms of culture or reproduction of our village. The weak institutionalization of norms and beliefs and shared values of the predecessor to the current generation of crossing generations proves the lack of cultural reproduction. Infrastructure and a credit society are the factors for the survival of the society, culture and society. But what about rural cultural reproduction witness or slow the destruction of culture made the transition from the previous generation to generation rural society today. It is the belief of many that parents neglect the importance of creating the culture. But, according to the authors, it seems that the process of
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The cultural institutionalization of photography in France: a brief history

The cultural institutionalization of photography in France: a brief history

was also expanded and reclassified – tellingly according to photographers’ names rather than subject matter – as a result of the photography’s new-found fine art status in the 1970s. In 1976, the Cabinet des estampes was transformed into the Département des estampes et de la photographie, and, under its dynamic director Jean-Claude Lemagny (who co-founded the Rencontres in Arles), saw a number of initiatives, notably the creation of a permanent exhibition space (the Galerie Mansart at the historic site on the Rue Vivienne) entirely dedicated to photography. Since the opening of the new site on the Quai François-Mauriac in 1996, a better infrastructure and larger exhibition spaces have allowed for more sizable and regular photography exhibitions, 36 often also in conjunction with the Mois de la Photo (such as La Photographie en 100 chefs-d'œuvre in 2012), drawing on the library’s collection. In sum, and paralleling the situation in other countries (including the United States), the widespread recognition of photography as an art form and a vital cultural force on par with traditional arts and cinema, for instance, which took place during the 1970s, has not only had a major impact on photography’s place in French fine art museums, but other institutions collecting and preserving photographic images. 37
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Religio cultural heritage of libation, memory and Obang cultural history, Northwest Cameroon

Religio cultural heritage of libation, memory and Obang cultural history, Northwest Cameroon

The problem with Western perspectives on African history is that it was marred by generalisations based on scanty evidence from their experiences and from uninformed interpreters. Themes like Fred Dodd’s Tales of the African Wilds (1881), F.D. Walker’s Black Continent (1923), H.G. Brewer’s Invasion of God (1944) and Jacob Richards’ Cannibals Were My Friends (1957) were hyper exaggerations, leading to a complete misrepresentation of the African continent (Nmah & Udezo 2012). In reaction to this, a new breed of African historiography emerged which suggested a reinterpretation and reconstruction of Africa to right the wrong images painted of Africa. The trailblazing works of Hayward (1963), Ajayi (1969), Ayandele (1966, 1970, 1979), Gray (1968), Baeta (1968), Idowu (1973, 1991), Kalu (1978); Fashole-Luke (1978), Babalola (1988), among others, are excellent documents that highlight the effects of the missionary enterprise and kick started the drive to correcting the battered African image. It is surely in search of an adequate methodology that Ogbu U. Kalu suggests in his ‘ecumenical historiography’, which articulates Africa’s history as a continuum from her primal cultures (Kalu 2005:2). This perspective answers the question: what is the relationship between Africa’s past and her present? (Walls 1978:13). Such a perspective utilises an all-inclusive method, an approach which takes seriously the African primal worldview as source of historical data, and connecting them with the progress of history in their continuities and discontinuities. This is what history meant to the indigenous people: ‘a means of transmitting and preserving culture, an instrument for organizing and interpreting collective and individual experiences’ (Kalu 2005:10).
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The study of Irish economic history

The study of Irish economic history

But -again jealousy was aroused, and the woollen manufacture of Ireland, so far as export trade was concerned, was practically ruined by an Irish Act of 1698, followed by an English Act [r]

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An Economic History of Modern Sweden

An Economic History of Modern Sweden

industrialisation after these middle years of the century, yet in many ways this seems to be a reaffirmation of trends already in motion, albeit with a renewed emphasis. Moreover, Schön remarks that ‘investment in both railways and heavy industry demanded new kinds of financing’ (p. 74), which I cannot disagree with but I also think that a change in this aspect of the institutional model requires something supplementary to explain industrialisation. Perhaps this is to be found in a more vibrant entrepreneurial spirit stimulated in part by external factors, especially the manufacturing might of Britain. I am fully in agreement with Schön as to the primacy of domestic factors over export-led ones – the evidence suggests it is difficult to contend otherwise – and the inclusion of more emphasis on external factors would be consistent with this. All in all, it is probably the case that the cycle of crisis-transformation-stability works better in a society that has already undergone the transformation to modern industrial capitalism rather than in a period of commercial society. This also carries the implicit suggestion that such a cycle of renewal is not necessarily a permanent feature of history.
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Schumpeter and the History of Economic Thought

Schumpeter and the History of Economic Thought

Economic theory does business differently. Just as in theoretical physics, the economy cannot move forward without resorting to models to reproduce certain aspects of reality and takes as given certain assumptions to reach conclusions according to shared procedures. In this case it common ground if we refer to conjectures, postulates, axioms or theorems, that which allows us to assume certain principles. A statement may appear in economy -depending on the problem in question- as principle, axiom or theorem. However, although the hypotheses of this kind are suggested by the facts, strictly speaking, are creations of scientific rationality to explain certain phenomena. Differ from the assumptions of the first class that do not contain the final results pose interesting research themselves; in economy these hypotheses are mere instruments or tools built with aim of achieving interesting results. Moreover, the construction of such assumptions do not work conforms theoretical economist, just as the development of statistical hypothesis does not exhaust the theoretical work in statistics. No less important is to hire other records where you can have the results of the hypotheses, and conceptual grounds (eg "marginal rate of production," "marginal productivity", "value", "multiplier" or "accelerator") relations concepts and methods to manipulate these relationships, none of which is hypothetical. The sum total of those records, without forgetting the recursive assumptions, actual is the task of the economist.
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Vol 1, No 1 (2007)

Vol 1, No 1 (2007)

In the main strand of these developments, the concept of context can be ex- pressed in terms of culture. ›Context‹ then becomes a word for a particular group of cultural phenomena that defines the literary text in any given case. It is against this background that the ›literary studies as cultural studies‹ approach devel- oped – an idea that cannot be reduced to an integrative and generally recognized model but that unfolds with a variety reflecting the number of different concepts of culture(s) there are. The following article identifies three categorially different and categorially representative cultural contexts that structure the field. These contexts can be society (as in adaptations of the social history of literature and systems theory in the study of literature); history (as in the New Historicism and cultural poetics); or the evolutionary basis of culture, in particular its basis in evolutionary biology (as in biopoetics).
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Postscript. Interdisciplinary Dialogue And Lucknow’s Cultural System

Postscript. Interdisciplinary Dialogue And Lucknow’s Cultural System

14. For example, the Sibtainabad Imambara in Hazratganj, used by a firm of carpenters: it took several efforts at restoration, finally taken over by the ASI, to return it to its impressive state. 15. The holdings of Raja Mohammad Amir Ahmed Khan have certainly been the most celebrated of these cases because of the scale involved; when the Raja migrated to Pakistan in 1962, he had left his son and heir, and his wife, behind in Lucknow, as property owners of these immense holdings. Even after September 2005, when the court case aimed at restoring the properties to the present Raja was resolved in his favour by the Supreme Court of India, the Raja was prevented by an ordinance passed by the Government to nullify the Supreme Court decision. Such steps were taken by the Government of India to prevent a substantial impact on government as well as private citizens: Mahmudabad’s holdings included half of Hazratganj Market, as well as bungalows occupied by various (BSP) state government officers. Mayawati’s efforts to implement the Government’s actions apparently included sealing of buildings and land to ensure that her government could gain possession of the buildings. Only after Prime Minister Manmohan Singh intervened in 2010 were the holdings finally secured to the Mahmudabad Raja. 16. Our understanding of Mayawati’s impact on Lucknow has also been enhanced by Belli’s paper presented with others in this collection to the European panel, 2014. Belli analyzed Lucknow’s new Buddhist monuments as yet another political utilization of history. They replicated the design of India’s oldest stupa, a Buddhist burial shrine, thus emplacing Dalits as heirs of India’s lost Buddhist rulers. Dalit’s political challenge to Hindu elites is also a cultural and architectural challenge.
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