Thus, the two world wars of the last century mediated the transition from the world economicparadigm of colo- nial empires to the paradigm of liberal globalization due to the contradiction between the rapid expansion of produc- tion on the American and European periphery by Britain that dominated the system of global economic relations, and the latter’s ability to retain global control. The British decision to introduce protectionist measures to defend the economic interests of their empire in the 1930s indicated the achievement of the threshold of conflict-free unfolding of this contradiction. Britain was facing a choice, either to stop growth of the periphery segments that it did not con- trol, or give in its leadership. Having arranged the First World War, the British retained leadership by destroying their main competitors in Eurasia – Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. But at the same time, their U.S. periphery became stronger. As a result of the second round of this struggle, global leadership passed to the U.S. and the USSR. Their confrontation continued for more than half a century, till the modern world economic para- digm became finally established on the principles of liber- al globalization, which was optimal for the institutions of the American cycle of accumulation.
This conceptual article is aimed at evaluating the COVID19 impacts on the global economy and to postulating an ‘economicparadigm shift’. We argue that the existing economic, political, and trade principles have been challenged due to the global pandemic issue. We also compare the COVID19 impact on Western countries and Eastern countries with their control mechanisms. The emerging of new economies is due to the travel restrictions and disrupt of the global economies are discussed that pave a gateway to the economicparadigm shift. The article finally assesses the advent of 5G technology and its implications to face any future health threats that will lead to the next economicparadigm shift in the modern world.
Nonprofits have long sought sustainability. Yet doing so has, until recently, meant honing fundraising strategies and diversifying revenue sources (Carroll & Stater, 2009a; Mayer, Wang, Egginton, & Flint, 2014). Citing Crimmins and Keil (1983), Kerlin (2006) asserts that nonprofits have engaged in commercial activity since the founding of the U.S by selling goods and services relevant to their missions. The new economicparadigm of the fourth sector allows for new ways of earning revenue such as operating social enterprises that generate profits. This earned revenue comes with fewer limitations than grant or donative revenue such that a nonprofit leader has discretion over how it is used.
IC is a very recent concept in the history of economic thought (Edvinson & Malone, 1997). The three main components of IC are Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Social Capital. These components are value drivers in companies, IC being responsible for the difference between the market value and the book value (Edvinson & Malone, 1997). As economic reality is always changing IC is seen as a strategic element for its possessors whose dynamic is decisive to manage (Sveiby, 1997). Many methods have been used to assess investments in IC (Sveiby, 2010). The concept was defined as a sum of intangible assets of companies (Bornermann & Alwert, 2007), but also on regions (Bonfour & Edvinson, 2005) and more recently on individuals (Mura & Longo, 2013).
Abstract: This study focuses on the transformation of Hyderabad city through economic development since the early period to till now. The transformation of economic impacts on the city in development way. Hyderabad is the second largest metropolitan city in India. Hyderabad has the implications of older economic development footprints in present time. These changes can be found in the city with the help of understanding of phase wise development of city form and economy as well. The industrial setups, IT hubs and high tech corridors are the elements which would pass into globalization in worldwide at present time, in spite of these modern commerce corridors this city belongs the strong commerce, markets and trades initially since early time. However the economic development can be seen in the northern part of the city in the form of branded industries, IT corridors and world- class high tech hub and in the southern part old city set up in a decayed form. The hypothesis can be generated on the basis of the setting of the city, change in administrations, impacts of history, growing settlement in vacant space in the city area. By these there are the techniques for comprehension of change of economy as exchanging framework, modern hallways, IT and ITES passageways, social improvement, infrastructural advancement ,profitability level and individuals pay. This paper provides an overview of the origins and development of Hyderabad, the changing way of coordination with other cities and countries and emerging urban challenges with the transformation of the city.
Among the various pricing strategies, dynamic pricing has become a commonly practiced price discrimination strategy used by sellers to maximize profits by charging different prices for very similar or essentially the same products or services according to the amount of money individual customer is willing to pay. (Haws & Bearden, 2006). This modern pricing tactic stands in refutation of erstwhile economic theories stating that the prices remain sticky for a long time. The postulation of sticky price model by the new Keynesians was based on a number of factors such as costs associated with changing prices (menu costs), fear of price war etc. With the advent of dynamic pricing in the e-commerce sector, we are witnessing drastic fluctuation in prices. A recent report published by Profitero, one of the leading global providers of online competitor pricing data, points that e-commerce giant Amazon.com is executing more than 2.5 million price changes on a daily basis in its pursuit to be the most competitive retailer on the web. This clearly indicates the presence of asymmetric information among the buyers and sellers. As internet has become the platform for facilitating online trade, price changing can be done without incurring any cost. This modern pricing strategy provides plenty of benefits for businessmen as well as consumers. Dynamic pricing enables the producers to sell products at comparatively low costs when the demand is low and compensating this loss when there is an upsurge in demand.
Notice that GDP does not cause foreign capital inflow and export. This implies that in general, the steady economic growth in Vietnam during period 1988-2008 is not endogenized in the sense that inflow of foreign capital and exports during the period are crucial factors for economic growth, while economic growth seems not be a factor to promote exports and inflow of foreign capital. These unidirectional causalities may indicate that the economic growth in Vietnam in period 1988-2008 has not been based on productivity improvement but on resources such as cheap unskilled labor and low-tech activities as presented in previous section. Because if economic growth base on incremental productivity, high economic growth means the economy is getting more productive, hence attract more foreign capital and exports become more competitive. If it was the case in Vietnam in period 1988-2008, the directional causality from GDP to foreign capital and exports should be evidenced. As far as these resources are exhausted, the fly-in foreign capital would cease, export would get stagnant, as a result the economic growth would be halted. In short, the result in table 12 shows that the economic growth in Vietnam cannot be sustained if Vietnam fails to improve its production capacity.
1. Geopolitical Dimensions in the Doha Round
This article thus shifts the traditional trade-development debate to a new dimension related to the role of developing countries in global regionalism. Traditionally, developing countries have favored multilateralism, as regionalism strengthens the power of the developed nations due to their “divide and conquer” strategy in bilateral negotiations. The NREO is changing the paradigm. Sharing the aspiration of the NIEO, the NREO fortifies the collective power of developing countries. However, distinct from the NIEO, the NREO does not challenge the normative principles of trade norms by requesting SDT exceptions. Instead, the NREO pursues development goals through deep integration in FTAs and reconstructs the neo-colonial dependency of the South on the North. Bhagwati coined the term “First Regionalism” in reference to the proliferation of FTAs in the 1960s and explained their collapse as a result of the nations’ having unduly placed political considerations ahead of trade liberalization. 67 In “Second Regionalism” in the 1980s, Bhagwati observed the relative success of the EU’s single market and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) because of their strong economic motivations. 68
1. Geopolitical Dimensions in the Doha Round
This article thus shifts the traditional trade–development debate to a new dimension related to the role of developing countries in global regionalism. Traditionally, developing countries have favored multilateralism, as regionalism strengthens the power of the developed nations due to their “divide and conquer” strategy in bilateral negotiations. The NREO is changing the paradigm. Sharing the aspiration of the NIEO, the NREO fortifies the collective power of developing countries. However, distinct from the NIEO, the NREO does not challenge the normative principles of trade norms by requesting SDT exceptions. Instead, the NREO pursues development goals through deep integration in FTAs and reconstructs the neo-colonial dependency of the South on the North. Bhagwati coined the term “First Regionalism” in reference to the
Few would argue the importance of exercise conditioning in cardiovascular and general orthopaedic rehabilitation. Control of pain and inflammation, early mobilization, and specific exercise with progression of intensity remains the standard course of treatment because it has the best chance to restore normal cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function. But what about low back rehabilitation? Despite the magnitude of its medical and socioeconomic impact and the variety of disciplines that have researched and treated it, there is no consensus in the literature as to the most effective treatment for low back pathology. Further, even in the face of overwhelming evidence to support the exercise paradigm for nearly all types of physical rehabilitation, there remains considerable doubt as to the value of exercise
Acceptors are components of the program which are working together; same as objects in object oriented paradigm with only one great difference that in the object oriented paradigm, every object is empowered, because it can do some ac- tions; but in this presented point of view, components are not empowered and the defined actions in the system, depending on conditions, involve the accep- tors in conditions or don’t.
The emerging paradigm is thus critiquing the context of experiential learning as much as the approach. The activity of participants and practitioners radicalised in the context of a wider social and environmental field takes them into the political realm. Here is the potential for a synergy with the emerging vision, described by O’Sullivan (1999), of sustainable communities in congruence with the planetary ecosystem. In the politics of sustainability action finds a local and personal expression linked to the community and the land. Such a new and radical approach seems to be in congruence with the critical stances of some ecofeminist views (see Warren & Rheingold, 1996) already benefiting the practice of outdoor experiential learning, and the transformative learning concept espoused by O’Sullivan, a critique from which the field might benefit.
(ii) Long-term over-dependency on the new channel, which, through its developed purchasing power, reverses the Pricing Model and dictates the price, thus creating a new pricing paradigm in which the seller has little or no control. (iii) Short-term risks associated with the economic viability of a particular Market Maker, or the merger with an 'undesirable' partner.
At the same time, several attempts have been pro- moted to studying the problem of resources’ pricing. In [17, 18], the nature of prices is fixed, with the users be- ing charged a flat rate or different classes of static prices are applied to users based on their traffic requirements, respectively. The alternative of day-ahead pricing is ex- amined in , with the WISP announcing the time-dependent prices 1 day in advance. In , Zheng et al. study a secondary data market, in which users can buy and sell left over data caps from one another. The authors derive users’ optimal behavior and propose an algorithm for the Internet service providers (ISPs) to match the buyers and the sellers. Considering a similar trading model, in , users’ decisions about their usage at different times of the billing cycle are discussed. In , the authors address mobile users’ data usage behav- ior, through the study of network effects as they emerge by the joint consideration of elements both from social domain (e.g., relationships) and the physical domain (e.g., congestion). The joint pricing and data usage man- agement problem is formulated as a Stackelberg game, where the WISP acts as leader announcing the price to the users, who follow by determining their data usage. In [23, 24], a comprehensive literature review on appli- cations of economic and pricing models for resource management in cloud networking and the Internet of Things, respectively, is provided.
This paper presents a new programming paradigm named Notification-Oriented Paradigm (NOP) and analyses the per- formance aspects of NOP programs by means of an experiment. NOP provides a new manner to conceive, structure, and execute software, which would allow better performance, causal-knowledge organization, and decoupling than standard solutions based upon usual paradigms. These paradigms are essentially Imperative Paradigm (IP) and Declarative Para- digm (DP). In short, DP solutions are considered easier to use than IP solutions due to the concept of high-level pro- gramming. However, they are considered slower in execution and less flexible in development. Anyway, both para- digms present similar drawbacks such as redundant causal-evaluation and strongly coupled entities, which decrease the software performance and the processing distribution feasibility. These problems exist due to an orientation to a mono- lithic inference mechanism based upon sequential evaluation by searching on passive computational entities. NOP pro- poses another way to structure software and make its inferences, which is based upon small, collaborative, and decoup- led computational entities whose interaction happens through precise notifications. In this context, this paper presents a quantitative comparison between two equivalent implementations of a computer game simulator (Pacman simulator), one developed according to the principles of Object-Oriented Paradigm (OOP/IP) in C++ and other developed accord- ing to the principles of NOP. The results obtained from the experiments demonstrate, however, a quite lower perform- ance of NOP implementation. This happened because NOP applications are still developed using a framework based on C++. Besides, the paper shows that optimizations in the NOP framework improve NOP program performance, thereby evidencing the necessity of developing a NOP language/compiler.
IT industry are facing drastic increase in processing huge amount of data, for which real time processing database and speedy database systems are essential. Also now a day’s data present in various formats such like emails, text data, Audio, Video, Image, 3D Images etc. are referred to as unstructured data. As traditional database could only handle structured data the modern database techniques like Parallel, Distributed, Cloud databases and Big Data Analytics are appear to be the good solutions to fulfill the current IT needs in more flexible way than File and Traditional Database Systems. As per the needs of that era Database has gets evolved, so that now a day’s we can handle huge amount of data which may be present in structured, unstructured form. To conclude, paradigm shift in Database clearly indicates that Database processing has moved from Data Analysis to Data Analytics.
Let us imagine that aspect of savior has two ends, one to believe in one’s ability, and second one’s objective ability. Our experience tends to make great difference between these two terms, and it has all rights for that. But in part of human being which presents as if its best essence both things should not differ at all. If we had many instances of the savior paradigm being applied with different outcomes with, maybe, most cases with negative result, but some cases with positive, we could just this last part consider as paradigmatic which characterizes the assumed savior in his/her essence. For them intentional and actual (as factual) aspect doesn’t differ as much or almost not at all.