“Since then, coastal economic zones in Vietnam have been particularly important in achieving the goal of making Vietnam a strong marine nation, at sea and at the same time protecting the sovereignty of the sea. island nation. Over the years, the construction of the economic center of large coastal areas where nuclear is the coastal and to create momentum for the development of the region, aiming to 2020, the marine economy of Vietnam plays contributing 53-55% of GDP and 55-60% of total export turnover. However, in order for coastal economic zones to develop their strengths and breakthroughs as a driving force in the development of their objectives, there are still many shortcomings and limitations to overcome. development process”.( Chu Pham Ngoc Hien, 2018)
Perhaps a logical starting point for studying the evolution of special economic zones is to begin by sorting out the nomenclature on the subject. Free Economic Zone is a generic term used to refer to various types of areas within a nation that offer incentives to attract foreign and local direct investment. The generic free zone concept has evolved over time resulting in a variety of zones with differing objectives and functions. Table 1 gives an overview of the main features of a Zone that help us to understand the evolutionary nature of FEZs. The first three rows show that on the basis of the functions performed, modern FEZs can be classified into five basic types and each basic zone in turn consists of several variants or simply synonyms. The five basic zones are Free Trade Zones (12 variants), Export Processing Zones (14 variants), Science Economic Zones (14 variants), Service Economic Zones (8 variants), and Special Economic Zones (3 variants); a total of 51 variants.
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are given a stake in it. The legacy of feudal class and caste structures creates the basis for unequal upward mobility via land prices. Inequalities in economic, cultural and social capital congeal in caste inequalities, which perhaps express most clearly the differential ability of people to profit from land markets and turn cash from land sales into capital. However, the lack of perfect correspondence between different forms of capital and an inescapable amount of randomness in real estate speculation has generated a complex recomposition of the local class structure, introducing greater inequality not just between but within castes, classes and families (including between men and women). Rather than simple class polarization or the generation of a singular „neo-rentier class‟ (Adduci 2009) there is a multi-scaled chain of rentiership that individuals try to tap into, with very uneven results. The more successful minority become landlords, brokers, shopkeepers and moneylenders of different magnitudes, while the less successful become redundant members of the underemployed rural proletariat. In the middle are those dispossessed marginal farmers who try to survive in this involutionary dynamic off of a vegetable cart or chai stall, the small returns of grain from a distant piece of land, or place their hopes in an appreciating plot in a gritty peri-urban development. While not entirely wrong in the broadest sense, binaries such as capital versus peasants or enclosers versus commoners do not adequately capture this complexity.
This article explores these gaps to show how refugee cities could fill them by creating designated areas in which refugee rights are respected and the policy benefits of migrant integration are achieved. Part I provides the background of the global migration situation. Part II discusses the evolution and role of SEZs. Part III explains the refugee-cities concept and its policy benefits. Part IV analyzes international and domestic law pertaining to refugees, including a special focus on Turkey.
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We will now observe how countries manage their Special Economic Zones. Let us take a look at the 2 cases below for India and China. India has the most SEZ in the world [18- 20]. While, Shenzhen in China was the first to set out successful Special Economic Zones [21-23]. Shenzhen was able to do this because the government has a clear goal of what they wish to improve and to find all the resources needed to do so. It also adapted the westerner’s fast response system to its local regions. Special privileges that they provide in their SEZ include things like reduction in the tax rate, special exchange of currency, and special labor regulations [24-25].
One of the effective ways to integrate into the world economy system is free economic zones. Free economic zones will have a positive impact on intensifying the process of attracting foreign investment into the economy of the country, creating new jobs and thus addressing the unemployment problem, increasing the production of export-oriented products and increasing foreign exchange earnings. Deepening of the international division of labor and specialization under the influence of science and technology development In the last quarter of the 20th century, globalization and international integration in the development of the world economic system took place. As a result, the dependence of national economies on the world market has increased, and foreign economic activity has become one of the main conditions for economic growth and increase of production efficiency. Under these conditions, each country strives to increase its export potential, relying on its economic potential and relative advantages, thereby gaining its own and worthy place in the world economic system.
The biggest challenge in 1978 was development by any means and at any cost. The direct struggle among internal forces over the opening and the corresponding adjustments were not yet settled and the open door policy had to be handled progressively. Above all, as Deng Xiaoping used to say, it was still necessary to decide on which front the fight would take place against the “flies” entering the open windows of the foreign market, without losing sight of the fact that the name of the game was development, development and more development. China bore in mind the teachings of Sun Tzu to face this challenge: an army that wants to fight a battle throughout an entire territory is doomed to failure; it cannot be strong in everything. Therefore, they launched a policy for each geographic region (Pacific, Central and Western) and decided to allocate greater emphasis and resources to the first region due to its attributes with respect to the Western market. The strategy also enlarged its focus and defined the priority sectors that would receive State support. Thus, the Chinese again adopted the words of Sun Tzu in that, “the place of battle must not be made known to the enemy. If it is not known, then the enemy must prepare to defend many places. If he prepares to defend many places, then the forces will be few in number.” In an initial attempt to give a hierarchical structure to the sectors, Deng started from a broad idea called the “Four Modernizations,” which included: liberalizing agriculture, attracting foreign investment, implementing an aggressive export policy and creating special zones. Subsequently, in1981, priority sectors were established under the National Program of Science and Technology: agriculture, energy, new materials, computer science, space technology, genetic engineering, physical engineering and laser technology.
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Nevertheless both segments indicate one unavoidable trend. Tanzania's growing population, estimated about 25 million in 1988, and a growth rate of about 3.2%, should by the year 2000 be around 38 million. Without getting into the impact of the governments population policy, this expansion would inevitably dictate an increased demand for fresh and marine water resource beised protein. This would consequently bring pressure to bear upon these resources given that, in African terms, Tanzania already has a high fish consumption per capita standing at 14. 1 kg per year in 1988, and the countries ranking as the 39'”^ country in global catch statistics.*’® Most fortunately, Tanzanici fishery can potentially make a great contribution not only to the country's food supply but also to the general economic well being of her people. If properly managed fisheries could maintain and even expand its contribution to the economy, as shall be discussed in Chapter III, by acting as a catalyst to other downstream economic activities that are currently not existing.
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The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, the subject of which was the national appropriation of maritime areas between different cate- *TM NDIAYE, “Les droits de l’Homme et la Mer”, Colloqueannuel de la Fondation René CASSIN (Institut International des Droits de l’Homme), Faculté de droit, Université du Mans, 24-25 mai 2018; I Papanicolopulu, “Human rights and the Law of the sea” IMLI, the Law of the Sea (Vol.1), Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 509-532; B.H Oxman, “The Rule of Law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”, 1996, 7 EJIL 353; T. TREVES, Human rights and the Law of the Sea, Berkeley Journal of international Law, vol. 28, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 1-14, Budislav VUKAS, Droit de la Mer et Droits de l’Homme, the Law of the Sea, Selected Writings) 2001, Martinus NIJHOFF Publishers, pp. 71-79. Tulio SCOVAGGI “Human Rights and immigration at Sea” in Human Rights and Immigration, Ed. By ruth RUBIO-MARIN, Oxford University Press, 2014, Chap.6, pp. 212-260. How to cite this paper: Ndiaye, T. M.
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Second, the views of some writers have changed over time, with some who were sceptical of the notion of zones as developed during the World Wars taking a less hostile view in subsequent conflicts. Third, many writers recognise the difficulties and hazards in commenting upon the legality of zones in abstracto, without the benefit of addressing zones on a case-by-case basis. As a result, writers who tend to address the legality of zones often reach conclusions that might be considered tentative or halting. Fourth, many writers analyse NEZs from particular viewpoints, such as the law of reprisals. For these reasons, the following discussion generally follows a chronological approach, with deviations when necessary to retain topical disucussions or where the ideas of commentators are cross- fertilised, such as when a particular zone draws the attention of numerous authors. There has been no overall attempt to categorise the positions taken between those who generally oppose zones and those who tend to support the concept.
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