Economics of Health and Social Care

Top PDF Economics of Health and Social Care:

The Body Suffering and Care Possibilities: A Reflective Look from the Health Economics

The Body Suffering and Care Possibilities: A Reflective Look from the Health Economics

According to Costa [23] this bold initiative sought to introduce the administrative apparatus of the country centralization, impersonality, hierarchy, the merit system, the separation between public and private. Its scope, therefore, was to be a more rational and efficient public administration, able to assume its role in driving the development process, a model based on industrialization through import substitution, demanded a strong state intervention and control over relations between the ascending social groups - the new industrial bourgeoisie and urban working class.
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The economics of elderly care

The economics of elderly care

Not only have increasing life expectancy and lower fertility rates increased the elderly dependency ratio in most industrialized countries (Bettio & Verashchagina, 2010), but a higher share of elderly, being associated with worse health, inherently implies a higher demand for care (Polder et al., 2002; Schwarzkopf et al., 2012). In most countries, a major share of such care is provided informally, meaning that it is not reflected in social statistics (Bettio & Verashchagina, 2010; Kemper et al., 2005). Yet even though informal caregivers work mostly without payment, care provision can still come at a certain cost: in particular, it is time-consuming, mentally stressful, and physically exhausting, which can negatively affect the caregiver’s career and health. The main focus of this paper, therefore, is the effect of informal care provision in three different domains of the caregiver’s life: employment, health, and family. In terms of the first, caregiving is often a full-time job, which reduces its compatibility with full-time employment. Hence, we examine the impact of caregiving on employment at both the extensive and intensive margin. As regards the second, caregiving can be a mentally and physically burdening task that negatively affects caregiver health. Because the body of literature on such effects is large, however, we review the research on psychological and physical health separately. For effects on the family, we concentrate on the literature that addresses caregivers’ family dynamics and living arrangements, because caregiving is constantly present within the household and therefore affects the family’s daily living.
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Health Care Economics: A Study Guide for Neuroradiology Fellows, Part 1

Health Care Economics: A Study Guide for Neuroradiology Fellows, Part 1

Under the Social Security Act of 1965 (P.L. 89 –97, Approved July 30, 1965 [79 Stat. 286]; please refer to https://www.ssa.gov/OP_ Home/comp2/F089-097.html), physicians were reimbursed for both their professional work and any practice expenses directly related to that work on an as-billed fee-for-service basis. Modest oversight was provided to facilitate billing that was “usual, cus- tomary, and reasonable,” though there were no established na- tional guidelines to ensure uniformity, which resulted in a wide range of reimbursements. This indiscriminate scheme persisted until 1982 when the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act was passed into law. It established the diagnosis-related group, which was a payment system in which hospitals were paid an established (fixed) prospective fee for the cost of inpatient care based on spe- cific patient diagnoses. 2,3 In 1983, Congress amended the Social
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Economics of Personalized Health Care & Prevention

Economics of Personalized Health Care & Prevention

Public health genomics, or a population approach to genomics and personalized medicine, may seem counterintuitive. Finding the right balance to advance genomics and personalized medicine is essentially expanding the translation highway by examining all the determinants of healthsocial, genetic, etc.—and developing the right policies to act. It is a holistic, multidisciplinary, and ecological approach. It is likely that personalized medicine will result in an increase in health care costs, at least initially, until the level of precision is refined. All the related disciplines, including economics, need to work together to address these issues.
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Health Care Economics: A Study Guide for Neuroradiology Fellows, Part 2

Health Care Economics: A Study Guide for Neuroradiology Fellows, Part 2

Imaging 3.0. Imaging 3.0 is a compilation of strategies and prac- tical measures developed and put forth by the American College of Radiology (ACR) to help move radiology practices forward successfully, charting a course through the unique challenges and opportunities of our evolving health care system. It seeks to opti- mize the patient encounter, referring physician collaboration, value proposition, physician administration relations, financial management, and leadership in the professional, social, and po- litical realms. The Medicare Access and Children’s Health Insur- ance Program Reauthorization Act (MACRA) is one way in which physicians in general and radiologists in particular can take part in the financial management aspects of Imaging 3.0, and it will be discussed in more detail next.
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The political economics of social health insurance: the tricky case of individuals’ preferences

The political economics of social health insurance: the tricky case of individuals’ preferences

Insuring the risk of illness is fundamental for individuals. Therefore, all industrialized coun- tries have found ways to ensure that anybody does have access to at least basic health care services if needed. However, the degree to which the risk of illness is socialized varies sub- stantially. While for example in the UK all expenditures of the National Health Service are financed through general tax revenues, in Switzerland it is first of all each individual’s own responsibility to pay for health insurance. Public subsidies are only granted when needed. In consequence, across countries the degree of redistribution that is triggered through the design of the respective health insurance system varies substantially. In Germany, as in many other countries, scarce funding is a ubiquitous topic in health care financing. Thus, politicians won- der on a regular basis if the budget should be increased by funneling more tax money into the system or if the individuals should rather bear a higher burden directly by themselves. Citi- zens have the means to accelerate reforms but also to deter any change to the system. As Gri- gnon (2012, p. 666) puts it: “Even the most groundbreaking academic research and bestin- formed public policies may have little impact if the proposed changes take for granted what people want rather than reflect their deeply held convictions and preferences.” This makes this topic also interesting from a public choice perspective.
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The Applicability of the Principles of Private Insurance to Social Health Care Insurance, Seen from a Law and Economics Perspective*

The Applicability of the Principles of Private Insurance to Social Health Care Insurance, Seen from a Law and Economics Perspective*

question to be addressed is the desirability of introducing compulsory insurance for health care (Section 4); then we address briefly the question of private market versus government pro[r]

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Improving care through health economics analyses: cost of illness and headache

Improving care through health economics analyses: cost of illness and headache

Abstract The impact of headache disorders is a problem of enormous proportions, both for individual and society. The medical literature tried to assess its effects on individuals, by examining prevalence, distribution, attack frequency and duration, and headache-related disability, as well as effects on society, looking at the socio-economic burden of head- ache disorders [Rasmussen (Cephalalgia 19:20–23, 1999)]; [Lanteri-Minet et al. (Pain 102:143–149, 2003)]. The issue of costs represents an important problem too, concerning both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs concern mainly expenses for drugs. Migraine has a considerable impact on functional capacity, resulting in disrupted work and social activities: many migraineurs do not seek medical attention because they have not been accurately diagnosed by a phy- sician or do not use prescribed medication [Solomon and Price (Pharmacoeconomics 11:1–10, 1997)]. Indirect costs associated with reduced productivity represent a substantial proportion of the total cost of migraine as well. Migraine has a major impact on the working sector of the population, and therefore, determining the indirect costs outweighs the direct costs. This study will explain the notion of cost of illness, examining how it could be applied in such a framework. Then, an overview of the studies aimed at measuring direct and indirect costs of migraine and headache disorders will be
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ECONOMICS OF HEALTH CARE: A CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS OF CHILD IMMUNIZATION IN DARJEELING

ECONOMICS OF HEALTH CARE: A CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS OF CHILD IMMUNIZATION IN DARJEELING

Various reasons were uttered by the mothers for incomplete vaccination of their children. The attitudinal reluctance toward immunization at an early age is a combination of unawareness of places where the program is conducted, poor knowledge of the proper age for immunization and a lack of faith in immunization. The costs associated with immunization may also prevent participation in an immunization program. There may be travel costs to the immunization site, waiting costs or lost wages involved that may be substantial for a poor daily wage earner. Other reasons include long distance from the health facility, long waiting time at the health facility, lack of vaccine on the appointment day, absence of personnel at the health facility, child ill-health at the time of immunization, lack of information about the days for vaccination, forgetting the days of immunization, mother’s illness on the day of vaccination, social engagements, lack of money, parents objection, disagreement or concern about immunization safety and other miscellaneous reasons. Understanding of the importance of vaccination, education and occupational status showed significant differences with respect to children with complete and incomplete vaccination status. Reasons from suppliers’ side for poor immunization coverage in such areas may be system failure in reaching under-privileged population or inadequate immunization supplies, including services.
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Economics and ethics in health care

Economics and ethics in health care

(after compensation via market and other transac- tions) increases any individual’s welfare without reducing anyone else’s. If so, the change ought to be made (it would increase e Y ciency); if not, the change ought or ought not to be made–the test cannot tell since it does not allow interpersonal welfare comparisons. It is silent (hence the “weak- ness” of this brand of utilitarianism). Many health economists, however, adopt a di V erent approach to the social maximand. Instead of postulating a Paretian-style utilitarian objective, they are more empirical, drawing on evidence about what it seems that those with “legitimate” authority (such as gov- ernment ministers?) seem to think the objective ought to be and being much less squeamish about making interpersonal comparisons. Using this approach, health economists have tended to take, as an approximation to the objective, the maximisa- tion of “health” or “health gain”, which are oft-stated ministerial objectives. But there are two ethical issues that immediately arise (and which most health economists have been very explicit about): one is indeed the question of what the objective ought to be (and the related question of what or who is to be regarded as an “authoritative” source) but the other is the question of what “health” or “health gain” is to be taken as meaning. In the case of the latter question, the typical approach is reductionist and the following “ought” questions arise (I make no claims to exhaustiveness here). Which aspects of human functioning ought to be taken into account? How ought they to be scaled in terms of “better” or “worse”? How “strong” ought the scaling measurement to be (ordinal or cardinal)? How ought di V erent ratings of di V erent aspects be combined or traded o V ? What “utility” score ought to be attached to combinations of ratings? Ought the resultant “utili- ties” to be discounted when they relate to future health states and, if so, at what discount rate? Should they be further discounted for uncertainty and, if so, how? What weight should be attached to rated health states accruing to di V erent people (the relatively healthy compared to the relatively sick, young relative to old, rich relative to poor, chronic su V erers compared to acute, and so on)? As the list makes clear, questions of distributive fairness lurk even within a question that began as one of eYciency.
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Impact of Life Expectancy on Economics Growth and Health Care Expenditures in Bangladesh

Impact of Life Expectancy on Economics Growth and Health Care Expenditures in Bangladesh

Abstract Life expectancy is one of the major key indicators of population health and economic development of a country. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of life expectancy on changes of economic growth and health care expenditure. We also examined trend of life expectancy according to the sex difference. We used multiple regression models to estimate the impact of life expectancy on economic growth and health care expenditure. Elasticity of life expectancy on health care expenditure and economic growth is also estimated. Results show greater life expectancy of females compared with the males over the past 15 years. The higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita was observed in a longer life expectancy. i.e., one US Dollar (USD) increment in GDP per capita will increase in an average of life expectancy by 33 days. Similarly, increased one unit of per person Health Expenditure Per Capita (HEPC) will increase the life expectancy in an average of 8 days in a year. The higher proportion of total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP and direct personal expenditure on health by household as a share of private expenditure on health results in also longer life span. We conclude that the increased life expectancy has direct impact on increased per capita real income and higher expenditure on health. This study has some policy implications for Bangladesh, in particular the needs for increased per capita real income and planning for future health and population policies/programs. Therefore, political stability, adequate and suitable social sector policies and government interventions are required to increase life expectancy and economic growth in the country. There is also a need for involvement of health human force in macro and micro policy-makings and critically examine other determinants of health care expenditure.
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Using information literacy to teach medical entrepreneurship and health care economics

Using information literacy to teach medical entrepreneurship and health care economics

These results suggest that information literacy training can be used as a method for introducing undergraduate health sciences students to concepts related to medical entrepreneurship and the medical device ecosystem, including the FDA regulatory environment, intellectual property, and medical billing and reimbursement structures. While this study examined undergraduate BME students in particular, these skills may become increasingly important to more health sciences students in the coming years; for example, a handful of allopathic medical schools have already integrated innovation and entrepreneurship into their curricula [52]. As health sciences programs invest more of their students’ curricular hours into innovation and entrepreneurship, it may be necessary for health sciences librarians to gain the expertise needed to help students and faculty navigate the medical entrepreneurship life cycle and to develop programs to support these initiatives [53].
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Corporate Social Responsibility of Health Care Sector

Corporate Social Responsibility of Health Care Sector

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is not new to India; health care centres in India like Apollo, IndraPrastha have been imbedding the case for social good in their operation for decades long before CSR became a popular cause. Health Sector clearly stands out as a leader, when discussing the CSR issues. Part of thereason will be its close relation to its multiple stakeholders of society, government, andother private sectors. Another part of the reason may be that its way of making profits hasa bigger relationship to people’s lives by affecting their health problems rather than otherbusiness entities. In spite of having such life size successful example, CSR in India isin a very emerging stage. It is still one of the least understood initiatives in the Indiandevelopment sector. The purpose of this paper was to identify and appreciate the CSR practices of various health care centres in India
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Sector skills insights : health and social care

Sector skills insights : health and social care

Growth in the care sector is fuelled in part by demand for adult social care services as the population of the elderly people increases, and as more elderly people live alone due to social changes. It is anticipated that this will have most effect on personal assistants and others roles providing self directed care (anticipated increase from 8-29 per cent of the workforce between 2006 to 2025). Other care roles such as social workers, occupational therapists, nurses etc. are also likely to increase especially nurses in residential settings. It is expected that the recession and restrictions on government spending will result in slowed job growth in the early years, particularly within children and young people’s services (the University of Warwick, 2011). This contrasts with other data sources which suggest that the proportion of those receiving publicly-funded care has declined because of higher qualification criteria being imposed by local authorities (see Section 3.1, Skills for Care and Development 2011, citing Audit Commission 2009). This suggests that there may be a widening gap of unmet demand.
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Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

• Across the service: Service-wide consistency – where each organisation allocates costs consistently against the same standard – makes it easier for national bodies like NHS England, the Department of Health and Social Care and NHS Improvement to improve the overall system. Consistency supports the creation of more accurate pricing models, specific local

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Health and Social Care Integration : Managing the Change

Health and Social Care Integration : Managing the Change

First of all, attention will need to be given to the ongoing relationship between the Integration Joint Boards and other services within Councils and Health Boards. The integration of health and social care services will be judged a failure if it is only achieved at the expense of working relationships with other services. This is particularly the case with Education services, where increased political priority is now being given to closing the attainment gap between the highest and lowest performing pupils. It will also be important that staff in health and social care continue to fully participate in Community Planning and continue to develop close working relationships with Police and other protective services bodies, for example on Adult Protection issues.
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Conceptualising body work in health and social care

Conceptualising body work in health and social care

The methods used to explore this territory in health and social care research also tend to downplay the bodily. Empirical research is dominated by interviews, in which the experiences of workers and patients are translated into words, with the inevitable bias towards abstraction and bleaching out of the corporeal. There is paucity of observational work. Partly this is because access to the private world of body care is not easy to negotiate: care acts take place in private spaces; and staff act to protect the dignity of patients and, significantly, themselves, for as Lawler (1991) showed in her classic account of nursing, nurses go ‘behind the screens’ not only to protect the dignity of patients but also of themselves as caring, ‘clean’ professionals. As Lawton (2003) argues there is a need for novel methodological approaches. Significantly it is ethnographic and observational studies, particularly those like Diamond (1992) and Lee-Treweek (1994, 1996, 1998) based on participant observation, that have cast most light on the embedded and embodied nature of body work. Fields like carework that involve ‘unskilled’ labour can allow for participant observation by researchers, whereas health care interventions, though they take place in more public settings, may not be open to researchers in the same way, and this may obscure our embodied knowledge of them. Harris’s article in this issue is thus particularly welcome for its first hand reflection on embodied practice by a doctor. The increasingly stringent ethical guidelines that regulate social research particularly in relation to privacy and consent (Boden et al 2009) may also militate against such techniques.
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Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

For health costing data to be relevant, they must pass any ‘reasonableness’ test for the true cost of the delivery of care. If they do, service managers can be confident that reported costs are accurate. So, if a senior clinician’s team of junior doctors orders comparatively higher numbers of pathology tests or medical imaging on a daily basis, then a service manager can use the costing data to enquire about this level of care delivery. It is, of course, the clinician’s prerogative to continue this level of care (and the system should allow clinical choice), but variation in cost identified by benchmarking against best practice for patients of similar levels of acuity should prompt discussion. The more confident clinicians and managers are in the accuracy of costing data, the more these costs can be stress tested against those of peers to identify where efficiencies can be made in the delivery of care.
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Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

Fund balances of current restricted current funds represent net assets held for specified operating activities that have not yet been used.. A portion of the fund balance that represent[r]

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Scenario for a patient at home in health and social care

Scenario for a patient at home in health and social care

Abstract: This paper describes and discusses the situation for a typical patient with multiple illnesses and how his case would benefit from improved coordination, communication, and collaboration among all involved care providers. The paper is built around a patient case pre- sented in a current scenario. The authors identified that for a single patient with several problems and diagnoses and the involvement of several care actors, the common issues concern lack of collaboration, lack of coordination, and awareness of what others have done to assess, plan, perform, and evaluate care. This presumably leads to a lack of care quality and a lack of effective use of care resources. The scenario and the findings are based on a patient-oriented perspective, on an analysis expressed in focus groups, and on interviews with key actors in health and social care. The paper also discusses the fact that an increasing number of patients are treated in their homes by a variety of organizations, and how this fact raises new and more intense demands on the various stakeholders forming the care staff to collaborate and coordinate care. We point to the need for managers in and between organizations to agree on the ways of collaborating at the operational level. Most importantly, by taking a basic set of issues as the starting point for reasoning, we derived a set of related problems and suggest solutions to deal with these. The literature currently lacks scenario descriptions that put the patient’s situation into focus with respect to collaboration between health and social care. Finally, the paper presents a future case for collaboration including support by new e-services.
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