Vegetable oils and fats have a big contribution in our diet as cooking or frying oil, salad oil or in food products formulation. They are important from nutritional and economical point of views. Their authenticity is a serious issue since old time. Some edible oils and fats such as olive oil, cocoa butter and milk fat are so expensive which makes tempting to adulterate them with other lower price vegetable oils and fats to achieve more profit. The need for authentication is a necessity of the food industry. Today, adulterations are more sophisticated. Therefore, it is necessary to use advanced and suitable methods to detect adulteration. Adulteration can cause several problems in edible oils application and industry. To detect edible oils and fats adulteration, it is possible to use both major and minor components as detection tool. Since each oil and fat may have an especial component at a known level, their presence and amounts should be considered as a de- tection tool. This paper is a brief review on adulteration of edible oils and fats and their detection methods. Several methods have been used to check the purity of edible oils and fats. There is a necessity for food related organization to develop and utilize reliable methods to detect such adulterations, which can make consumers and markets more cer- tain on authenticity and purity of edible oils and fats.
Biodiesel has attracted wide attention in the world due to its renewablity, biodegradablity, non toxicity and environmentally friendly benefits. It is an important new alternative transportation fuel. It can be produced from different feedstock containing fatty acids such as animal fats, non edible oils, and waste cooking oils and by products of the refining vegetables oils and algae. Transesterification is a commonly employed method for its production. The purpose of this method is to reduce the viscosity of oil or fat using acid or base catalyst in the presence of methanol or ethanol. However, the biodiesel production is strongly affected by parameters such as molar ratio of alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration. Hence, this paper concentrates on the development of economically viable as well as ecofriendly substrates for biodiesel production and briefly discusses the factors that affect the biodiesel production.
Edible oils had made an important contribution to the diet of people in many countries serving as a good source of protein, lipid, and fatty acids for human nutrition including the repair of worn out tissues and new cells formation as well as a useful source of energy . Vegetable oils and fats have wide application in foods where they are used in frying, salad dressing, shortening of pasty, margarine, cooking, and ice cream manufacture. In the world, vegetable oils and fat are found to be about 80–85% of edible oils and fat consumed by the public . Edible oils are very important food for the world. The human body uses oils and fats in the diet for three purposes, such as being an energy source, being a structural component, and making powerful biological regulators. Oils and fats also play an important role in metabolic reactions in the human body . Edible oils are resulting from plants and animals. Oils from plants are termed as vegetable oil. The principal sources of vegetable oils are nearly plants, which include sunflower, soybeans, cotton seed, sesame, rapeseed, corn, melon and sesame seed. Other sources are oil bearing perennial plants such as shear, olive, cashew coconut and palm. Sesame seed is rich in oil content with about 53% quality edible oil, 42% cake and 5% moisture seed . Fats or oils consist of a wide group of compounds that are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. They have lower densities than water and at normal room temperature range inconsistently from liquids to solids depending on their structure and composition. The words oils, fats, and lipids are all used to refer to fat; oils are usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at room temperature, while fats are usually used to refer to that are solid at normal temperature. Lipids are used to refer to both liquids and solids fats .
Biodiesel can be effectively used as an alternate fuel. Most probably biodiesel are produced from edible oils, mainly vegetable oils. While producing biodiesel from these edible vegetable oils, the production cost as well as the cost of biodiesel will be 3 to 4 times more than commercial diesel produced from non-renewable sources. Raw material such as inedible fats of animals, poultry fats, waste cooking oil, and inedible vegetable oils can be effectively used as low cost raw material for the production of biodiesel. Inedible animal fats and poultry fats are major sources of waste from the slaughter houses, and also waste cooking oil from the restaurant, excessive use of this used oil in food will result in certain health problem and finally results in cancer. By using these raw materials, waste coming from the slaughter houses can be reduced and also avoid the excess use of used cooking oil. So these inexpensive and cheap raw materials can be used as an excellent low cost feedstock for producing biodiesel.
Ancient use of the extracted saturated and monounsaturated fat oils is supported by chemical analysis of 8000-year-old Early Bronze Age jar fragments and earthenware jars found in pre-Jewish settlements in Lower Galilee, in Israel. Later evidence of the use of extracted palm, coconut, and olive oil is derived from 4000-year- old urns and amphorae discovered in the pyramids of Egypt and a large quantity of palm oil found in a tomb near Abydos. The Egyptians were quite advanced in many medical activities and formulations, and it is entirely conceivable that they were capable of extracting many oils (including those of a polyunsaturated nature) for both medical and cosmetic as well as embalming applications. However, for culinary purposes they traded and con- sumed the three edible oils, olive, coconut and palm, similar to other people groups. Palm oil with its origins in West Africa, along with olive oil from the Middle East, were frequently exported and traded by the Phoenicians throughout the Mediterranean.
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The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes along with dyslipidaemia is increasing alarmingly in India and in some parts of South-East Asia. The causes of this malady are yet to be known though urban life-style and diet are considered to be the two most important factors. Indians are mostly lacto-vegetarians. The intake of fats and oils are less in the Indian diet. Edible oils act as important dietary sources of fats and oils. Some oilseeds are cultivated in India, while a portion is imported to satisfy the need of the population. Indians have a predilection towards fried items and a large portion of fat requirements are fulfilled through this habit. Oils have different biological effects in different conditions, especially in patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes with dyslipidaemia. Hence, there is a need to have a comprehensive study of all these edible fats and oils in human beings, both in normal and in disease conditions. Our study highlighted the effect of different edible oils such as Sunflower oil, soyabean oil, sesame oil, groundnut oil, mustard oil, coconut oil, ghee and palm oil on humans and the results indicated that sesame oil has the most benefit, followed by mustard oil.
Background: The consumption of edible oils in China has increased rapidly in recent years, and the total amount of edible-oil intake in the country has ranked first in the world. The choice and intake of edible oils, as a source of fats, are important factors that affect people ’ s health. Many chronic diseases are closely associated with high-calorie and saturated-fat intake. The influence of traditional concepts that promote the use of edible oils among women, particularly housewives, plays a key role in a household ’ s diet and nutrition because the diet-related knowledge, attitude and behaviour of housewives are dominant factors in planning and preparing their family ’ s meals. WeChat, which was developed by Tencent, is a multipurpose messaging, social media and mobile payment application (app) in China. Described by Forbes as one of the world ’ s most powerful apps, WeChat provides considerable convenience in disseminating knowledge. Accordingly, this study aims to design a pilot intervention to decrease the use of edible oils in Chinese households. The intervention, which is based on theories of behaviour change, will be implemented through WeChat.
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Biodiesel is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from a varied range of edible and non-edible vegetable oils, animal fats, used frying oils and waste cooking oils which have characteristics similar to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The source for biodiesel production is chosen according to the availability in each region or country, physico-chemical properties, production cost and transportation. Any fatty acid source may be used to prepare biodiesel, but most research articles have reported soybean as a biodiesel source 11 . The common fatty acids found in vegetable oils and animal fats are shown in table-1. Generally, the most abundant vegetable oil in a particular region is the most common feedstock. Thus, soybean oil is the largest source of vegetable oil in the United States, while rapeseed (canola) and sunflower oils are the largest source in Europe. Similarly, palm oil in Southeast Asia (mainly Malaysia and Indonesia) and coconut oil in the Philippines are the largest source of vegetable oil 13-15 . Researchers have investigated for cheaper and economically viable non-edible oils as alternative feedstocks for use in biodiesel production and various biodiesel sources studied from less common or non- conventional oils are shown in table-2.
Based on internal statistics of the various sub-types of margarines and spreads, and their individual composition, the level of palm oil based components was calculated to be 40% on average. With expert input from the International Margarine Association of the Countries of Europe, the same number was derived for all the EU countries. It was therefore decided to correct the data on local consumption of palm oil only for the import and export of ma rgarines, spreads, and shortenings (‘margarine and fat spreads’) arriving at the best estimated numbers for the local consumption of tropical oil and fats. It should be noted that it was not deemed possible to conduct a further refinement taking into account other food products containing fats due to the diversity of their
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Jatropha carcus is non-edible oil being singled out for large-scale for plantation on wastelands. Jatropha curcas plant can thrive under adverse conditions. It is a drought-resistant, perennial plant, living up to fifty years and has capability to grow on marginal soils. It requires very little irrigation and grows in all types of soils (i.e. from coastline to hill slopes). The production of Jatropha seeds is about 0.8 kg per square meter per year. The oil content of Jatropha seed ranges from 30% to 40% by weight and the kernel itself ranges from 45% to 60%. The fact that Jatropha oil cannot be used for nutritional purposes without detoxification makes its use as an energy/fuel source is very attractive.  In the present work, tests were carried out on a typical single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, direct-injection, variable compression ratio, compression ignition engine to analyse the performance and exhaust emissions. The effect of Jatropha biodiesel blendings i.e. JB-20, JB-35 and JB-50 with Ethenol (i.e. E-6 and E-10) as an additive on brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, CO, CO 2 , HC and NO X emissions were examined. The blends i.e.
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Figure 11 shows the increasing trend lines of cetane number and cetane index with increasing HVO content. The cetane number of hydrotreated vegetable oils ranges from 75 to 95 units due to the composition (n-paraffins and isoparaffins). In mixed fuels, there is a linear increase in the cetane number, corresponding to the proportion of components. Hydrotreated oil is a suitable additive for increasing cetane number due to the nature of the fuel, where its effect is more effective than the use of conventional additives. For measuring the cetane number on the test engine, the hydrotreated oil must be mixed with a fuel with a known and low cetane number, such that the cetane number of the resulting mixture is below 70 units within the measuring range. Then the cetane number of the hydrotreated vegetable oil is determined by linear extrapolation. The calculation of the cetane index is for standard diesel and its use in hydrotreated oils is not appropriate.
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The original goal of this effort was to develop a method to make jet fuel from biological fats and oils. The design of the reaction steps was informed by the author’s prior experience with biodiesel. One of the lessons learned was that high- quality fuel can be made from low-quality fuelstocks, such as animal fats and waste vegetable oil, which typically contain higher percentages of free fatty acids (FFA) than virgin vegetable oil, for example. These secondary sources of fat are cheaper in price, increase the available supply of fuelstock, and avoid direct competition with the human food supply.
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b) meat: lards, cow’s fats and their derivatives, oleo oil from oleo stock, swine tallow, and mutton tallow. c) fish: sardine oils, cod oils, whale blubber, etc. Chemically, oils and fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol called triglycerides. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature. The word “fats” is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature, while “oils” refers to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature.
Of potential concern for the use of animal fats, especially bovine lipids, in biofuel production is the possibility of exposure to prions, the infectious proteins responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (mad cow) disease in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob (vCJD) disease in humans (44). The Scientific Steering Committee of the European Commission examined normal industrial tallow production processes and concluded that the resulting product is free of detectable BSE infectivity, even if the source material was highly infective (45). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ruled that tallow and other rendered fats are safe, and specifically omitted them from regulations prohibiting rendered products in feeds for cattle and other ruminants (46). The World Health Organization (WHO) examined the issue and concluded that because prions are proteinaceous, they would partition with the cellular residues of meat and bone, rather than the nonpolar lipid fraction during processing. The tallow fraction was therefore judged not a risk to human or animal health (47). Cummins e t a l . (48) assessed the danger of a human contracting vCJD due to the use of tallow as a fuel in diesel engines. These authors concluded that the risk was several orders of magnitude less than the rate of spontaneous appearance of CJD. Thus, scientific analysis indicates that processed (i.e., rendered) animal fat is not an agent of transmis- sion of BSE.
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Abstract. Research on the use of Near-infrared Spectroscopy for rapid predict oil fatty acid content, proposed a method based on fatty acid content to identify the oil species. Collect five kinds of 133 parts of edible oil data samples by Near-infrared spectroscopy. The original spectroscopy were pretreated by using standard normal variable variation and De-trending(SNV-DT), and using support vector machine regression (SVR) build quantitative models of fatty acids, using Support Vector Classification (SVC) to establish the type of oil qualitative model. Results show, Using palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic three kinds of fatty acids it is feasible. Three kinds of fatty acid quantitative model prediction set correlation coefficients were 95.0876%,99.8592% and 98.5951%. Quantitative - Qualitative model prediction accuracy rate of 100% set. Studies shows that Near-infrared spectroscopy can quickly predict oil fatty acid content, and discriminating oil species. This research has a strong practical and popularization value. In order to develop a kind of rapid method which predict fatty acid content and use it to identify the oil species to provide technical support.
IJSRR, 8(1) Jan. – Mar., 2019 Page 504 Popular oils like olive oil & corn oil have adverse ratios. There is evidence that in humans when omega-6 intake is kept low, plant-based omega-3 can be converted to long-chain n3 fatty acids as found in fish oils (eicosapentaenoic acid) in limited amounts. Common sources of plant oils containing ALA include walnut, edible seeds, clary sage seed oil, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil [inca nut], Echium oil [borage], and hemp oil, while sources of animal omega−3 fatty acids EPA and DHA include fish, fish oils, eggs from chickens fed EPA and DHA, squid oils, and krill oil. Trans fats are associated with CHD, probably because of higher levels of intake of industrial trans fats than ruminant trans fats [De Souza R.J.,et al. 2015]. Several reviews have demonstrated that high intake of TFA was associated with increased CHD events and mortality and also possibly other chronic diseases like Alzhiemer's disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, inflammation, depression, etc.
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Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 Page 365 each step of pretreatment in relation to the original FFA value of the crude PKO. The final PKO with FFA value of 0.4806% obtained at the end of the second step of the two-step esterification process is within the acceptable limit (< 1.0%) and therefore is recommended as a suitable feedstock for base-catalyzed transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel. Thus, esterification is recommended as a pretreatment method for treating high FFA vegetable fats and oils for the production of bio-diesel.
In the traceability system of foods and vegetables, the system adopts many forms of combination structure (Fig. 4), so as to meet the different needs of users. Because the region of the cultivation base is rather strong, the communication of Internet is not convenient, thus it is more suitable for C/S structure. But for the picking link of edible oils as well as the processing and transporting links, the circulation of information is fast with high real-time demand, which is more suitable for B/S structure. So the effective integration of B/S and C/S model, adopting the mixed model with the model of client / server mode (C/S) and the mode of browser / server (B/S), making full use of the advantages of these two kinds of modes, after completing picking or sales, uploading the centralized information to the web server, for those areas that the network connection is not convenient can maximize the efficiency of the system function. Using RFID handhold reader to record information, then transmit the information to the database. In this way, it can connect the dispersed information together, realize the record and management of data, so as to ensure the continuity of the information transmission.
India is basically exporters of primary agricultural produce as the share of those products are very high. In contrast, ASEAN exported the processed and manufactured agricultural products to India. The idea that ASEAN is quite developed in terms of value added and manufactured services as compared to India can be generated from the study. It is evident from the analysis that India’s import from ASEAN was more than its export to ASEAN for the entire period. HS-02 (Meat and edible meat offal) ranked top in terms of export as compared to other products throughout the period except in the year 2010 where HS-12 (Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruit; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder) dominated the scenario. With respect to import, HS-15 product (Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes) dominated the throughout the study period. India exports of agricultural products were fairly diversified with ASEAN as a whole while import specialization of agriculture prevailed. This answer India’s stability in export earnings and in general there is a positive sign of economic growth in long run until diversity in agriculture export reign.
The modified BTT test has been used by Ever for judging the purity of oils and has been found simple, rapid and fairly accurate for routine analysis as compared to the results obtained by Valenta test. Moreover, it can be conveniently used in the analysis of soap and commercial fatty acids and also for determining the % of two mixed oils. Others workers have also successfully used the same test for determining adulteration of groundnut oil in some edible oils and also suggested its analytical importance. Besides the turbidity temperatures obtained with fatty acids by the method of fryer and Weston are different from those for the respective oils, depending on the difference in the solubility of the glycerides of the oil and its fatty acids in the same solvent 11 .