Nussbaum (2011:92) describes the CA as ‘a form of political liberalism’ which looks at the outcomes for people within a political situation. Influenced through Rawls’ (2001) social contract principles, Nussbaum recognises that her CA is about reducing the inequalities of capabilities and does not claim her approach to achieve full equality. Nussbaum (2003:36) likens her list to the human rights movement, highlighting entitlements such as ‘political liberties, the freedom of association, the free choice of occupation, and a variety of economic and social rights’. Her list of ten capabilities, each to be explored in further detail within this paper, sets out the basic minimum conditions for a just society and Nussbaum (2006:78) stresses that a life without each capability is a life not worthy of human dignity. She states that the creation of a list ‘gives important precision and supplementation to the language of rights’ (Nussbaum, 2003:37) claiming that this approach brings together problems which are often treated in isolation from one another’ (Nussbaum, 2011:143) and pledges a new perspective from which to view these issues. Nussbaum (2006:75) asserts that each of the capabilities are mutually important and supportive, as promoting one over the other will result in a ‘failure of justice’. She highlights that the ten capabilities are general goals to be ‘further specified by the society in question’, thus enabling the capabilities to cross cultures, supporting global human rights. ‘It is essentially a ‘people-centered’ approach, which puts human agency ... at the centre of the stage’ (Dreze and Sen, 2002:6, cited in Robeyns, 2005: 108).
The aforementioned social indicators—that is, factors outside of the healthcare system—have been repeatedly associated with health outcomes. For example, income has a well-established association with health: evidence indicates that in the U.S., adults living in poverty are more than five times as likely to report being in fair or poor health as adults with incomes at least four times the federal poverty level (Braveman & Egerter, 2008). Other researchers estimate that living on incomes of less than 200% of the federal poverty level has a larger effect on health outcomes and mortality than tobacco use and obesity (Muennig, Fiscella, Tancredi, & Franks, 2010). Education is also associated with health. Evidence indicates that adults without a high school diploma or GED are three times as likely as those with at least some college education to die before age 65 (Heron et al., 2009), and life expectancy is seven years less for those with fewer than 12 years of education as compared to a person with a college education (Braveman, Cubbin, Egerter, Williams, & Pamuk, 2010). Finally, employment has significant influence on health. Hergenrather and colleagues (2015) reviewed 22 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between employment status and physical health and found that unemployment and job loss were associated with poorer physical health.
Coming back on a point already mentioned above, the demand of elaborating reports based on State performance comes from the fact that the State performance, and not so much social performance, becomes so important when the indexes that have been used correspond to extremely important necessities. Thus, the society will accept, in some instances, that their fulfillment have an obligatory or quasi-obligatory character. For example, that is the case with identity documents and birth certificates. Too many opportunities and rights are missed if a person does not possess these documents, for one lacks a name and an identity. The state cannot fulfill its constitutional mandate if it’s unaware of who and how many its citizens are. It is generally accepted that individual liberty cannot be exercised if these documents are lacking. Something similar occurs with basic education. It is common to consider school attendance as compulsory up to a certain grade
Let us briefly return to Miller’s discussion of the right to exit. The background to this discussion is that Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights does indeed only grant the right to leave a country, but not the right to enter a particular country, or even the right to enter somewhere. Article 13 (1) states that “Everyone has the r ight to freedom of movement and residence with the borders of each state,” thereby granting freedom of movement within countries and ruling out ghettos and other areas of internment or confinement. Article 13 (2) states that “Everyone has the right to leav e any country, including his own, and to return to his country.” While Article 14 grants a right to seek and enjoy asylum, the Universal Declaration does indeed not state a right to enter elsewhere other than to seek asylum in cases of persecution. Miller is right (and makes plausible by way of reference to the right to marry) that having a right to exit does not per se mean there must be an unlimited right to enter anywhere else, or even a specific right to enter somewhere else. However, according to the ownership approach, the right to exit does correspond to a moral claim as far permissions to enter are concerned, namely, a right to a global migration regime in which entry to countries is arranged in accordance with criteria of over- and under-use. This of course is far from a right to enter everywhere or a right to enter countries one would most like to enter; at the same time, however, it also makes clear that it is not entirely within the discretion of states to permit or deny immigration as they see fit, and that in fact individuals do have certain moral claims in this regard.
History has shown that it is neither feasible nor desirable to establish client organizations that are literally one-stop shops. Thus, it is not a matter of adding extra capabilities to the organization just for the sake of it. However, the whole cycle of making a capital investment infrastructure through ensuring that funds and human resources are available; engaging with suppliers of vital inputs to the new infrastructure and stakeholders with interests in that infrastructure; engineering the facility and coordinating the project to deliver it; and sharing the knowledge gained both within the program of projects to deliver the strategic initiative and capturing it for future investment projects, demands that sufficient resources are allocated to do so. There are many willing suppliers of the specialist services required to move through this life-cycle, but they all demand managerial attention. Further, various procurement types and client organization may demand different combinations of capabilities to manage the whole life cycle. Thus, it is not the case that client organizations should possess all owner project capabilities, but rather knowing the scope of capabilities it will need to manage projects, i.e. what capabilities it may need in-house based on its own unique case, in addition to how it can develop such capabilities to properly manage its suppliers and resources.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) adoption is both a relevant research topic in academia and a challenge for practitioners. We understand CRM as a complex concept that includes technology, strategy and philosophy. In this research, we propose an analysis of CRM organisational dynamic capabilities. The main goal is to apply a dynamic capabilities perspective to analyse how companies can improve their CRM initiatives. In order to achieve this purpose, a qualitative, interpretative, case-based research strategy was implemented. We conducted a case study in a Portuguese telecommunication enterprise for one year. The case study was based on semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used qualitative techniques to analyse the collected data and ground our interpretation in a dynamic capabilities theoretical approach. We propose a theoretical framework related to CRM dynamic capability that is corroborated with empirical evidence. We believe that because organisations which adopt a CRM strategy are in a competitive environment, a dynamic model needs to be used to analyse and explain how they can improve their CRM strategy in order to achieve success.
Work is being done in the area of develop- ment economics to build a Capabilities-Based Decision-Making Procedure for choosing among particular development projects. For an example of this procedure, see Clements (1995). Such a procedure could provide a model for decision-making in risk assessment. There are two fundamental benefits of the Capabilities-Based Approach with respect to the available approaches. First, capabilities are ultimately what risk analysts should be concerned about protecting, since capabilities are the constitutive aspects of individual well- being. Current techniques work at the level of specific consequences, some (but not nec- essarily all) of which could serve as indicators of individual well-being. However, these ap- proaches lack the conceptual framework for linking particular consequences with individ- ual well-being. Second, because capabilities act as overarching quantities that encompass individual consequence, a few, properly se- lected capabilities can be used to represent the actual implications of several consequences for individuals’ well-being. So, even though one might consider several consequences in- stead of fewer capabilities, the dimensions of the problem of identification and quantifica- tion would grow, ultimately unnecessarily in- creasing the complexity and the uncertainty in the risk analysis process. The Capabilities- Based Approach would simplify and stream- line this process.
The capability approach accords with a differential approach. More specifically, the perspective of rights as Sen's goals does not mean that they are entirely consequentialist, that is, that they only value the rights on the basis of their results. Therefore, its capabilitiesapproach converges towards the same objectives as the differential approach proposed by the Constitutional Court, however, the conceptual and theoretical framework constructed by Sen broadens and nourishes the differential approach. In summary, the capability approach agrees with a differential approach such as that proposed by the Constitutional Court where each person is not only to end and not a means but must also be treated according to their ability to achieve valuable functionings.
Theorising when entrepreneurial opportunity seeking behaviours might actually be pos- sible, and when they are not for any given individual, has received little attention. In part this is because doing so requires specifying boundary conditions at both individual and structural levels for entrepreneurial opportunities and, indeed, entrepreneurship. A key issue is under- standing the complex interplay between endogenous (internal to the person) and exogenous (external to the person) factors in explaining entrepreneurial behaviours and practice. Such understanding is particularly important in overcoming a prevailing discourse that en- trepreneurial opportunities are necessarily only available to a few people, rather than all so- cial groups. At stake is the dispositional nature of entrepreneurial practice, whereby real free- doms and possibilities exist and have real effects on the abilities of those involved to choose and act. Nowhere is this concern with freedoms and possibilities in the context of welfare economics more evident and indeed, better theorised, than in the CapabilitiesApproach, con- ceived in the 1980s by Amartya Sen (and subsequently in collaboration with Martha Nuss- baum). Our objective in this paper is to offer a new perspective on entrepreneurship theory that draws directly upon the CapabilitiesApproach to explore the freedoms individuals have to pursue and develop entrepreneurial opportunities.
In the last section, we have learned that the supply chain resilience is a capability of organizations. The supply chain resilience no longer implies merely the ability to manage risk. More important, this ability enables a company to be in a better position than competitors to deal with, and even gain advantage from disruptions (Sheffi, 2005). The development of resilience encourages the optimization of actors, relations, activities and functions of supply chain which is formed by connected and interdependent organizations (Peck, 2006). To gain this aptitude, a series of strategies are proposed to integrate, to reconfigure resources, to renew and to recreate the advantages, for example, multiple suppliers, safety inventory storage, responsive price strategy, postponement strategy (Tang 2006a, b, Sheffi 2007). This emphasis on capability and strategy can be found similarly in Resource-Based View (RBV) which focuses on the thinking that resources and capabilities as the genesis of competitive advantage.
Abstract:- A new standard for a new world of networking, MPLS is a forwarding mechanism based on Tag Switching. MPLS is an innovative approach in which forwarding decision is taken based on labels. It also provides a flexible and graceful VPN solution based on the use of LSP tunnels to encapsulate VPN data. VPNs give significant added value to the customer over and above a basic best effort IP service, so this represents a major revenue-generating opportunity for SPs. Multi-protocol Layer Switching (MPLS) VPNs are best solution for medium and large enterprises that currently deploy site-to-site VPN services. MPLS provides sophisticated traffic engineering capabilities that, coupled with IP QoS, enable multiple classes of service so business critical applications are treated with higher priority than less important applications and "best effort" services. We first present background on MPLS VPNs as well as QoS routing. Also we suggest some enhancements that will help to design the ideal MPLS VPN.
rare” may facilitate the firm to attain superior performance (Barney, 1991). The resources and capabilities should possess characteristics of valuable, rareness, “inimitability and non-substitutability” for achieving sustainable competitive advantage (Barney, 1991). Second order capabilities lies at higher level in hierarchy, hence these are not specific to a particular domain of skill and knowledge (Danneels, 2002) and have ability to accumulate and articulate the knowledge of new domain. Second order capabilities have potential to identify, evaluate and incorporate capabilities pertaining to new domain, whereas capabilities may be developed through accumulation of experience and codification of knowledge ( in form of routines and processes). Thus, second order capabilities facilitate the acquisition and development of capabilities, as the acquired capability may enhance the value of bundle of capabilities that firm possess due to the complementarity of the acquired capability with rest of the bundle of capabilities and resources, offering competitive advantage to the firm. Helfat and Peteraf (2003) suggest that factors of internal or/and external selection environment may lead to branching out of CLC. Due to reduction in demand, obsolescence of a technology, non-availability of input materials, change in govt policies, external environment may select against the capability in a particular market which diminishes the value of capability for a particular product market. Second order capabilities which have the skill and knowledge of multiple domains may sense the opportunity in another market and codification of knowledge (one of the higher order capability) may facilitate the effective replication of the same capability in another product market
Beitz objects strongly to the very same possibility for human rights to be pre-institutional: many human rights are connected conceptually with institution, such as in the example of the right to political participation. Here also referring to the capabilitiesapproach can be useful, in the sense that the issue of pre-institutionality can be taken to referring to the capabilities list, while the human rights can be seen as specifications, attentive to contingency and to the world human beings construct. A similar objection Beitz poses to the idea of human rights being universal in the sense of being unchanged through space and time. Human rights are closely, for the most part, interlinked with the specific time and space they occupy. Also here a possible answer can be the same: the Beitz ascribes Nussbaum’s position as being a naturalistic position over human rights, and he strongly criticizes naturalistic positions in general and Nussbaum’s position in particular. Beitz considers naturalistic positions over human rights those that assimilate the idea of human right to that of natural right, at least in one of the four characteristics he individuates in natural rights. The basilar idea is that human rights are possessed by human being, thanks to some feature that they share just in virtue of their humanness. In this shape, they are the foundation of positive law and of the international doctrine of human rights. In particular, Beitz ascribes to naturalistic theories of human rights four principal characteristics. First: they, being inherent to human beings in virtue of their humanness, do not depend from local morals or regulation, rather they are the meter of judgment for them. Second, they are pre-institutional, they are not shaped by existing institutions. The third and the fourth features pertain to the universality of human rights. Third: human rights are universal insofar they are individual entitlements that prescind from space and time. Fourth: human rights are entitlements human beings possess by being simply human.
versatile, powerful, and fault tolerant distribute obtain in informing framework, Kafka is utilized being used situations where JMS, RabbitMQ, and AMQP may not be considered because of volume and responsiveness. Kafka has higher throughput, unwavering quality, and replication attributes, which makes it appropriate for things likeIoT sensor information. Kafka has worked with Spark Streaming and Spark for constant ingesting, investigation and handling of leaking information. Kafka is an information stream used to nourish Hadoop BigData. Kafka merchants support horrible significance streams for high transcribe assessment in Spark.In this project, Kafka is used to process the data through the PySpark. PySpark is a language used for performing historical data analysis, building machine learning data pipelines, and also by creating ETLs for a data platform.By using the pyspark, we can transfer the data stream from the kafka and the pyspark can process the large data. It will form the data stream as (key, value) pair. Through this pyspark, we can easily process the large data. ElasticSearch is fantastic for indexing plus filtering data.So, in this project we are using the elasticsearch, we can analyze the capabilities of the people from the historical data. To perform the elasticsearch, we need to transform the data before indexing. Here, we apply the machine learning classifiers to search with high accuracy. We used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and it is a dimensionality reduction technique used as a preprocessing step in Machine Learning and pattern classification applications. The majoraim of dimensionality reduction techniques is to reduce the dimensions by eliminating the redundantplus dependent features by transforming the features from higher dimensional space to a space with lower dimensions. Kibana is used to visualize, search, and work together with data stored in Elasticsearch indices. We can also perform complex data analysis plus visualize historical data . Were the kibana works on the port of local host 5601.Here, Kibana can build the index for the processing data to search and view the data from the PostgreSQL.
Needless to say, literacy and education can deeply affect all these layers of analysis and thus, indirectly, one’s health achievements. They posi- tively affect women’s decisions regarding reproductive/sexual health and contraception and their access to hospitals and medical care. They improve women’s own living conditions as well as those of their chil- dren and families through a better use of food, medicine and sanitation. They also play a central role in the capability space, empowering women and giving them more respect within the family, increasing their agency and helping them to make decisions based on their own values and goals. This, in turn, can influence women’s achievements in regards to health conditions and fertility decisions, thus reducing fertility rates and child-mortality rates. From this point of view, education and knowledge become an internal personal characteristic that determines one’s ability to convert input (means) into output (well-being).
This study intended to research the adequacy of Google classroom as a teaching and learning tool among higher education science training learners. The exploration outline for this study was a descriptive and interpretive investigation that was dissected quantitatively. A quantitative questionnaire was composed and was utilized to answer the fundamental target of the investigation. The sample of this study was sixty third year Healthcare Service Management learners who have been using Google classroom for two semesters (8 months). The study embraced the quantitative design approach in which the learners were utilizing Google classroom for two semesters as a teaching and learning tool. Data collected was analysed using graphs and bar charts. A social constructivism theory which entails that human beings learn to their surrounding and experiences was adopted for the purpose of this study. The outcomes from this study demonstrated that Google classroom is compelling in educating and learning as the outcomes demonstrated that it improves teaching and learning.
Project management is an essential element in effective management. Project management involves identifying the activities to be undertaken within the project, setting deadlines and creating workflow plans, assigning responsibilities, monitoring the work progress and delivering quality outcomes within the deadlines. To take best advantage of market opportunities, latecomers should develop project management skills to manage both small and large-scale projects. Managing large- scale projects poses greater challenges for latecomers. The large-scale projects may require resources well beyond those under the company’s control, as normally the latecomer companies are small-scale and possess limited resources and sometimes even limited expertise. If a latecomer company faces the opportunity of executing a large-scale project, it has to be able to mobilise the necessary human resources and the additional expertise it may need. It also has to be able to coordinate the proliferation of tasks that large-scale projects produce, a process different in degree if not in type from the process of managing smaller-scale projects. Large projects require the efficient location of knowledge and other necessary resources as well as rapid response and excellence in coordination. Developing capabilities to manage both small and large projects appears one of the critical drivers underlining the success of the Indian software industry (Athreye 2005). Being capable of managing large projects the latecomers are in a possession of a large pool of resources, which they are able to deploy and utilise. When these are coupled with relevant technical expertise and other organisational skills, the latecomer software companies will be in a position to compete.
Natural Language Interface to Database (NLIDB) systems allow the users to query databases in a natural language (Androutsopoulos et al., 1995; Meng and Wang, 2001; Popescu et al., 2003; Stratica et al., 2005; Li et al., 2005; Giordani, 2008; Giordani and Moschitti, 2009; Gupta et al., 2012). Although NLIDB systems are able to answer a wide range of natural language queries (NL queries), they are not used much in com- mercial applications. One of the main reasons for the less acceptance of these systems in real- time applications is that they lack robust context processing capabilities (Bertomeu et al., 2006). Currently there is very little work which explic- itly aims to investigate the role of context pro- cessing capabilities in NLIDB systems. However, the importance of context processing capabilities has been explored extensively in Question An- swering systems (Chai and Jin, 2004; Kato et al., 2004; Kirschner and Bernardi, 2007; Negri and Kouylekov, 2007; Kirschner and Bernardi, 2010).