Education as a public good

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Universities, the public good and professional education in the UK

Universities, the public good and professional education in the UK

We now want to consider what is meant by the ‘ public good ’ in relation to higher edu- cation. This is foregrounded in the UK research, having emerged through the South African project, which had started with a notion of ‘pro-poor professionalism’, shifting over the life of the project to the less paternalistic idea of public good. The ‘ public good ’ is generally conceived of in two ways. First, the term is used by economists to con- trast a public good with a private good. Unlike private goods, public goods are freely and universally available. They cannot be bought or sold, no one can be excluded from using them, and the use of a public good by one person does not deplete its availability to another. A classic example of a public good in this sense is fresh air, as elaborated in Samuelson ’ s classic 1954 paper, ‘ The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure ’ . However, the public good can be understood in a broader sense, and is infused with normative over- tones. In this sense, a public good is often collective in its provision and considered a ‘ good thing ’ for society as a whole. In some cases, it can also be bought or sold and poten- tial users can be excluded. An example of such a public good is health care. Health care services contribute to the greater good of society by raising standards of health within the general population, which in turn bene fi ts production by improving the health of workers. However, there are also extensive and lucrative markets in private health care, while col- lectively funded health care often requires a system (explicit or implicit) of rationing. Education, including higher education, is similar to health care in that it is seen to be invaluable for society as a whole, yet is also a limited and sometimes costly commodity. Calhoun (2006, 10) suggests that the public mission of universities includes: (i) offering an education that equips students for the public service professions;
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Higher Education as a Gift and as a Commons

Higher Education as a Gift and as a Commons

This contribution explores higher education as both, a gift and a commons. The part of the gift is largely conceptual. While this part touches on some pedagogical issues, the main focus is on the political economy of gift-giving in the educational process. I have no intention to contrast the rather dystopian accounts of academic labour with a story of hope. As already indicated, the gift in higher education is in danger of being ob- scured in the corporate university. But a gift there is nevertheless, a gift there has to be. This raises the question: which political economy of higher education can protect or even foster the gift in higher education? While higher education as a public good clearly provides a more fertile ground for the gift than its form as a commodity, I will argue that it is the political economy of the commons that brings out the gift most clearly. However, it is not clear what higher education as a commons would look like. After all, we do not have an elaborated history of a higher education commons. There- fore, the part on higher education as a commons is largely an exercise in utopian think- ing. I will analyse recent initiatives in higher education that neither belong to the public university nor to the corporate university and inspect whether they could be conceptu- alised as a higher education commons.
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Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

Of course, while this Rawlsian understanding of the role of education in society provides a justifying framework for establish- ing education as a public good within a particular society, it fails to provide a satisfying justification for why society in general should actively support education as a human right as stipulated in documents like the ICESCR or the CRC, or why it is important to support the MDG to achieve free and universal basic primary education for all by 2015. To address this, we should consider another influential voice on the design of just social institutions: Thomas Pogge. Pogge reiterated Rawls’s belief that it is the design of social institutions that determine whether people get the objects of their vital needs (Pogge, 2002, especially ch. 2). Like Rawls, Pogge is interested in analyzing social institutions and in establish- ing how such an analysis can be used to justify the need for reform when these institutions are demonstrably unjust. Pogge recom- mended that it would be more beneficial to adapt Rawls’s theory of justice to the complexities of the real world, however, which is interconnected and global in scope (Pogge, 1988). Thus, Pogge importantly expanded upon the Rawlsian framework to recom- mend that it is no longer possible to limit ourselves to well- ordered ideal societies and to the provision of primary goods through well- organized social institutions as defended by Rawls. Pogge argued instead that given our interconnectedness it is vital that we broaden this notion to embrace the more global concept of human rights. Moreover, he favored a concept of human rights that is not bound by the historically arbitrary national boarders or govern- mental bodies found in the Rawlsian Law of Peoples— for Pogge, human rights belong to humanity (Pogge, 1994). As such, the force of human rights comes not from legal or political compulsion but from moral compulsion— only if the legal lines up with the moral, so to speak. While acknowledging legal rights and enforceable obligations are important advancements in our understanding of natural law and natural rights, he argued that even “human rights
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The Streamline of Research and Experimental Development’s Infrastructure in Lithuanian National Innovation System

The Streamline of Research and Experimental Development’s Infrastructure in Lithuanian National Innovation System

Roos, Fernstrom and Gupta (2005) highlight that NIS can be broadly defined as all economic, political and other social institutions affecting learning, searching and exploring activities (i.e. nation’s universities and research bodies, financial system, its’ monetary policies, and internal organization of private firms). Authors present the conceptual constitution of NIS where the main elements are enumerated: people and culture; education; public & non- profit R&D; public good; linkages; clusters; domestic and international customers; intellectual property; risk finance; rewards / incentives; government policy, funding and procurement institutions; international links & infrastructure. All these elements directly participate in the functioning of NIS (Johansson, Karlsson, Backman, 2007).
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The compliant environment : conformity, data processing and increasing inequality in UK Higher Education

The compliant environment : conformity, data processing and increasing inequality in UK Higher Education

article is original in rigorously examining their collective impact inside and outside universities, and their relationship to other everyday uses of data to monitor and evaluate citizens. This article explains the various ways in which data is used in United Kingdom (UK) Higher Education to comply with outside agendas and conform with various social and sectoral norms, and suggests a different approach informed by the resistance work of NHS workers. If UK Higher Education is important to society and is to remain a public good, this resistance work is needed. Significant claims (Leathwood and Read, 2013; Lynch and Ivancheva, 2015; Spiller et al., 2018; Teelken, 2012) are made about this collective impact of compliance initiatives: the combined effect is to enact more oppression on the most marginalised and surveilled people in higher education - both underrepresented minorities in the staff and student bodies - and to erode trust and public good in higher education. Support from the public and finance from the government depends on how the role of higher education is viewed: as employment training or as a public good in itself.
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Professionals and public good capabilities

Professionals and public good capabilities

Martha Nussbaum (2011) reminds us that, all over the world people are struggling for a life that is fully human - a life worthy of human dignity. What theoretical approaches could then be the ally of these struggles and situations, and direct attention to an analysis of and recommendations for university-based professional education to enable well-being for all? Purely income-based and preference-based evaluations, as Sen (1999) argues, do not adequately capture what it means for each person to have quality of life. There are other things that make life good for a person, including access to publicly provided professional services. The question then is what version of education inflects more towards the intrinsic and transformational possibilities of professional work and contributions to decent societies? We suggest that we need a normative approach to professional education and professionalism; it is not the case that any old version will do. We also need normative criteria to move beyond social critique, to overcome a merely defensive attitude and to give a positive definition to the potential achievements of the professions. Moreover universities are connected to society, most especially through the professionals they educate; it is reasonable in our contemporary world to educate professional graduates to be in a position to alleviate inequalities, and to have the knowledge, skills and values to be able to do so.
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Heterogeneity and the Provision of a Public Good in Leading and Lagging Regions

Heterogeneity and the Provision of a Public Good in Leading and Lagging Regions

The literature on leading and lagging regions has paid scant attention to how heterogeneity between the two regions impacts the provision of a public good. Given this lacuna, our contribution is to construct a game-theoretic model of an aggregate economy consisting of a leading and a lagging region and to then analyze this model. We show how two kinds of heterogeneity affect the provision of a public good such as higher education. In addition, we focus on decentralized and centralized public good provision and comment on the resulting welfare implications. We obtain two key conclusions. First, under decentralization, there exist several situations in which it is optimal for only one region to provide the public good. Second, under centralization, this exclusive provision is not optimal but the amount of the public good provided can be larger or smaller than the amount provided under decentralization. Our research tells policymakers that population size and values differences between the two regions and the use of majority voting are key factors to consider when pondering the optimal provision of a public good.
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Referenda and the Provision of a Binary Public Good

Referenda and the Provision of a Binary Public Good

However, the strongest reasons for studying quota based referenda for public good provision arise not from the theoretical mechanism design literature, that we have referred to above, but from the increasing practical importance of these rules in the real world. Most private groups, when considering projects involving the provision of a non-rivalrous good to their members make extensive use of referenda. At the level of the government, Switzerland has long been known for using direct democracy (referenda) for making public decisions. In the USA there has been a significant growth of direct public initiatives at the state and local level as described in [15], [16] and [17] and with it an increased use of “direct democracy” for decisions on public projects. Such decisions relate to sports stadiums, highway construction, public transportation, flood control, parks projects, etc. Two interesting examples are the 2007 referendum on the Trinity River Corridor Project in Dallas (approved) and the Transportation Action Plan (I-5, Puget Sound Project) in Seattle (rejected). In all, there were 544 ballot propositions, including direct public initiatives between 2010 and 2017 in the US [17] 5 .
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Good workers for good jobs: improving education and workforce systems in the US

Good workers for good jobs: improving education and workforce systems in the US

But some non-experimental evidence at least suggests the usefulness of combining education with specific occupational training or work experience. In one important ef- fort, the Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) program in the state of Washington, has redesigned remedial education by integrating remediation into oc- cupational training classes. Instead of having separate remediation and training classes, each training class now has two instructors, with one each focusing on remediation and skills instruction. Because all remediation is now linked to what is actually needed for the skills training, and because the former is contextualized within the latter, it is quite possible that the remediation will be more effective. Indeed, the student outcomes apparently generated by I-BEST recently in a matching study by Zeidenberg et al. (2010) are quite positive and suggest strong possible impacts. Several states are now trying to replicate I-BEST and adapt it to their own disadvantaged populations 28 .
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Breaking Free of the Prison Paradigm: Integrating Restorative Justice Techniques Into Chicago's Juvenile Justice System

Breaking Free of the Prison Paradigm: Integrating Restorative Justice Techniques Into Chicago's Juvenile Justice System

Jewell added that another important piece of the public education process is making sure that existing restorative justice organizations keep good records and structure their programs su[r]

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A Critical Analysis of Funding Strategies for Repositioning Higher Education in Nigeria

A Critical Analysis of Funding Strategies for Repositioning Higher Education in Nigeria

There is also the need for an institutional mechanism that demands accountability and transparency in the distribution and utilization of internally generated revenues (IGR), which hitherto are not subjected to external auditing and are therefore pruned to misappropriation and misuse. To ensure accountability and transparency that guarantee the attainment of the needs and aspirations of all stakeholders in the system, an all- inclusive participatory management approach, where all stakeholders—parents’ body, students’ body, academic and non-academic staff unions—contribute to the management of the institutions to create mutual trust among all. In this regard, the various unions in the institutions of higher education, beginning from the departmental students’ associations to the students’ union and the various staff unions must rise up to seek for self accountability and in turn demand accountability and transparency from management in the use of their collective resources. As a way of attaining further checks on management on the use of available funds, the internal audit department should be autonomous, separated from the office of the chief executive and empowered to collaborate with external auditors to audit the institutions and the various unions’ finances and publish their reports periodically. Through this process, the amount of funds generated internally and externally and how expended will be known by all.
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In defence of care : Gilligan’s relevance for primary education

In defence of care : Gilligan’s relevance for primary education

justice are equal but separate. In this position the view is that there needs to be a separation of the two, but that both need to be present so that a holistic understanding might ensue. Here, care is seen as equal to, but distinct from, justice; however, justice and care are not opposite but different. There is, then, a need to elevate both voices and abandon the idea of ultimate answers (Hekman, 1993). Some, e.g. Hardwig (1984) and Held (1987) argue that care and justice thinking are specific to different spheres. However, this has the danger of reifying the public/private split. In practice, such a thesis is difficult; often what occurs is the elevation of one ethic over the other. It may also be the case that to differentiate may lead to dichotomies which place fixed traits on the other so leading to intolerance and isolationism, usually along power lines.
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What is a good education in the 21st century?

What is a good education in the 21st century?

believe, one of the most moving poems in the English language. Its verses leant the title to both Thomas Hardy’s novel ‘Far From the Madding Crowd’, and Stanley Kubrick’s film ‘Paths of Glory’. Much like Natalie’s visit to a medieval church in ‘NW’, Thomas Gray’s poem was inspired by an evening looking at a graveyard, which sets his mind wandering. In particular, he regrets the potential that must be squandered when people are brought up in poverty and in ignorance - this was 1751, a long time before universal state education. As he puts it: ‘Knowledge to their eyes her ample page | Rich with the spoils of time did ne’er unroll’. Gray suggests that within the country graveyard, there may be ‘some mute inglorious Milton’, whose lack of a good education forever left his potential untapped: ‘Full many a flow’r is born to blush unseen’.
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The perception of teachers and education experts towards the implementation of inclusive education in public primary schools of south nations, nationalities peoples region: its practices, challenges and opportunities

The perception of teachers and education experts towards the implementation of inclusive education in public primary schools of south nations, nationalities peoples region: its practices, challenges and opportunities

In the region, in inclusive education professionals are not properly utilized in their profession. This findings show that in everywhere in the region professional were not properly used. Furthermore, there is no budgetary plan for inclusive education in regional level.The findings of this study revealed that teaching methods are chalk and talk, questioning and answering. Teachers are dominated by this traditional way of teaching. Continuous assessment, cooperative and student centered learning are not actively used. The teaching system is not attractive for diversity of children; it is pouring in one direction. Teachers are not adequately trained/ skillful to modify the curriculum for these diversified children. Furthermore, the findings revealed that student with special needs are poorly beneficiaries in regular settings because of unfriendly learning environment. Little or no screening and assessment accessibility are in the learning environment. The other challenges in the schools are teachers are not ready/ committed to support, modify the curriculum based on their interest and ability of learning. This is because inclusive education by itself is a new challenge for regular teachers. In addition, this study finding revealed that current biggest challenge in the region is identification and screening problem of children with special needs and provision of individualized learning. This shows that there is high limitation of trained professionals to screen and identify special needs according to their learning needs and developing screening instrument in the region. The data show only11.3 % of the children with disabilities got a chance of education. The remaining 88.7 % of children with disabilities are still out of the school. The data revealed that a large number of children with disabilities are out of the school. The data revealed that grade one students are the highest repeaters of all grades in the primary schools of the region when compared to other grades. The reason for highest number of repetition in grade one is poor treatment and poor intervention problems. The data shows that still grade one student are the highest dropout rate in all primary schools. In all grade levels females drop out number exceeds male drop out number. This early period of elementary school level requires greatest treatment or intervention. Pertaining opportunities to implement inclusive education, most teachers
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Axiomatization of ratio equilibria in public good economies

Axiomatization of ratio equilibria in public good economies

Various solutions to the problem of allocation of costs of public good provision have been proposed. The most well-known is perhaps the Lin- dahl equilibrium, introduced in Lindahl (1919) and formalized in Samuelson (1954) and Johansen (1963). As formalized by Samuelson, the Lindahl equi- librium permits individuals to pay personalized prices for public goods. In equilibrium, these personalized prices have the property that all individuals demand the same quantities of public goods. Kaneko's (1977a,b) formaliza- tion of Lindahl's concept as the ratio equilibrium, in keeping with the spirit of Lindahl (1919), requires agents to pay personalized proportions of the to- tal costs of public good provision. In the current paper we axiomatize the ratio equilibrium cost-sharing rule by means of consistency properties. 1 The
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The effects of punishment in dynamic public good games

The effects of punishment in dynamic public good games

The effects of punishment in dynamic public-good games Gürerk, Özgür and Rockenbach, Bettina and Wolff, Irenaeus University of Erfurt, CEREB.[r]

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Status equilibrium in local public good economies

Status equilibrium in local public good economies

Consistency states that agreements reached in subgroups of agents should be the same as those reached in the group consisting of all agents, as long as the same method of reaching agreements is used in all groups. Suppose that the agents in a local public good economy agree on their status indices and a level of local public good for each jurisdiction formed. The method of reaching agreements is consistent if no subgroup R of agents has an incentive to change the agreement while taking the status indices of the agents in N \ R as given. That means that the agents in R have no incentive to change their own status indices, the jurisdictions they want to be a member of, or the levels of local public good for those jurisdictions. Notice that the agents in N \ R do not leave the economy, but only the decision-making process. They still are present in the jurisdictions and shoulder their previously agreed-upon share of the cost of local public good production in their assigned jurisdictions. This is the reason why we needed to introduce a set of decision-making agents in local public good economies and to allow for the presence on non decision-making agents as well.
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History Has Its Eyes on You: Lighthouses and Libraries Weathering Storms of Change

History Has Its Eyes on You: Lighthouses and Libraries Weathering Storms of Change

Program Outline • Introduction • Lighthouses Then and Now • Lighthouses as “Public Good” • Libraries as “Public Good” • Connections for Librarians • Future Challenges for Resource Sharin[r]

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Assessment of public good energy environment   Soy

Assessment of public good energy environment Soy

Good management of biodiversity can lead to sustainable agricultural production. This can be achieved by following good agricultural practice of ecosystem-based approaches to improve the sustainability of production systems. They aim to meet consumer needs for agricultural products of high quality, safe and produced in a responsible way towards the environment and society.

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Islands of Light: Microgrids and Fracturing a Public Good

Islands of Light: Microgrids and Fracturing a Public Good

technologies divert investment from the broader energy system toward privileged spaces, they threaten to fracture the public utility grid, providing reliable energy for those within the microgrid but second-rate services to those without. At a time when the grid is on the brink of transformation to cheap, available, and distributed renewable energy and high-quality electricity could be available to everyone, microgrid deployment might further exacerbate differences in energy security. New problems, solutions, and tensions require new languages. A growing discourse is mobilizing “energy democracy” as an “integration of policies linking social justice and economic equity with renewable energy
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