A recent synthesis of SEL research (Durlak et al., 2011) showed characteristics of effective SEL school intervention programmes to include: a sequential and integrated skills curriculum; active forms of teaching to promote skills; focused attention on skill development; established learning goals; and high-fidelity implementation of programme strategies. It is important to consider how SEL features in educational developments in Europe and how well it is placed to champion freedom, education and development for at-risk students. A main aim of the strategic framework for European co-operation in education and training ("ET 2020") is to promote equity, social cohesion and active citizenship. While promoting cross-sectoral and integrated approaches to care and education services in order to meet all children’s needs (cognitive, social, emotional, psychological and physical) in a holistic way, as well ensuring close collaboration between the home and school in these areas, there are few specific references in the European strategy to social-emotional learning as a discrete priority. SEL is implicit, however, in the framework’s key competences for lifelong learning, which are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for personal fulfilment and
In order to verify the second hypothesis, we investi- gated if the relationship linking internalizing problems, social skills, and EI differed according to secondary edu- cation students ’ gender. The model explains how social skills and EI are related inversely with internalizing problems in secondary educationstudents and that when considering internalizing problems according to gender, a higher weight value is indicated for EI and so- cial skills in internalizing problems for females. The present research results also indicated how the weight of the obsession-compulsion factor for females was barely present in internalizing problems (r = − .06), and its weight for males was similar to the other factors. Accordingly, obsession-compulsion did not correlate with either EI or social skills, an aspect which indicates that it would not fit well in the three constructs model used herein. Moreover in EI, the well-being, self-control, and sociability factors presented higher weight values in males, as did the emotional support and managing emo- tions factors in social skills. The present results not only back this matter, which agrees with some former studies (Burger & Samuel, 2017; Eceiza, Arrieta, & Goñi, 2008; Ferrándiz, Hernández, Bermejo, Ferrando, & Sáinz, 2012), but also fall in line with other works that have studied these variables separately, and have indicated gender differences in internalizing problems (Gomes & Soares, 2013), social skills (Zach, Yazdi-Ugav, & Zeev, 2016), and even better handling emotions among fe- males (Balluerka, Gosostiaga, Alonso-Arbiol, & Aritzeta, 2017). However, it is worth highlighting that other works have indicated the difficulty of obtaining conclusive re- sults along these lines (Gartxia, Aritzeta, Bulluerka, & Barberá, 2012). This reveals the necessity of further studies and research that relate these variables together according to gender, and which study this research line in depth. Moreover, there are those concepts indicated by Vantieghem, Vermeersch, and Van Houtte (2014) Table 4 Multiple-group analysis of internalizing problems, emotional intelligence, and social skills by gender
In this study 39% of participants agreed that social media reduced their face-to-face communication, 14% (9% of females and 5% of males) were negatively affected and 27% (10% of males, 17% of female) were positively affected by their experiences on social media. Finally, 30% of participants said if DSEM affected their emotional well-being they will close all applications. There was 68% of participants believed that social media was important for their learning (46% were 18-23 years old) which agrees with Al-Shdayfatfinding (students had positive views and had a positive attitude towards social media and its use in education and academia). This finding should be considered by higher education institutions to ensure multiple modes are used to account for those who do not prefer the use of social media in leaning. Sixty percent of participants responded to communications after midnight, in this study the effect of social media on sleeping patterns was not explored, however it can be considered as limitations and should be included in future research. Reading the online news (70%) or watching the news on television (63%) was more common than listening to the radio. Also, 77% said they felt relaxed after watching a period of TV (>one hour). It has been known that TV affects psychological mood, according to the programme watched people can have different moods (Psychology Today, 2018). Inthis study participants reported that TV shows can make them feel angry, tired, emotionally dependent on the show, lazy, ok or bored. Thirty nine percent of participants said they listen to music for 2-5 hours daily which agrees with Walworth et al., (2008) who concluded that live music therapy sessions improved quality of life. Additionally, 54% said that they do not listen to loud music while driving which indicates good awareness of the risk and agrees with Brodsky et al., (2013) who concluded that all drivers had made at least 3 driving errors when listening to loud music. Those findings can be used as campaign for safe drive in higher education environment. Also, to find the effect of social media on motivating people to go to the gym, 57% said it does motivate them (all age groups). This is a beneficial finding that can be used to raise awareness of obesity risks and healthy lifestyle.
commitment to these aspirations into a reality’ (DES 2006, p.120) and the Action Plan on ‘The Empowerment of Students’ which follows, recommends the establishment of student councils as a priority in schools where they have not already been created. This report is situated within terms of reference outlined in chapter one, which include: ‘To examine the issue of disruptive student behaviour as it impacts upon teaching and learning’; and ‘To advise on existing best practice both nationally and internationally, in fostering positive student behaviour in schools and classrooms’ (DES 2006, p.10). Within these parameters, the opportunity taken to make recommendations on eliciting ‘student voice’ within this action plan does not go far enough. Evidence from the literature demonstrates that students do not always believe themselves to be fully represented in their Student Councils nor do they necessarily accept them as a democratic medium through which to express their views or generate meaningful change, (e.g. Alderson 2000; Leitch and Mitchell, 2007; Lynch and Lodge 2002; Munn et al, 2009; Whitty and Wisby, 2007). The report of the Task Force (2006) recommends that ‘every effort should be made to ensure that the Student Council is representative of the total student population’. However, in many cases, the children whose behaviour may account for some of the disruption which the report refers to, for example, children with SEBD, are less likely to be invited on or elected to student councils as ‘they are usually the least listened to, empowered and liked group of students’ (Cefai and Cooper 2010, p.4).
In fact, some research and recent studies have examined issues related to teachers’ perspective of problems of EBDs (State, Kern, Starosta, & Mukherjee, 2011). According to Solesa, Bloom, Heath and Karagiannakis (2008), there are difficulties in identifying and giving service to students with behavioraldifficulties and emotional problems. The current study has investigated teachers’ perspectives of emotional/behavioral disorder. Teachers rate girls as having more external difficulties than boys when describing characteristics exhibited by children with EBDs. On the other hand, there are no important differences between teachers’ estimates of accommodat- ing girls and boys, although the girls offer more intense symptoms and depression. The researchers also point out “…teachers rated gender-contrary behaviors more severely than gender-consistent behaviors. Consistent with achievement results, teachers rated the majority of children as having moderate to severe academic difficul- ties. Little agreement was found between characteristics reported by teachers and children” (p. 275).
SocialEmotional Learning (SEL) refers to the process of integrating , thinking, feeling, and behaving in order to become aware of the self and of other make responsible decisions and manage one’s own behavior programs focused the process of teaching and learning in more systematic and comprehensive way. Therelation between inclusion and SEL is very positive and encouraging. The concept of inclusion needs that all students attend in age appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the schools. The mission of inclusive education is that ―children who learn together‖. It is about how we develop and design our schools, classes, programs and activities so that all students learn and participate together. The concept of SEL is grounded in the field of positive youth must be addressed by creating environments or settings that promote outcome like school achievememt,mutually supportive relationships with adults and peers, problem solving and Quiz engagement.
Subject selection criteria. There were two stages in the selection of participants. First, teachers were asked to identify year 7 secondary school students with average-to-low average (a score of level 4a-4c) or below average (a score of ≤ level 3) scores in their key stage 2 (year 6) English national standard assessment test. In the UK, primary education incorporates years 1-6, corresponding to ages 5-10 years, and secondary education, years 7-13, corresponding to ages 11- 17 years. Participants were recruited in their first year of secondary school. This is equivalent to the sixth grade in the USA. All state schools across the UK follow the National Curriculum which is a set framework of subjects and stages to ensure teaching is consistent across schools (Department for Education, 2011b). There are four key stages (KS) across the curriculum, 2 in primary (KS1 and KS2) and 2 in secondary (KS3 and KS4). At the end of key stage 2, the final year of primary (year 6), all children undertake national standard assessment tests (SATS) in English, Maths and Science to assess progress. i At key stage 2, a score of 5 signifies above average, 4, average and 3 or lower, below average. Within these levels, there are subcategories: level 4a = high average, 4b = mid average, 4c = low average. Students who obtained a score of 4 or lower in the English standard assessment were referred. The English test involves three components: reading, writing and spelling.
Studies in the literature show that the statistics of behavioral harms such as violence, suicide, addiction to drugs, escape from home and school, illegal relationship with the opposite sex, aggression, assault and battery, and other behavioralsocial disorders is frequently repeated in this group of students. As an example, results from a study done by Gh. Kashkooli  with an epidemic investigation on elementary students' behavioral disorders in Boushehr indicated that the rate of childhood behavioral disorders in 1057 elementary students was %17.43 in urban schools, %15.7 in rural school, %14.16 female students and %19.06 males students, that are hyper activity, aggression, anxiety, depression, social conflicts, anti social behaviors, lack of attention and distraction. In his study, Tavakoli Zadeh  suggested that there is a significant relationship between disorders and social-emotional situation, educational conditions, age, psychiatric disorders background in parents, etc. In their study, they investigated behavioral disorders among students in Kiev. The results showed that 19.8 % of the students suffer from these disorders. Other studies also indicate that there is a high rate of behavioral disorder among adolescents and youth which should not be taken for granted. Thus, educational organization of Tehran explained the issue aiming to find answers to the questions:
must receive specialized educational services for a disability category that would fall under the umbrella of an EBD including but not limited to: an educational eligibility of emotional disturbance (ED) or educational eligibility of other health impairment (OHI) with behavioraldifficulties as the primary identified educational deficit. Students with documented anxiety, depression, or significant behavioral challenges (i.e., had at least one special educationbehavioral goal) were also included if they received special education services through an individualized education plan (IEP) or 504 plan under a disability category such as a communication disorder or specific learning disability. Students with a significant intellectual disability were not included in this study. Students identified with an educational eligibility of autism informed by a previous medical diagnosis of Asperger’s were included if the teacher identified the student’s primary challenge from a behavioral, rather than social or communication etiology. Second, participating students recruited for this study were in first through sixth grades. Finally, teachers must provide direct service to participating students at least once a week.
a. In-person extra-curricular activities are on hold until further notice as per SRPSD Return to School Plan. Extracurricular activities will resume in compliance with the Saskatchewan Sports and Activity Guidelines, Chief Medical Officer guidance, Ministry of Education and RPT, public health order directives as well as guidance from SHSAA return to sport protocols.
mathematics, and written language achievement (Clark, Prior, & Kinsella, 2002; Kaukiainen et al., 2002; Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith, 2004). Research on the educational attainment of students with SEBD indicates that these young people perform at a significantly lower level than other students across a wide range of academic subjects and settings (Farrell, 1999; Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004). Grimshaw and Berridge (1994) found that the majority of students who were attending SEBD residential schools had reading skills 2 years below the grade average. Students with SEBD also achieve lower grades, fail more courses, and are less likely to graduate from high school compared with students without SEBD (Cooper, Drummond, Hart, Lovey, & McLaughlin, 2000; Reid et al., 2004). They are less likely to undertake postsecondary education or secure a stable job or career and are more likely to be incarcerated at some point in their lives (Bullock & Gable, 2006; Carter & Lunsford, 2010; Hornby & Witte, 2008a).
Abstract: Learning in every context is influenced by the social factors such as the people with whom the learners are communicating in that specific learning environment. As the role that social factors can potentially play in the process of education seems not to have been explored comprehensively in the field of English language teaching, in general, and in the Iranian educational context, in particular, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of both social goals and achievement goals on emotional, behavioral, and cognitive engagement, in an academic context. The participants of the study consisted of 302 undergraduate students (88 females, 206 males, 8 unspecified), majoring in English literature at two state universities and two private universities in Iran. The data were collected through one questionnaire consisting of items relating to different types of social goals and various types of engagement. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Regression Analysis were conducted to analyze the data. The results of CFA confirmed the validity of such goals in our context. Also, regression analysis showed that mastery goals, social status goals, and social concern goals predicted variance in different facets of engagement.
This is problematic as, like all of us, students are faced with ethical decisions on a daily basis. Students must make decisions about the (at times) competing values of honesty and the possibility of ‘getting ahead’ through various forms of academic dishonesty; students must consider and evaluate their responsibility (or lack thereof) to respond to pressing ethical issues in their school, in their families, and in their broader community; students are also engaged in formative interpersonal relationships that raise ethical issues, including their treatment of others and, in turn, the way they themselves are (or ought to be) treated by friends and partners. If we do not work with students and help them learn to recognize, consider, and respond to these situations, as well as many others, we are setting them up for ethical failure. At this point, then, more care needs to be taken in articulating a conception of ethical competence that can be operationalized in classrooms and, further, to consider potential avenues for educating for this distinct competence. In addition, rather than continue to conflate social and emotional competence (or literacy) with ethical competence, we call for greater collaboration between SEL and ethics educators to produce research and curricula for social-emotional and ethical literacy, for an education for the whole child.
This researcher is currently employed as a Trainee Educational Psychologist (TEP) with the School Psychological Services (SPS), forming part of a network of psycho-social support services offered to state schools, which are managed by the Maltese MEE. The position of a TEP involves working closely with children and young people identified as experiencing SEBD and supporting the systems around them. Within the Maltese educational context, LSZs have come to represent one of these sub-systems, inhabiting an important role in the students’ life, as it is responsible for helping them cope with the difficulties they experience in school. One aim of the current study is to strengthen our understanding of how such mainstream-based provisions function and how students with SEBD perceive this intervention to be impacting on their educational experience. Thus, this study aims to gain some insight into the level of assimilation and implementation of state-run provisions for young people exhibiting SEBD in secondary schools, known in Malta as LSZs. Following the completion of a pilot project aimed at setting-up a LSZ provision in a small sample of Maltese state schools, the Ministry of Education Youth and Employment (MEYE) encouraged all state secondary schools within the Maltese educational system to integrate this initiative in their mainstream schools (MEYE, 2009). However, since the completion of the piloting programme and subsequent publication of the LSZ national guidance (MEYE, 2009), no research has been carried out to enquire into how the LSZ initiative was taken up by local state schools and the effect it was having on secondary students exhibiting SEBD. In order to shed light on this understudied area, this research aims to investigate the extent to which LSZs have been assimilated in state secondary schools across all colleges in Malta. This study also aims to elicit the views of students identified as experiencing SEBD with regard to the impact their enrolment in such a provision has had on their life at school.
Since its inception, CWPT and other variations of reciprocal peer-mediated instruction (e.g., Classwide Student Tutoring Teams, Harper, Mallette, Maheady, & Brennan, 1993; Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies, Fuchs, Mathes, & Fuchs, 1996) have been shown to be effective in general and special education classrooms for improving academic achievement of students with diverse backgrounds and needs, including those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; DuPaul, Ervin, Hook, & McGoey, 1998), learning disabilities (LD; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Burish, 2000; Harper et al., 1993; Mathes & Fuchs, 1993), moderate mental disabilities (Schloss, Kobza, & Alper, 1997), and limited English proficiency (Greenwood, Arreaga-Mayer, Utley, Gavin, & Terry, 2001). Also, studies have shown that students with high incidence disabilities have improved school survival skills (Locke & Fuchs, 1995; Spencer, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 2003) and social interactions (Kohler &
the long-term consequences of being placed in inclusive classes versus special education classes and found that individuals who had been placed in inclusive classes in secondary school were more likely to be socially integrated in early adulthood, while those placed in special education classes faced greater social marginalization and isolation in adulthood. Creating inclusive schools is the first step to building an inclusive society since, after all, “children who learn together, learn to live together” (Isaac, Dharma Raja, & Ravanan, 2010, p. 629). Children who learn to celebrate diversity and embrace difference while in school carry these values with them throughout their adult lives. However, special education systems that segregate students with disabilities into separate classrooms not only exclude these students from the education process, but may lead to exclusion from mainstream social life as adults (Oliver, 1996). Therefore, to build inclusive societies wherein all individuals feel that they belong and are valued regardless of disability, we must commit to creating inclusive schools wherein all students feel a sense of belonging and acceptance.
During childhood years, individuals in clinical populations are more likely to receive community-based supportive services (education, healthcare, mental health, and social services) as parents and school are more accessible and able to advocate for them (Lindgren, Söderberg, & Skär, 2013). However, the transition from childhood to adulthood services is challenging for vulnerable populations. For instance, young adults diagnosed with cancer were less likely to access services they previously received and experienced decreased communication with providers (McInally, 2013). In addition, young adults with Type I Diabetes have similar challenges accessing appropriate health care services (Garvey, 2012).
compromised. Researchers purport that universal applicability and effectiveness of EBPs is a general assumption (Aisenberg, 2008) and has become a notion that is increasingly unsupported by research (Wang & Lam, 2017). Growing attention has been given to the issue of balancing implementation fidelity and adaptation in EBPs in special education (Leko, 2015). Wang and Lam (2017) assert that, “shortfalls in “tug- of-war” between fidelity and adaptation—both speak to the need for culturally responsive interventions and cultural adaptation” (p. 55). Cultural adaptation involves the process of modifying evidence-based intervention protocols to take language, culture, and context into account to make it compatible with the cultural patterns, meanings, and values of those being served (Bernal, Jiménez-Chafey, & Domenech Rodríguez, 2009). The integration of cultural adaptation can help to “clarify and specify what to adapt in order to achieve optimal balance between adaptation and fidelity and address important implementation outcomes (e.g., acceptability, appropriateness)” (Cabassa & Baumann, 2013, p. 1), but also “clarify the knowledge, skills and roles of who should facilitate the process of implementation” (Cabassa & Baumann, 2013, p. 1). While recognizing the significance of culture, and its role on the impact of student achievement and professional
Numerous ‘integration’ or ‘remedial’ programs have proved inefficient towards the ‘total’ learning of this group of students. Researchers including Agran (1997) and Bulgren (1998) support the view that students with learning disabilities require an alternative approach to their learning. The literature shows that in some selected fields, for example in maths and social studies, specialist instruction has been applied to this group of individuals with little success (Johnson, Gersten and Carmine 1998, Klinger 1998, Swanson 1999). There is strong evidence to support the existence of segregated Special Schools and there are around 35 Special Needs Schools in metropolitan Melbourne (Australian Schools Directory 2016). Many previous studies on LD have focused on only one or two specific factors such as IQ, but the literature shows that IQ does not yield valid results or assessments here (Detterman and Thompson 1997). The literature also provides examples of where these students in normal classroom settings achieve little success in situations where technology was not regarded as an integral part of the curriculum (Zammit, Meiers and Frigo 1999).
Data collection took place at schools for special education and regular schools that provide support for children with special educational needs (inclusive education) in an urban part of the Netherlands. Since 1998, special education in the Netherlands consists of four different clusters with their own area of expertise regarding teaching and caring for children with severe disabilities. Cluster 1 offers special education for the visually impaired (1 % of all children within special education), Cluster 2 for the hearing impaired and/or children with serious speech and language problems (14 %), Cluster 3 for children with cognitive and/or physical disabilities (41 %), and Cluster 4 for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (including children with ASD) (44 %) (CBS: Central Bureau of Statistics, 2009). In order to be eligible for special education an independent committee decides if a child meets the cluster specific admission criteria designed by the Dutch government. The admission criteria of the service sector for children with ASD consist of three parts: (1) a developmental, behavioral and/or emotional disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM‐IV‐TR; APA, 2000) accompanied by (2) serious impairments to attain regular education which (3) the continuum of regular educational care can not provide without additional services (Ministerie van OCW [Ministry of Education], 2006). Examples of serious impairments are relational problems with classmates and/or teachers, to be a danger to others and/or oneself, and severe motivational and attention problems. In general, serious impairments are assessed by a qualified clinician conducting cognitive, learning, and/or behavior tests. These assessments are supplemented with concrete descriptions of the impairments and difficulties that the child experiences in the classroom, which are provided by the child’s teacher. Children who are eligible for special education are entitled to receive special educational support from the cluster that serves their specific disability. What kind of educational setting will provide this support is subsequently decided by parents in consultation with the child’s (future) educators. In principal, the Dutch educational system only offers two basic forms of special education, i.e. inclusive education or a special school, thus a choice has to be made between one of two settings. The criteria entail that children who are eligible are quite comparable regarding their special educational needs.