3. Learner differences: people with high-achieving or cognitive disabilities have some problems; for example “low-ability readers did not learn from parts of the AR experi- ence which presented textual content. This is not surprising, but it does reinforce the issue that educational tools must be well tailored to the capabilities of their audience”. Usability problems are also highlighted in Klemke et al. (2014), which also recog- nizes the potential of AR wearable devices in overtaking the attention tunneling prob- lem by making the interaction and the user experience as much as natural, immersive and intuitive possible, avoiding also the need from the user to switch his/her attention between the task deployed in the augmented context and the device in his/her hand.
Electronic games, in general, constitute a popular and important part of modern digital culture (Kafai, 2006). They possess motivational power by employing challenging modes of interaction and immersion. Their use in education has exhibited positive results in addressing specific skills, problems, and curricula. According to Griffiths (2002) early research has consistently shown that the augmentation of the learning process with educational computer games raises players’ self-esteem, improves their hand-eye co-ordination and reduces their reaction time. Another review of multiple studies over a period of 28 years (Randel et al., 1992) reports the effectiveness of educational computer games compared to conventional classroom instruction in improving students’ ability to solve mathematics, physics and biology problems, while exciting their interest and enhancing the absorption and retention of knowledge. More recent technological advances in audiovisual design, hardware performance and networking have expanded the capabilities of educational electronic games in terms of interactivity, feedback, diversity, novelty, and immersiveness. Players/learners are now in the centre of the learning process ; they are required to actively explore their environment, be inquisitive and inventive, think critically and make analytical decisions, as well as collaborate with others, in order to successfully cope with the requested challenges, a process which enhances their perceptual receptiveness, memory and self-esteem (Stapleton, 2004; Susi, Johannesson and Backlund, 2007). They are presented with immersive and realistic scenarios for problem-solving, capable of adjusting to their special learning needs and styles (Sancho et al., 2009). Thus, electronic games have become valid platforms for the application of modern learning theories, including Problem Based Learning, Constructivism, Experiential Learning and the Flow Theory (Kiili, 2005).
An existing implementation of a location aware activity was taken as the baseline software architecture. This implementation was technically functional but lacked an effective game narrative and had failed to engage learners. The first iteration focused on technical testing of this platform in order to identify its reusable elements and areas for development in later iterations. During this cycle, we began to develop our own game design within the context of testing and reflection. This part of the project asked key questions about; what can serious mobile games hope to achieve for learners? What kinds of learning can serious mobile games support? And what innovations can be brought to bear in serious mobile learning games? At this stage, the purpose of our evaluation was to test the usability, functionality and perceived educational value of the continually evolving game design and the software.
Pervasive games can sometimes have an educational aspect. The whole idea of playability in pervasive games is the player’s interaction with the physical reality. In addition, the accessibility space that is the key to the oscillation between embedded and tangible information . On the contrary, augmentedreality (AR) has existed for quite a few years and numerous prototypes have been proposed mainly from Universities and Research Institutes. AR refers to the seamless integration of virtual information with the real environment in real- time performance. AR interfaces have the potential of enhancing ubiquitous environments by allowing necessary information to be visualized in a number of different ways depending on the user needs. However, only a few applications combined them together with trying to graphically represent sensor information in real- time performance.
SeeMe  is another study on rehabilitation, and in this case corresponds to the evaluation and treatment of unilateral spatial neglect. This system uses another method of rehabilitation that creates a virtual reality environment without requiring specialized equipment. It consists of a video capture projected from a virtual story where a patient is "embedded" by means of her own image. A representation of the patient is generated by capturing her through a camera while performing the activities. Specific algorithms are used for movement and position and recognition analysis. The participant should stand up or sit in a specific area while viewing a screen on which virtual representation is shown during the exercises inside the virtual world. In addition, it allows the healthcare professional to change the system's parameters during the rehabilitation process in order to adapt the exercises and the characteristics according to the patient's progress and needs .
by experience, seriousgames offer an experiential learning environment to the learner, allowing for reflective observation which can lead to new theories and then onto active experimentation and application of knowledge by the learner (Kolb, Rubin and McIntyre 1984; Caldwell College n.d.). Seriousgames can provide multiple representations of content in ways which are perhaps more accessible than traditional learning mediums. Furthermore one of the key aspects of these applications is their ability to make abstract or complex information more accessible so providing opportunity for comparisons to be drawn of the relationships between multiple concepts. In drawing these comparisons learners form connections and so construct further meaning from their experiences (Linn et al. 2008; Lindgren and Schwartz 2009; Scardamalia 2002; Gee 2003; Rieber 1996). Fun and engaging are terms often cited in literature surrounding the subject of the benefits of seriousgames. While it could be argued that simulations are not necessarily fun to use, both terms can have the same outcomes, that of enjoyment and pleasure (Prensky 2007). Enjoyment and fun are important parts of the learning process as they promote motivation and lead to a greater willingness to learn in the first place and a desire for a recurrence of the experience (Bisson and Luckner 1996). A significant feature of seriousgames which is closely associated with the previous points regarding fun and engagement is the potential of inciting the concept of flow in their users. Flow is a concept by Csikszentmihalyi (1991) which suggests a state in which a person becomes fully immersed in a task or activity to the point that nothing else matters. The experience of carrying out that task or activity is so enjoyable people will continue doing it just for the sake of it (Dietz 2004). For Csikszentmihalyi’s ‘flow’ to take place certain conditions must be present, conditions which are readily apparent in seriousgames. These conditions are:
Seriousgames which are designed for purposes rather than pure entertainment have become one of the popular topics these days as they have the potential to be effective and efficient teaching tools which are interactive, attractive and immersive. This study conducts a systematic literature review on the past research on the application of educationalseriousgames in Information Technology (IT) related subjects in tertiary sector, and aims at broadening our understanding of the role of games in education. Herewith, we searched the selected keywords on several academic databases and found an initial set of 3437 studies. Then we excluded papers on the basis of their title, abstract and full text to come up with a set of more relevant studies. This paper proposes a new classification for applied games in this area and classifies them into five categories of simulation games, puzzle-solving games, 3D games, board games, and role-playing games. The results of the data analysis show that majority of the studies have used simulation and role-playing games. A summary of the results and conclusions of each paper is also provided to inform both teachers and researchers on the topic.
Evaluation goals in the context of seriousgames are usually two-fold, aiming at the measurement of the software quality of the game, on the one hand, and at the assessment of its effectiveness in terms of reaching their goals of learning and engagement (in a wider sense), on the other hand. As a result, usability, learning effectiveness and game enjoyment are the evaluation criteria commonly addressed. Usability in the context of (serious) games is referred to as the degree to which a player is able to learn, control and understand a game . Techniques applied for usability evaluation cover heuristics, think-aloud user testing (e.g. ) and observational methods (e.g. ). Learning, i.e. the educational effectiveness of games, is typically evaluated by applying a pre- and post-test design, i.e. the assessment of learning outcomes of a certain unit of study (e.g. ). Alternative approaches consist of the use of self-reports, where people are asked to indicate what they feel they have learned from undertaking an activity (e.g. ), or of built-in assessment procedures of the educational game simulation (e.g. ). User engagement, flow, satisfaction and motivation are aspects subsuming a range of attributes related to the subjective experience and enjoyment of games (e.g. , ). Common approaches to evaluate engagement, motivation and other aspects of user experience are questionnaires or interviews (e.g. ), attendance rates, measurement of (voluntary) time-on-task (e.g. ). More sophisticated techniques include observations  or non-intrusive assessment based on users’ interaction with the system (e.g.).
(Federation of American Scientists, 2006; Project Tomorrow, 2008) confirmed the idea that video games could provide players with skills that were useful on a degree course and which could, moreover, be transferred to the business world. However, some researchers believe that regard for the intrinsic value of games as a means of education needs to be tempered (de Freitas, 2006; Pivec & Pivec, 2009). There are two main reasons: on the one hand, the application of seriousgames in the field of education is very recent. On the other hand, little is known about the use of seriousgames in the education system, so data collection is a priority (Ulicsak & Wright, 2010).
Genre definitions are always controversial. There are myriads of suggestions for computer game genres. According to Oblinger (2006b), common video game genres are adventure games, puzzles, role-playing games, strategy, sports and first person shooters (FPS). This is but one list fragment amongst many. Even ignoring the fact that there are numerous genre hybrids which can and do combine all of the often identified ‘basic’ genres, technology-driven innovations in the games industry create new genres with every new platform or input device (e.g. all the ‘physical’ games on Nintendo’s Wii like Wii Fit). Hence genres are a rather fluid category (Apperley 2006) and each genre taxonomy is not only debatable, but also quickly outdated by actual game developments. Moreover, genres are not usually categories creators of games think in when designing and producing games. The same holds true for most players. Genres may help as orientation marks when choosing a game and help players if they seek specific uses and gratifications of games (Katz et al. 1974) or mood states (Zillmann 1988), but they are not cast in stone and can only give hints to the nature of a (serious) game.
One of the main goals of a game designer is to draw a player in the game scenario and environment. In this state, it seems that players lose themselves in this environment. As a consequence of this situation, a player may not notice what happens around her in the real world (the feeling of being in the game). This unique experience defines the sense of immersion in a computer game. Immersion has also been stated in terms of flow, cognitive absorption and presence . Flow shows to what extent a player is drawn in a game. As an immediate consequence of flow, nothing but the game matters to a player. This also results in time distortion such that a player does not realize how time passes. A high involvement with a game, which is also known as cognitive absorption  is affected by parameters including time distortion, dissociation, attention focus, heightened enjoyment, control, and curiosity. This concept is also known as an attitude towards a software . Finally, the term of presence refers to a sense of being in a virtual environment . Witmer et al. define presence in terms of control, sensory, distraction and realism that directly affect the sense of presence in computer games . Note that even though simple 2D games such as PAC-MAN may result in time loss, a player in this game does not feel that she is in the world of enemies.
63. The concept of Pokémon Go derived from Google’s 2014 April Fools’ Day prank. Travis M. Andrews, Pokémon Go: The April Fools’ Joke that Became a Global Obsession, W ASH . P OST (July 13, 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning mix/wp/2016/07/13/pokemon-go-the-april-fools-joke-that-became-a-global-obsession/ [https://perma.cc/39PV-8JSW]. Google designed a type of “I Spy” game using Google Maps, where Pokémon materialized on the map as stationary characters. Id. Catching the Pokémon simply required clicking on the Pokémon. Id. In addition to the game component, Google also produced a video depicting people venturing all over the world to catch Pokémon in real life. Id. Whereas most players identified with the game’s nostalgic appeal, the executives at Niantic recognized the game’s potential. Niantic and Nintendo joined forces and began developing what would become Pokémon Go. Using the data collected by those playing Niantic’s Ingress, the Pokémon Go map was born. See Bogle, supra note 15; Jacob Shamsian, The Story of Pokemon Go’s Creation Explains Some of the Games Odd Quirks, B US . I NSIDER A USTL . (July 11, 2016, 3:06 AM), https://www.businessinsider.
However, the social context in which the game takes place is not the only level on which game behaviour can be ethically judged, a player can invoke ethical standards for his actions, or wherein such standards can be deduced. Another is that of the game world itself, and refers to the ethical evaluation of the impact that players’ actions have on the course of the game, given the way the designers have set things up. Given the complexity involved in establishing and sustaining a social context in which decisions with ethical dimensions can be made in a way that they can be measured, an evaluation that focuses on the social context seems rather unsuitable for the implementation of a SMG. The alternative therefore is to direct our attention to games that don’t require such conditions, since the possibilities for ethical decisions are internal to the games themselves.
self-sacrifice, can act as motivators for re-engaging in the act of gaming to pursue new events and more excitement (Mortensen, 2002). Additionally, the theory of flow informs us that feelings of enjoyment, accomplishment and satisfaction typically occur in retrospect as all concentration is focused on the task during actual engagement (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). This raises inter- esting questions regarding the necessity of an optimal blend of positive and negative feelings (like agitation, tension) during the gaming experience. The method of “tension and release” that is central in many forms of art for example serves such a purpose. Tension is present in forms of art as a means for cre- ating emotional hooks and games are especially good at deliv- ering that feeling of being on edge. A challenge for game de- velopers is therefore to manage that very player tension. The dynamism between the two phases works as a catharsis for the player; “the heightened feeling of triumph is an emotional re- sponse following a period of particularly heightened tension” (Rose, 2010). Yet there is no evidence to our knowledge on how such a mechanism would influence learning and the sub- processes of it.
AR games (Landi, 2016). For example, Yang and Liu (2017) identified that nostalgia, exercise, fun, escapism, friendship maintenance, relationship initiation, and achievement as motivations. Zsila et al. (2017) also indicated nostalgia, coping, escape, competition, fantasy, boredom, recreation and outdoor activity as motives. Some studies have explored the impact of playing Pokémon Go on health benefits. For example, Pokémon Go positively influences social interactions because of more time spent walking with a dog, all types of physical activity, such as walking, running, biking and skating, and mental health by reducing anxiety (Kogan et al., 2017; Marquet et al., 2018). However, these studies have paid more attention to the Pokémon Go user behavior at the early stage, but less attention to the drivers of attitudinal and intentional reactions, such as attitude toward playing Pokémon Go and intention to reuse (Rauschnabel et al., 2017). Reasoning could be that, due to recent introduction of Pokémon Go and the limited temporal intervals, researchers could not incorporate the evolution of Pokémon Go in their studies.
Seriousgames, however, have a different goal. Where computer games are created to entertain the users, seriousgames are created with the objective to teach, train, inform or persuade (Annetta, Minogue, Holmes, & Cheng, 2009; Susi, Johannesson, & Backlund, 2007). Seriousgames combine the game characteristics and features for entertainment with instructional elements for learning, to enable learners to adapt learning to their cognitive needs and interest and providing motivation for learning (Malone, 1981). In seriousgames learners are supported by multiple methods and techniques that help to develop the learnings cognitive activities during gameplay for example: solving puzzles or problems in the game (Wouters & van Oostendorp, 2012). However, learning support, in combination with the game feature of the player’s control of the gameplay, environment and or learning experience is somewhat conflicted. According to Black & Deci (2000), learning environments that allow for full control by the learner without explicit supports, can be more engaging and effective than learning environments without such freedom.
The calculation of the believability is done in a separate module in our in- tended 2APL implementation. The believability is usually dependent on past actions and believes from the agent. The agents for example need to keep track of the level of intelligence of its past actions to make sure it will stay consistent from the perspective of the trainee. We also store this data in the belief base of the agent. This means that not only the extra believability module has access to this but that the reasoning part of the agent is also able to use this data. This means that the agent can reason that it cannot run away because it is aware that it has a broken leg. This allows the designer to implement these dependencies on the past more naturally. It also helps to make the framework to scale better be- cause more plans are excluded in an earlier phase. The believability calculations are allowed to be a bit more computationally expensive then some of the calcu- lations in the framework because they only have to be performed on a relatively small number of plans. A cutoﬀ threshold is set and all the plans that fall below this level will be excluded from the agent proposal. The threshold level for a part deﬁnes the tradeoﬀ between accurate adaptation and believability. Only ﬁltering out plans with believability zero will already help a lot in solving the disruptive changes that can be observed in some more traditional adaptive games.
The QEF quality space is an n-dimensional Euclidean space. Each dimension represents one particular major quality aspect to consider taking into consideration the type of product being developed, its end use and objectives. For educationalgames we consider a three-dimensional space. The dimensions assumed to be of relevance for educationalgames are: Pedagogical; Technical and Organizational. Every dimension aggregates a set of factors deemed to be relevant from its own perspective. A factor is a component that represents the system performance from a particular point of view. The dimensions and the factors that constitute the quality space are defined by the content expert, in our example by the Game Learning expert.
Conclusion: Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with seriousgames can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism.