Educational Opportunity, Disadvantaged Children

Top PDF Educational Opportunity, Disadvantaged Children:

New Concepts of Equality of Educational Opportunity

New Concepts of Equality of Educational Opportunity

admitting into universities for each region students; 3) different region and different income family should obtain same chance of receiving education in order to offer lifelong education and social justice for each citizen; 4) based on humanity and science innovation for a greater China vision which has the correspondent educational value as the Coleman Report. However, the Plan was well organized by its purposes but not practical in fulfilling social justice base on the various cultural differences in different provinces it was fell into the similar result of the research done by Ivan Illich. The federal aid program- Title One invested over three billion dollars for about six million disadvantaged children. The input was a total failure in three ways: 1) the amount was insufficient to improve the performance for six million students by its amount and it was not specifically funded to those in need; 2) the money was incompetently spent: different curricula, concentration of the funds on the poor child; 3) educational deprived not only cured by the education within the school. [10] In order to have a better value of educational equality the following part is the new concepts and solutions for specific invest in education.
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DEIS (Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools) : An action Plan for Educational Inclusion

DEIS (Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools) : An action Plan for Educational Inclusion

The Education (Welfare) Act (2000) established the National Educational Welfare Board (NEWB) as the key national body with responsibility for school attendance. The Act, which was fully commenced in July, 2002, provides for the raising of the school leaving age to 16 years or the completion of three years’ second-level education. It establishes a comprehensive framework promoting regular school attendance and tackling the problems of absenteeism and early school leaving. Analysis carried out for the first national report on non-attendance, compiled by the NEWB in 2004, shows that schools serving disadvantaged communities have significantly higher levels of non-attendance. In view of the clear link between pupils’ attendance patterns and their educational attainment, strategies for improving attendance will be an important element of the planning process to be implemented at both school and school cluster/community level to support implementation of the SSP (see section 5 below). The NEWB will have a vital role to play in the successful implementation of this action plan and additional resources have been made available to support the continuing development of the services provided by the Board. The Board and the Department will work together to ensure that an integrated approach to children at risk is adopted between educational welfare officers and other staff involved in the implementation of the SSP.
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Regional Disparities: Analysis of Policy Responses Towards Educational Inequalities in Cameroon

Regional Disparities: Analysis of Policy Responses Towards Educational Inequalities in Cameroon

expenditure, and an establishment of a public transparency system to promote good governance (Guiake, 2018). In addition to the need for reforming educational governance, it should have room to address educational inequalities and inequities through special policies for the aim of promoting shared prosperity among all citizens. Special policies addressing inequalities in education could help students from underserved regions to get the same opportunity that others have. Special policies towards less developed regions, such as the northern regions, will narrow the huge educational gap between them and the other regions. The purpose of any good educational policy is to define an educational system consistent with the type of society that we want to create. If we want to have a shared prosperous society, we need to have a good educational and social policy. There is a close relationship between education and society in which we live. Educational policy plays a vital role in the kind of society we want to shape. According to Bloome et al., (2018), the children of high-income parents often become high-income adults, while low-income peers often become low-income adults. Similarly, communities or parents educational background greatly affect the education of their children. Such inequality’s reproduction signifies that if nothing is done regarding educational policy to address educational or social disparities, advantaged people will remain advantaged and disadvantaged will stay disadvantaged, and inequality gap will continue to be enlarged, which, too often leads to the social tensions and crises. For Dardanoni et al. (2004) cited in (Checchi & Peragine, 2005), parents educational background affects children’s basic education, cognitive abilities, provision of social connections and formation of beliefs and skills in children. To Bloome et al., (2018), educational-based disparities have increased in recent decades, and intergenerational inequalities would persist. It is through an equal and fair educational policy that intergenerational inequalities can be disappeared.
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umi-unc-1090.pdf

umi-unc-1090.pdf

In this paper, it has been argued that, even or perhaps especially in affluent societies, there is relatively strong, persistent, and pervasive inequality of educational opportunity between children and adults with different ascribed characteristics such as social origin and ethnic origin. Indeed, it took several years before quantitative sociologists became able to discern modest change in the temporal dynamics of the association between social origin and educational attainment, beyond the change mechanically afforded by educational expansion. On the basis of what has been shown, progress towards more educational opportunity seems to have intervened in periods of declining income inequality and was also a consequence of school reforms, notably the introduction of the comprehensive school system that has resulted in postponing the earliest decision in the school career. That view is coherent with the fact that, in Germany, a country characterized by a highly and early-tracked educational system, children of immigrants are strongly disadvantaged in their educational attainment relative to native children with the same family and social background.
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The impact of Sure Start local programmes on seven year olds and their families

The impact of Sure Start local programmes on seven year olds and their families

Further changes to children’s centres have been occurring as a result of the change in government in May 2010, and the cuts in public spending that started to have an impact from April 2011. The consequences of these changes are yet to be fully realised. However it is still the core purpose of Sure Start Children’s Centres to improve outcomes for young children and their families, with a particular focus on the most disadvantaged, so children are equipped for life and ready for school, no matter what their background or family circumstances. Children’s centres are still seen as key to fulfilling this purpose but LAs are looking to achieve greater efficiencies by merging children’s centres and clustering others under single management teams. The ongoing Evaluation of Children’s Centres in England 3 study may throw light on these changes. Given their ambitious goals, it is clear that the ultimate effectiveness of SSLPs cannot be determined for some time and that children growing up in communities with SSLPs would need to be studied well beyond their early years before a final account of the impact of SSLPs will prove possible. Nevertheless, by studying children and families in SSLPs during their early years, it may well prove possible to detect evidence of early effectiveness. The longitudinal phase of the impact study of the National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) has built upon the first, cross-sectional phase (NESS, 2005) and was designed with this goal in mind. Specifically, over 5000 children growing up in 150 SSLP areas and first studied, along with their families, at 9-months, 3 years and 5 years of age have been studied again when 7-years-old. In order to evaluate the effects of SSLPs on child and family functioning, the SSLP children/families are compared with similar children/families participating in the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) who have also been studied at 9 months, 3, 5 and 7 years of age. Selection of comparison children/families from the MCS was based upon their residing in similar areas to those of the NESS longitudinal sample, but not benefiting from an SSLP.
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The influence of social circumstances on ‘Risky’ patterns of alcohol consumption among mothers with pre school aged children in England

The influence of social circumstances on ‘Risky’ patterns of alcohol consumption among mothers with pre school aged children in England

mothers in support of earlier research (Kokko et al., 2009). Similarly, lone parenthood was found to be associated with ‘risky’ alcohol use among mothers that has been found to be the case in previous studies (Maloney et al., 2010). In addition, our analysis also showed that ‘risky’ alcohol use was associated with fewer children living in the household. Risky’ alcohol use (>3 units/day, or >21 units/week) was less likely among mothers who experienced least disadvantage in comparison to those who experienced the most disadvantage across all of the social variables. This is
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Access to Education: Afghan Refugee Children’s Perceptions on Educational Opportunity

Access to Education: Afghan Refugee Children’s Perceptions on Educational Opportunity

Each group discussion generated revealing age-specific responses. The first was age-group 9—10. These children had migrated in the last two years. There were 11 children in this age group. This seemed to be the most care-free cohort. Because of their vulnerable age, the children did not show much concern about what had happened to them. They seemed oblivious of the enormity of the problem. During the discussion, they shared that 9 out of 11 of them were studying in schools when they were forced to migrate. Those who were studying responded that they loved their schools. They fondly recited the prayers and national anthem they used to recite every morning. They also recollected about their classroom experiences. Surprisingly seven of them still remembered the names of their teachers. They fondly recollected about their friends. They shared that they played, studied and had fun together. What was heartening was the fact that these beautiful children were living a normal, happy and carefree life when suddenly they were forced to migrate. Suddenly being deprived of something you love and cherish is a traumatic experience. Moreover it is easy to adjust without something you have never seen, but once you experience something it becomes a part of life. Three older children said that when they see other children going to school, they feel very bad.
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Impact of an educational program on self esteem  of children in orphanages

Impact of an educational program on self esteem of children in orphanages

Self-esteem is a basic human need it makes an essential contribution to the life process, is indispensable to normal and healthy self-development and adds a value for survival. Hence, the study aimed to know the impact of an educational program on self esteem among boys and girls residing in orphanages at Urban Bangalore district. Self structured questionnaire was developed and administered on a sample of 80 children which consisted of 40 boys and 40 girls, between the age group of 9-12 years. A module of the educational program was developed by the researcher and executed for the experimental group of respondents for a period of 3 months separately for boys and girls in the selected orphanages. The statistical analysis was carried out by applying percentage, standard deviation, mean, chi square and paired ‘t’ test. The findings revealed that, majority of boys and girls belonged to the age group of 12 years. In post-test the overall mean score percentage found to be higher as compared to pre-test mean score which is significant at 5% level. In all the dimensions of self esteem the 't' values found to be statistically significant(p<0.05) among boys and girls. During the post-test both boys and girls showed a higher score on the level of self esteem as compared to pre-test scores, the obtained chi-square value (87.55) found to be significant which showed the impact of an educational program on self esteem of children.
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'Everybody is available to them': Support measures for migrant students in Irish secondary schools

'Everybody is available to them': Support measures for migrant students in Irish secondary schools

As shown in this article, Irish secondary schools differ regarding support measures for migrant students. Over the years, Ireland has developed systems for welcoming migrant students with the availability of assessment prior to schooling (assessment of language competences) and support programs for underachieving students (DEIS programmes), discussed earlier. Yet, it has been acknowledged that educational disadvantage coupled with economic disadvantage is likely to impact on the future life chances of young migrants in Ireland (see Author 3 et al., 2012; Devine, 2011, 2012). The main issues arising from the findings indicate that current support in Irish secondary schools is not sufficient and there is a need for ongoing improvement of linguistic skills and continuous teaching support with a view of creating a positive school environment. Without financial support for extra-curricular activities to help newcomers with their integration, Irish schools are largely left to their own devices. Without adequate resources supporting teachers to work effectively in linguistically and culturally diverse contexts (see also Schecter and Cummins 2003), it is almost impossible to focus on developing and improving supportiveness, which undeniably would mean enhancing inclusiveness.
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Closing the Gap? : trends in educational attainment and disadvantage. August 2017

Closing the Gap? : trends in educational attainment and disadvantage. August 2017

 Pupils of Black African backgrounds tend to move up the attainment distribution between Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 4, in other words they make more progress than their peers. However, pupils from Black Caribbean backgrounds tend to fall back over the course of schooling. Several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed by research concerned with the obstacles faced by black children in the education system. For example, Gilborn (2010) demonstrates how teacher assessments, setting and streaming, and tiered GCSE examinations have historically entrenched, and in some cases manufactured, racially patterned attainment. 19
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Improving Educational Outcomes for Children Looked after at Home : The Perspectives of Designated Managers for Looked after Children

Improving Educational Outcomes for Children Looked after at Home : The Perspectives of Designated Managers for Looked after Children

Interviews were carried out in four local authorities between October and December 2012. These local authorities were selected to represent the national characteristics of Scotland, and included one large urban local authority, one small urban local authority, one local authority with high unemployment and one local authority with more rural areas. Primary schools containing relatively large numbers of looked after children were identified, and interviews were carried out with Designated Managers for looked after children in these primary schools, and in an early years centre and secondary school in the same area (usually the same cluster). In addition to DMs, pastoral support workers and an education officer were interviewed in each local authority.
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Access to Ambulatory Care Services for Economically Disadvantaged Children

Access to Ambulatory Care Services for Economically Disadvantaged Children

Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey, we examined differences in access to ambulatory services for children of different family incomes.. The results indicate that much pro[r]

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Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on Kindergarten Academic Achievement

Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on Kindergarten Academic Achievement

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children ’ s kindergarten academic achievement. METHODS: This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome).
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Mother-Tongue Based Second Language Instruction In The Indian Rural Multilingual Context

Mother-Tongue Based Second Language Instruction In The Indian Rural Multilingual Context

important to find a way of developing a praxis of educational consequence that opens the spaces necessary for the remaking of a democratic community. For this to happen, there must of course be a new commitment to intelligence, a new fidelity in Abstract: The system of education in India, neglects the most powerful resource that a child comes to school with, that is, her mother tongue, and in the process fails to enable her to a life of choice; rather, it fails to develop the human resources and leads to cumulative disadvantages. Exclusion of mother tongues in education limits access to resources and perpetuates inequality by depriving language communities of linguistic human rights, democratic participation, identity, self-efficacy, and pride. In case of the disadvantaged groups in India, linguistic discrimination forms the core of their capability deprivation through educational and social neglect which contribute to their poverty in a vicious circle. It is necessary to realise that mother tongue in education is not a problem; it is the solution.
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Unified educational space of the CIS countries in conditions of integration and information

Unified educational space of the CIS countries in conditions of integration and information

As evidenced by European scientists and analysts (Ewald Böhlke, Horst Grabert, Fran Uiger Andreas Vera et al.), the interrelation and interdependence of the CIS countries are obvious, and, in their opinion, the existing between these countries the social, economic, historical, cultural, educational interrelation will eventually ensure the restoration of political and economic unity of the post-soviet space [12]. Scientists believe that today we can speak about the existence on the former Soviet Union the necessary general prerequisites for the rapprochement, which at one time allocated B. Hettne - the so-called "cohesion objective factors". Сonsolidation of the former Soviet Union today is objective and inevitable process, which is based on the strength of past relationships. Consolidation of the former republics of the Soviet Union today is an objective and inevitable process, basing upon the profound past relations: social sphere is represented by ethnic composition, language, culture, history and the awareness of the common history, economic sphere – by trade, investments, finance, political sphere – by the type of the regime and ideology, organization – by the regional institutions [13]. A factor, contributing to the consolidation of the CIS countries, is education. In the opinion of Russian and foreign researchers, the unified system of education, formerly common for all the CIS countries, stipulates the existence of the integral educational space in CIS. Today the educational space of the Commonwealth countries is developing in line with global trends of globalization and integration. Scientists assume the process of disintegration of the unified educational space of the CIS to be inevitable and perceive it as a natural cultural and historic process in which it is possible to discuss certain stages, moving forces, mechanisms of formationa and development (V.S. Lazarev, M.M Potashnik). Experts assume that independent educational space, which have arisen as a result of government reforms, lost their former unity of education as a structure, but it retained its integrity [14].
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Inequality of educational opportunity in East and West Germany : convergence or continued differences?

Inequality of educational opportunity in East and West Germany : convergence or continued differences?

In the GMC data, the difference in IEO between the FRG and the GDR prereuni- fication is more pronounced than in the GLHS and GGSS data. For the prereunifi- cation cohort, the difference in risk differences between both countries is around 15 percentage points. Similar to in the GGSS data, there was an increase among all students who entered the Abitur track postreunification independent of parental educational achievement. For the 1975 birth cohort (age 16 at the time of segregation into secondary school tracks), we see a stronger increase in Gymnasium attendance among students with Abitur-holding parents than among those without parents with Abitur. It appears that 16-year-olds who do not have Abitur-holding parents were less inclined to take advantage of the new opportunities that reunification provided as their peers with more highly educated parents were. However, this is not the case for the 1977 birth cohort, when Gymnasium attendance rose more sharply for individuals without Abitur-holding parents. For the 1978 birth cohort, Gymnasium attendance decreased for both groups. In West Germany, IEO declined during this period due to increasing Gymnasium attendance among individuals without Abitur-holding parents and decreasing Gymnasium attendance among individuals with Abitur-holding parents. Although the Gymnasium attendance of individuals in East Germany without Abitur-holding parents caught up with the Gymnasium attendance of those in the west with the same background, there is still a notable gap in Gymnasium attendance for individuals with Abitur-holding parents between East and West Germany. Accordingly, IEO is still smaller in the east compared to the west for these cohorts.
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The Effects of Computer-based Educational Games on Self-efficacy of 8-12 Children with Hemophilia

The Effects of Computer-based Educational Games on Self-efficacy of 8-12 Children with Hemophilia

According to the results, it can be argued that learning through homo-action games can increase self-efficacy in children with hemophilia. Since nurses in counseling programs and interventions in the treatment and education have an important role, they can improve the self-efficacy of children by the use of new technology through increasing of children’s knowledge and information. Therefore, in the process of treatment and care of chronically ill pattients, in addition to physical care, interventions to enhance their self-efficacy should also be planned.
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Enhancing educational opportunity for prisoners by providing a simulated online learning environment

Enhancing educational opportunity for prisoners by providing a simulated online learning environment

evident that there is a growing need for innovative ways to address the issue of recidivism. Correctional education and therapy-based programs have shown much promise with studies reporting strong correlations between program participation and reduced rates of reoffending. However, developments in an emerging field of science known as ‘neuroeducation’ point to the potential for innovative approaches in the design of current practices. Research in the field of neuroscience is providing increasingly convincing support that old dogs can indeed learn new tricks. This change in attitude is due largely to research investigating ‘neuroplasticity’, the process by which the brain alters its structure through the growth and development of new and existing brain cells or neurons. The implications of a brain that can continue to grow and develop are enormous as it inspires new hope in attempts to rehabilitate offenders. Given that the clients within Corrective Services often report a myriad of learning difficulties, poor academic achievement, weak impulse control, poor decision making ability and cognitive distortion, it is well worth investigating alternative approaches to addressing these problems. It is the aim of the present study to explore the aforementioned implications in further detail as they can inform current educational and therapy-based practices aimed at tackling high rates of recidivism. This paper will review the literature in neuroscience, psychology and education, with particular focus placed on studies exploring the efficacy of interventions targeting specific brain functions involved in literacy, numeracy and executive functions. The findings are discussed in terms of design considerations for specific exercises that can be integrated within the current delivery of correctional education classes.
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Inequality of educational opportunity in East and West Germany : convergence or continued differences

Inequality of educational opportunity in East and West Germany : convergence or continued differences

Nevertheless, the ‘socialization hypothesis’, which explores East-West differences in attitudes towards inequality and the role of the welfare state (e.g. Kaase and Bauer-Kaase 1998; see also Liebig and Verwiebe 2000 for a more differentiated view), assumes growing up under the GDR's education system has long-term effects on people’s attitudes and world- views. Assuming that socialist education had successfully internalized collective goals, such as a society free from class hierarchies and reproduction, it could be expected that status maintenance motives were less at play in educational decision making. Higher class parents were less interested in making sure that their children attain the same status as themselves because status was less valued or performed in the socialist GDR. This should have led to lower rates of Abitur-holders among children of higher social origin in the GDR as compared to the FRG, as well as lower IEO. The emphasis on inclusive education within socialist ideology may have had a lasting impact on individual preferences concerning the role of the state (Alesina and Fuchs-Schündeln 2007) and egalitarianism or rejection of ascriptivism (Wegener and Liebig 1995), contributing to continuously weaker levels of IEO post- reunification.
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Successful Post-Primary Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities: Overall summary

Successful Post-Primary Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities: Overall summary

It is clear that schools seeking to address underachievement must recognise the need to work across a number of areas; acknowledging that single actions or initiatives are unlikely to lead to significant improvement in outcomes for children. High quality teaching and learning and effective leadership must be central to any approach, and these should be supported by a culture of high expectations, the involvement of parents and the wider community, and the effective use of data.

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