The purpose of this qualitative case study, carried out in two phases, is to systematize the learning experi- ences and expectations of older adults and their families as they face approaching retirement, in Guadala- jara, Mexico, 2012. The strategy implemented was an educational preparation for retirement. Six adults had already retired, two were soon to be retired and eight family members were chosen for this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a SQA-E format. The educational strategy was an interactive conference. A phenomenological analysis was made of the experiences recorded. The natu- ralistic criterial evaluation of learning experiences and expectations was applied before and after the edu- cational intervention. Through this intervention, participants were made conscious of their problems, expressed the desire to improve certain aspects of their lives and continued educational preparation.
We assessed the methodological quality of these studies using a standardized risk of bias measure (Carlson and Morrison, 2009) for observational research. The majority of studies had a relatively low risk of bias. Potential sources of bias related to the use of self-report questionnaires to determine the educational preparation of nurses and a failure to link of nurses included in studies with actual patients they cared for. We also noted that a number of investigators failed to adequately account for the effects of clustering in their analysis (Dilts et al. 1995).
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In contrast to educational methods that center on mastery of ethnic patterns of disease or lists of cultural characteris- tics, the predominantly inductive TC approach focuses on the patient as the starting point for discovery and avoiding mistakes [27,184]. When health-care providers work with diverse service seekers, skill development occurs through "bottom-up" information and evidence gathering that places primary emphasis on contextual insights derived from proximate and current sources – the patient himself/ herself and family, friends, and/or community members [185,48]. In light of the existence of national subcultures and the presence of intracultural (and changing) varia- tions that occur due to "age, gender, income, education, acculturation, individual differences, and multiple other factors," general epidemiological evidence about the patient's country and its endemic diseases, ethnic group, or religious affiliation needs to be "regarded as having some bearing but requires further validation to be consid- ered immediately useful" [, p.251–252, [186,96,27,33]]. As Melanie Tervalon and Jann Murray- Garcia point out, "only the patient is uniquely qualified to help the physician understand the intersection of race, ethnicity, religion, class, and so on in forming his (the patient's) identity and to clarify the relevance and impact of this intersection on the present illness or wellness expe- rience"; that is, "how little or how much culture has to do with that particular clinical encounter" [, p.121]. For TC preparation, therefore, skill development is expected to be especially robust during the student's clin- ical-clerkship experiences. In a TC-informed medical edu- cation, exposure to transnational medical encounters would constitute an integral part of all clinical clerkships. Clerkships that involve migrant patients present students with a variety of stimulating medical challenges framed by diverse cultural perspectives and social backgrounds  and, simultaneously, provide problem-solving opportu- nities for students to articulate helpful recommendations
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In order to reflect these changes, current district nursing practice needs to change, knowledge and skills need to be enhanced and further developed. It is the right time to be reviewing our educational programmes for all nurses working in primary care including specialist community practice.
Greater understanding of the rehabilitation process was seen as important in the preparation of cardiac nurses. Cardiac rehabilitation is an extremely cost effective and clinically effective intervention. In a meta- analysis of 48 randomised controlled trials, Taylor and colleagues  reported that cardiac rehabilitation reduced all cause mortality by 20% and cardiac death by 27% at 2-5 years. Yet data from our study suggests that nurses were unable to promote a vision of future health based on key lifestyle changes. Additionally, these participants highlighted that many nurses’ working in cardiology lacked knowledge of the patient journey beyond the confines of the cardiac unit, illustrating the need for greater knowledge of the life beyond critical care and the understanding of heart disease as a long term condition. It would seem that preparing nurses in key and advanced concepts of cardiac rehabilitation needs to be a priority in post-registration programmes to enable nurses to gain confidence and increased competence in this vital aspect of nursing care.
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First, the educational preparation of its registrants is not recorded by the Australian national nurse registering body; hence it is impossible to estimate how many prac- tising nurses in Australia possess post-basic qualifica- tions for comparison. Second, even when it is attainable, it is difficult to compare Australian post-basic data with data from international Magnet® hospitals, the majority of which are in the US. The Australian Qualifications Framework differs markedly from the US post- registration structure, which inhibits the ability to com- pare performance in postgraduate qualifications. For example, specialty ‘credentialing’ is largely an American concept. It is not a term widely-used in Australia, it is not a requirement for career advancement nor is it regu- lated by a professional nursing organisation. The excep- tions are nurse practitioners and mental health nurses, whose post-registration education is regulated and who are ‘endorsed’ rather than credentialed. In essence, it is Australian universities (not professional or nursing regu- latory bodies) that confer specialty qualifications in areas like intensive care and oncology nursing and unlike the US, these qualifications do not require annual updating. Comparing postgraduate qualifications and credentials is therefore not possible.
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est hospital and difficulty or delay in seeking transfer due to lack of an integrated system of health care may contribute to the potential for adverse neonatal outcomes. Despite the range of legal and health system barriers, as well as varied educational preparation of midwives within the US, a recent comprehensive observational cohort study reported outcomes of women who chose a planned home birth had similar find- ings to other countries – low rates of interventions, similar patterns for transfer of care when necessary, and no increase in adverse neonatal outcomes. 44
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& Suh 2018). Also, it can increase the quality of care and patient’s safety (Grabowsky 2015). The use of this application has led to the development of self-esteem and skills and, consequently, satisfaction with learning among nursing students (Gallegos & Nakashima 2018). This method improves students’ self-efficacy, clinical skills, and satisfaction with learning (Jeong 2017). This educational method can improve students’ attitude to- wards learning methods and can be an effective way to learn clinical skills (Pourteimour et al. 2018). The use of the application in nursing in Iran has been associated with the improved satisfaction of students and nurses and has reduced their errors along with the improve- ment of patient’s care (Mazlom & Rajab Poor 2014).
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The latter recommendation has been implemented by the MoE which hints at broader government support for middle level teacher education in the future. To date, numbers of enrolments in the new postgraduate teacher qualification have been modest. Serious questions remain concerning whether such courses can be staffed by academics with genuine knowledge and expertise on middle schooling, as opposed to subject-area knowledge about numeracy and literacy in Years 7–10. In summary, the extant literature shows that young adolescents have developmental and educational needs that can only be effectively met through the provision of specialised programmes of middle-level teacher preparation. In the middle-level classroom, regardless of school configuration, learning and teaching should: (1) be underpinned by a social constructivist perspective; (2) value the diverse socio- cultural backgrounds of learners; (3) be derived from relevant, challenging, integrative and exploratory curricula; (4) utilise authentic assessment practices and procedures; and (5) employ student-centred pedagogical approaches that are developmentally responsive and promote engagement by young adolescent learners.
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hygiene, Knowledge of food hygiene and safety measures taken for controlling and preventing food borne illness and Incidence of food borne diseases & their attitude towards food hygiene. The personal hygiene was assessed by observing, general cleanliness, general appearance of clothes & nails condition. Also health practices such as acquisition of cooking skills, cleanliness of place of preparation, methods of washing utensils and preservation observed by the food handlers were noted in the study. This study willtell us about the current status and by this way proper steps can be taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with lack of knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene among the food handlers.
This chapter examined a small sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Toronto, their concerns on food safety and health, their informational/educational needs, as well as their recommendations for improving immigrant food safety awareness and practices. This chapter also looked at recommendations by local community nutritionists and public health workers serving immigrant communities. It is clear that we need to recognize the diversity among newcomers in terms of social and cultural capital, level of knowledge, and life experiences. Meanwhile, age, level of education, years of Canadian residency, degree of fluency in English and socio-economic status, clearly can create barriers beyond an assumed ethnic origin. Programs targeting newcomer immigrant communities need to have flexibility in addressing such diversity. This, of course, comes down to availability of public health service workers who are not only informed about these communities but can serve as frontline workers in the knowledge translation and transfer. Further research is needed to explore intergenerational knowledge gaps and food safety risks posed by them.
The cohort model in the BSU Educational Leadership program helps build community through a weekend retreat that occurs during the first weeks of the program. During this time, students travel outside of their hometown region to McCall, Idaho, a remote town approximately 80 miles away from Boise. It is here where cohort members, removed from their daily lives, become integrated into life as a cohort. During this retreat, cohort members make and share life maps and spend an afternoon at a ROPES Training Course. On the ROPES course, trust begins to develop between cohort members as they catch each other’s falls and build strong relationships. Similar to that which Lawrence (2002) discussed in her work, cohort members achieve a high comfort level as they get to know one another at deeper levels, which allows for more intimate dialogue in the future. The fear of failure or “looking stupid” is diminished as cohort members learn what they can expect from their peers, thus leading them to take more risks and allowing for self-disclosure. Fully functioning cohorts, according to
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Regarding the health facility and drug related vari- ables, availability of medication preparation room, the number of drug prescriptions per patient and avail- ability of medication administration guide were found to be significant independent factors associated with MAE. Medications prepared without the availability of the medication preparation room were about 13.5 times at higher risk of MAE as compared to medica- tions prepared in rooms available for medication preparation with AOR(95% CI) of 13.45 (8.59–21.06). Medications prepared in a place where there is no availability of medication administration guide were about 4 times more likely to have MAE than their counterparts, with AOR(95% CI) of 4.11 (2.89–5.85). Medications which administered among patients who had two prescribed medication types and those who had three or more prescribed medication types were about 2.5 and 1.9 times more likely to have MAE than patients who had single prescribed drug with AOR(95% CI) of 2.46(1.62–3.61) and 1.86(1.14–3.03), respectively. The less experience of health profes- sionals was a factor found to be prevented for MAE. Health professionals in charge of medication adminis- tration who have been working in the pediatrics unit for less than 12 months were 63% less likely to com- mit medication administration error than those expe- rienced above 24 months with AOR (95% CI) of 0.37(0.21 – 0.65) (Table 4).
employment of ecology as the fundamental organising metaphor. As I would later write, it was less about the ‘learning of ecology’, more about the ‘ecology of learning’ (Sterling 2003). In 1999, and with the Thesis barely half-written, I was offered the opportunity to contribute to the Schumacher Society’s ‘Briefing’ series on aspects of sustainability. I decided to write the education Briefing as a way of accelerating the Thesis research, but also as a way of getting some key ideas out into public debate. I soon decided on the title ‘sustainable education’ as way of suggesting the need for a shift of culture in educational thinking and practice itself, rather than ‘education for sustainability’ which tends to put the emphasis on the effects of education - a distinction between education as ‘subject of change’, and as ‘agent of change’ which I had made earlier in the 1996 Earthscan book. Using systems ideas, I saw this important difference in terms of the need for at least second-order change - a significant shift in the way we view education and learning achieved through deep reflexivity - rather than the first-order change (making adjustments in the existing system) so often assumed in education for change movements. By mid-2000, the Briefing was half completed, and I was able to both inform and test the ideas at my second Fritjof Capra course held at Schumacher College - an experience which gave me confidence and inspiration to finish the Briefing. It was published as Sustainable Education - Re-visioning learning and change, in June 2001 (Sterling 2001). The term ‘sustainable education’ has since entered the debate.
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The defining characteristics of high-quality colonoscopy are the examination of the entire colon, optimal cleaning of the colon, and endoscopic withdrawal time of 6–10 min from cecum to rectum . In this regard, many trials have been conducted to improve the quality of bowel preparation by patient education [9, 12, 14]. How- ever, the effect of patient's education on bowel prepar- ation has been limited thus far, with mixed findings. In one study, bowel preparation quality was superior among 205 patients receiving cartoon visual aids com- pared with those who received standard bowel prepar- ation instructions. About 7 % of patients in the experimental group had poor preparation, compared with 18 % in the control group by using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (P = 0.02) . On the other hand, a study of 969 patients found no impact on bowel preparation quality when compared between patients randomized to standard instructions versus instructions plus a visual aid, with a 91 % rate of adequate bowel preparation in the experimental group and 89 % ad- equate bowel preparation rate in the control group (P = 0.43) using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale . In the current study, the patients in the video group showed a greater reduction in Ottawa total score than the control groups (3.03 vs 4.21; P < 0.001). Furthermore, this educational video was effective to reduce the ef- fort for cecal intubation by providing adequate bowel preparation. In the analysis of procedure times, the insertion time was significantly different between the control group and video groups (6.1 ± 3.7 vs 5.5 ± 3.2 min; P = 0.043).
The basis of the development in educational technology is the possibility of improving the efficiency or quality of learning in a given situation. Appropriate application of educational technology contributes tremendously to the improvement and enhancing of effective teaching and learning. It would therefore be in order to note that there is much in education and training which could be improved by thinking more carefully about various aspects of educational technology in teacher education. Technology is becoming an important part of education and teachers are seen as a critical link in developing technology literacy among students (Phelps, 2002). This literacy can only be achieved if the teachers themselves possess it; one cannot give what one does not have. The expansion of information and communication technology presents educators of teachers with new issues and challenges, two of which are educating teachers to use technology in educationally effective ways, including teaching them about the technology, and incorporating technology with the delivery of teacher education. This suggests that preparation of teachers should teach educational technology as content and at the same use it as delivery resource. Consequently, educational institutions need to have a practical vision for effective use of educational technology to facilitate training and preparation for graduates. This paper is a presentation of findings from a study whose purpose was to evaluate educational technology use in teacher education in Kenyan universities. The findings are on lecturers’ attitude towards educational technology, major types of educational technology used in the preparation of teachers at the Kenyan universities, frequency of use of educational technology by lecturers, effectiveness of educational technology in teacher preparation, and use of educational technology in public and private universities. Based on the findings of the study, this paper presents certain conclusions and recommendations which are expected to be useful to Policy makers especially in the Ministry of Education, teacher trainers, educational technologists and all those concerned with teacher preparation at university level; these are guided at improving, innovating, and evaluating their teacher preparation programmes to remain relevant in teacher preparation.
he purpose of this study was to examine the existing school leadership development practices in public secondary schools of East Showa. More specifically, the study was aimed to investigate the extent to which the present secondary school principals have the necessary preparation in terms of knowledge, skills and attitude to effectively perform school tasks and to investigate the different modalities that have been in place to promote the competence and capabilities of school leaders. Furthermore, the study was targeted to identify the types of leadership development programs that school principals need to effectively discharge their roles and responsibilities. To do so, basic research questions were formulated to guide the whole activities of the study. It is hoped that the study will help policy makers to revisit the existing realities of the competence of school principals and the need to provide professional development to promote their leadership skills.
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In this study, an SOM was applied to aid the selection of appropriate consultant firms. There is wide variation in the requirements for the preparation of studies and designs for various types of buildings and facilities (commercial, educational, health, sports, infrastructure, etc.) and in the requirements for the supervision of special projects, so the present study was conducted based on a sample of engineering consultancy firms and design projects, where the author used a neural network to classify the firms. This study was conducted using a form of unsupervised learning known as Kohonen networks or SOMs.
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Therefore, it is crucial to further investigate this principal preparation training as it is the sole training that can make a difference in the leadership of the principals in schools. If we want our principals to take the Malaysian education system to the next level, the beginning principals must be supported in every possible way to ensure their success in leading their schools effectively. They should be armoured in the best way to swim through the “tsunami” of challenges that face them in this era. According to a report by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB, 2006), a program evaluation component, which measures the extent to which program graduates perceive that their principal preparation program prepared them for their roles as instructional and transformational leaders is the core condition that seem to be underdeveloped in educational leadership programs. This situation to a certain extent holds true in the NPQH training program. Hence, it is essential to investigate and evaluate the NPQH training program to identify elements in the training program that can be further developed to ensure that it has all the necessary criteria need to make it a mandatory requirement for principalship. Preparing new principals to become leaders of change should be the top priority of the training.
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The aim of the IEP Program was to create the educa- tional tools and infrastructure needed to sustain a pro- gram supporting internationally trained Physiotherapists applying for licensure in BC. Consideration was given to developing a program that included the necessary cur- riculum, resources, mentorship and practice opportun- ities to assist IEPs in their preparation for the exams and entering the Canadian workforce. As many resources as possible were made available on-line to serve the needs of IEPs from clinical practice sites distant from Vancouver. Evaluation was built into the program to inform continuing program improvements and the development of additional program initiatives. This has resulted in the Program attracting greater numbers of IEPs than projected, and pro- viding the flexibility to support and accommodate these greater numbers. Projections identified the capacity to sup- port and accommodate 8 IEPs per year in the practical and 16 in the written, and over the first 4 years of the program (2008–2011), 124 IEPs have participated. The program now recovers its expenses through charging the IEPs, and al- though participation has declined relative to the funded program, enrolment has been sufficient to cover costs. Using a framework to build the modules, gaining regular feedback and, making the necessary changes to develop an internationally educated health professional program has proven highly successful. Only 24 health professionals (19%) who entered the program were unable to succeed in national examinations and join the Canadian physiotherapy workforce. However, these professionals may retake the examination and enter the workforce in the future. The long-term data regarding entry of IEPs into practice indi- cates that at least 69 IEPs, who completed the IEP Program, entered the Canadian Physiotherapy workforce, with 34 of these working in the public sector.