The labour involved in creating the conditions for empathy, whether fulfilled or not, calls to mind Barbara Bolt’s important observation that ‘The ‘work’ that art does, is categorically not the object – painting, sculpture, drawing, print and so on – that we have come to call an artwork’. xx Homage to EdvardMunch is a powerful film, but this power does not derive from its status as an artwork in the sense of an object or entity amenable to categorisation. The work involved in affirming Emin’s experience is carried out both by the artist and audio-viewer in a form of co-creativity. It is not straightforward or effortless. On the contrary the weight of no-saying that surrounds art criticism, derived from Marxist methodologies that focus on ideological motives and structural conditions, makes yes-saying a difficult task. It is to work against the tide of rhetoric about progress and intellectual rigour in art and analysis. In addition, the discursive construction of Emin in particular as self-obsessed, lacking control or self restraint (creatively and sexually), as a bad artist or not even an artist at all makes this a peculiarly challenging prospect. There are constant reminders of why we should say no to Emin. However, the reluctance to say yes to Emin’s work and experience, for fear of appearing celebratory and uncritical, severely limits our encounter with her art. This only makes affirmation as a form of critical engagement more imperative. To say yes in the way I have proposed requires a temporary aligning of self to other, a partial loss of distance more commonly associated with complicity than critique. It is an additive process, not a deconstructive project. To affirm someone else’s experience risks the loss of critical distance, but it is a risk worth taking in the interests of
The availability and popularity of portable non-invasive instrumentation for the study of paintings has increased due to a shift away from using micro-invasive techniques. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a successful and established technique for the characterisation of organic materials in varnish coatings and paint films. In addi- tion, portable FTIR (pFTIR) spectrometers allow for non-invasive in situ analyses. This overcomes the disadvantages associated with micro-sampling and reproducibility issues encountered in analysis at a specific spot, as pFTIR enables examination of the whole painting. However, the practical applications and capabilities of pFTIR as a suitable screen- ing method for the chemical characterization of varnish coatings in painting collections require systematic evaluation. This study involves a selection of three paintings from the collection of 57 works by EdvardMunch belonging to The National Museum of Art in Norway. Its focus is the identification of the non-original varnish types that were applied by the museum. Between 1909 and 1993, the Museum was embroiled in a varnish controversy due to their applica- tion of, first natural and then synthetic, varnish coatings to 48 of these Munch paintings. A series of public debates arose about the Museum’s varnishing practice, which ran counter to the artist’s usual custom of leaving paint surfaces unvarnished (or occasional locally varnished). The three paintings were screened using a pFTIR spectrometer. Dif- ferent regions of the varnished and unvarnished painted surfaces were analysed with Portable Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). These paintings date from 1887 to 1891 and are documented as having been treated at the Museum with one of the following types of natural or low-molecular-weight synthetic varnish coatings: dammar, mastic, polycyclohexanone (Laropal K 80 from BASF) and reduced or hydrogenated cyclohexanone-co-methyl-cyclohexanone (MS2A from Howards of Ilford). Surface microscopy and multispectral imaging of the varnished surfaces initially assisted the mapping and choice of areas relevant for the portable DRIFTS measurements. Portable X-Ray fluorescence and surface gloss readings were also made at the pFTIR spot locations to complement the results. Using known dry varnish samples, pFTIR reference spectra were obtained and a DRIFT spectral library was also created from known historic batches of varnishes used by the museum. These were then compared with the in situ pFTIR surface readings taken from the paintings together with additional spectra acquired from a selected number of micro-samples from the same spot locations. The preliminary measurements provided an insight into the capabilities, limitations and practical aspects of using portable DRIFTS for the identification of varnish coatings present in this specific selection of Munch paintings.
“The Scream” is a well-known painting by EdvardMunch (1863–1944). The Norwegian word used by Munch is “Skrik,” which can be translated as “shriek” or “scream”. “The Scream” may be of interest to meteorologists be- cause of the quite striking representation of the sky. It has been suggested that the dramatic red-colored sky was inspired by a volcanic sunset seen by Munch, after the Krakatau eruption in 1883, that it was inspired by a sighting of stratospheric nacreous clouds and also that it is part of the artist’s expres- sion of a scream from nature. The evidence for the volcanic sunset theory and Munch’s psyche are briefly reviewed. We provide support that Munch’s inspiration may have been from a sighting of nacreous clouds, observable from southern Norway during the winter months. We show that the colors and patterns of the sky in Munch’s painting match the sunset colors better if nacreous clouds are present. Their sudden appearance around and after sunset creates an impressive and dramatic effect. By comparing the color content of photographs and paintings of regular sunsets, volcanic sunsets, and nacreous clouds after sunset, with the color content of the sky in “The Scream”, the match is better with nacreous clouds present. If this conjecture is correct then Munch’s sky in “The Scream” represents one of the earliest visual documen- tations of a nacreous cloud display.
and a mental asylum were located nearby. It has been suggested that the idea of The Scream may have been influenced by the sound of animals being slaughtered nearby. A possible reason for Munch walking in this area, suggested by Sue Prideaux in her book EdvardMunch: Behind “The Scream” (Prideaux 2012), is that he was visiting his younger sister who had recently been admitted into the asylum. There are also specu- lations that Munch had seen an exhibit of a Peruvian mummy in Paris and this has influenced the way the main figure in The Scream is depicted, with a hairless, contorted face. The world of art history makes little comment on such influences and there is virtually no analysis of the sky in The Scream, the main topic of discussion in this work. If the narrative is to be treated literally, then there are some important re- marks that provide clues to the cause of the dramatic sky. He mentions the sun was setting and that the sky “suddenly” turned blood red. He mentions “flaming clouds” and “swords.” The word “wave” appears in the written statement and the sky is depicted as “wavy.” This suggests that if the observation is to be treated as real, then it is likely that the colors were influenced by an appearance of clouds. Nacreous clouds fit this description well, as we shall see later.
The Frieze evolved from an earlier-conceived “Love” series of 1893 and grew to twenty-two paintings that were first exhibited as the Frieze of Life in Berlin in 1902. The Frieze was divided into four thematic parts: The Seeds of Love, The Blossoming and Fading of Love, The Angst of Life, and Death, each theme occupying its own wall. Several of these paintings, such as Fertility (1898) and Metabolism (1899), incorporate the themes and tropes of the biblical Genesis story. In Fertility (Figure 3.8), the two figures are situated within a rural, agricultural setting, they are dressed in peasant clothing and the woman carries a basket with which to collect fruit from the apple tree. Here, the association of degeneration is downplayed, while the “Adam” and “Eve” figures are associated with an optimistic, pastoral vision of organic fertility. The couple seems to be in harmony with the land, the calm postures under the fruit bearing tree is suggestive of the fecundity of their environment and of their relationship. By titling this painting “fertility”, Munch makes clear his emphasis on the biological and physiological nature of sexuality. In his woodcut
The fishing pressure used in Conover & Munch (2002), which removes 90% of the largest fish, is unre- alistically high and consequently produces unrealisti- cally rapid evolutionary change, approximately a 25% change in size at age over 4 generations. Individual- based model simulations with more realistic harvest rates in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 suggest that evolution- ary change over 4 generations would be less than 10%. Based on these results, either Atlantic silverside are a unique species, and hence, generalizations are not appropriate, or selection pressures are too strong to extend to wild fisheries. Either way, it is important to consider timescales relevant to wild fisheries. A review of empirical studies of fishery-driven evolution sug- Fig. 4. (A) Contour plot of the change in mean weight (%) of all fish after 4 generations of harvesting, using different fishery scenarios, in the individual-based (IBM) model. The dot indicates size selectivity and harvest rate in Conover & Munch (2002) (B) Histogram of the maximum yearly harvest rate in 82 wild fisheries for comparison with the harvest rate used in Conover &
Background: For a long time, the Christie-Atkinson-Munch-Peterson (CAMP) test has been a standard test for the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, and a positive result for S.agalactiae has been considered sensitive enough. Methods: To confirm whether a positive CAMP test is a requirement for the identification of S.agalactiae, five suspected CAMP-negative S.agalactiae isolates from two hospitals, confirmed as Gram-positive and catalase- negative streptococci, were verified by the CAMP test in three batches of plates from two manufacturers and identified by the Phoenix system, MALDI-TOF MS, the PCR assay and the 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Results: All five suspected strains were S.agalactiae, four of which were CAMP-negative and one of which was not S.agalactiae by the PCR assay.
The programs’ manual was developed in collaboration with the training organisation (ECTARC), NSW Early Childhood Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Work- ing Group and health promotion officers from the NSW North Coast Area Health Service. The manual contained removable, laminated pages with a range of games and learning experiences related to healthy eating, and fun- damental movement skills (FMS) activities designed to develop locomotor, object control and stability skills. Additionally, examples of a physical activity, screen time and nutrition policy statements were included which could be adapted or adopted by the preschool. Other Munch and Move resources included a lanyard with a series of cards attached that contained pictures and text of the performance criteria for each FMS; fact sheets for noticeboards, Munch and Move poster and ‘snake and ladders’ game which were based on the five key Munch and Move messages.
as an exception in Munch’s oeuvre. Despite break- ing with genre expectations and recognizable nar- rative details, the painting’s content still matters. By taking the figure of a sick child from memory, Munch lost his firm grip on naturalist observation, but it is first in retrospect that this painterly loss became the actual loss of his sister. Dylan’s Blind Willie McTell has the air of access to memory and the ground on which folk music moved, and this is inauthentic to say the least. Eastwood extends and accentuates the part of naturalism and the everyday in his last take on the western – a process that con- tinues to this day to the detriment of the western genre. Still, an exit is kept open through the misery of the settler life, and the reason is that both the landscape and the historical period are stable and mythic. No hat is white anyway, when seen against the setting sun.
- Mandy Treagus (University of Adelaide), “Shigeyuki Kihara’s ‘Culture for Sale’ and the History of Pacific Cultural Performance” - Screening of extended extract from the stage production Moana: The Rising of the Sea (2013), introduced by Edvard Hviding (University of Bergen)