As hypothesized, supervisors who exhibited higher levels of benevolent leadership behaviors had employees with higher levels of task performance. There are reasons to believe that benevolent leadership and task performance are positively associated. There is considerable empirical evidence that virtuous and benevolent actions at work lead to tendencies to repeat or replicate these actions and this contagion effect leads to mutually reinforcing cycles and positive spirals in human systems (Cameron, Bright, & Caza, 2004; Seligman, 2002; Fredrickson, 2001). When employees observe benevolent leadership behaviors at work, they become more inclined towards replicating these benevolent behaviors, such as spending extra efforts to help colleagues or contribute to the common good. In turn, these positive spirals lead to collective flourishing, thriving, productivity, and better organizational performance (Cameron et al., 2004). In addition, a benevolent leader can fulfill a role obligation in front of the followers, which helps followers to build a more productive work group (Pellegrini & Scandura, 2008).
In this study it was found that Organizational Commitment Variables had a positive and significant influence on OCB. This is in line with previous research from Maria (2015) which states that there is a positive relationship between organizational commitment to OCB. Furthermore Sofiah (2015) in her research also states that organizational commitment was related to OCB. The highest dimension correlation of organizational commitment to OCB is the dimension of normative commitment to civic virtue. This shows that commitment is formed with moral / ethical reasons for employees, forming behaviors that indicate employee responsibility in the life of the company's organization. Organizational Culture, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment have an Effect on OCB (Hypothesis 7)
Previous studies have shown that Perceived justice of rewards, organizational procedures and interpersonal behaviors are related to individual's attitudes and behaviors and moreover, perceived justice in the organization can be associated with positive outcomes such as Organizational commitment. (Leow and Wei Khong, 2009). In fact, organizational justice represents managers and management's concern for his employees and builds a bridge of trust which ultimately increase and strengthen the employee's commitment to the organization (Bahary-far et al, 2011). Also organizational justice led to perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Lambert (2003) argues that employees who feel that the organization is fair and just in treatment of his employees are encouraged to trust on organizations and be faithful to it and ultimately this fact increases their organizational commitment. It could be stated that it is impossible for employees to have trust, belonging and commitment to such an organization which is fair and unequitable in his treatment (Bahary-far et al, 2011). Leow and Wei Khong (2009) found that employees tend to have more organizational commitment when consequences of practices used in an organization are considered fair (Leow and Wei Khong, 2009). Also On effect of organizational justice Colquitt et al (2001) found that relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment in the field of distributive justice is stronger (Bahary-far et al, 2011). Bahary-far et al (2011) in their study evaluated the effects of procedural and distributive justice on organizational commitment and pointed out that both dimensions of justice has a significant effect on organizational commitment and represented that the effect of procedural justice in comparison with distributive justice is stronger (Bahary-far et al, 2011). With regard to the materials stated above first sub-hypothesis can be formulated as follows:
Drawing on Conservation of Resource theory (COR), Crain (2012) applied FSSB to employees’ physical research, and found out that FSSB moderated the associa- tion between supervisor positives pill over and employee sleep duration . Sa- mantha and Jonathon (2013) collect data from 628 employees of a health system, using path analytic tests of moderated mediation, provide support for the me- diated effect of family-supportive climate on employee work-family conflict (through family supportive supervisor behaviors) . Qing and Zhou (2017) use a 2-wave survey conducted over a 5-month interval, results revealed that FSSB at Time 1 increased bidirectional work-family enrichment and work engagement at Time 2, bidirectional work-family enrichment was found to fully mediate the re- lationship between FSSB and work engagement . Similarly, Rofcanin et al. (2017) proposed that the positive association between subordinates’ perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organiza- tional culture . Germeys and Sara (2017) argued that family supportive su- pervisor behaviors moderate the relationship between experiencing home-work conflict and an employee’s performance of counterproductive work behavior . In a survey of healthcare workers, Yragui, Demsky, Hammer, Dyck, & Ne- radilek (2017) testified the moderating effects of family-supportive supervisor behaviors on the relationship between two types of workplace aggression and employee well-being and work outcomes .
vidual (collective) behavior, organizational climate, organizational structure, ac- tive organizational policies, and procedures in organizations  . At present, due to the unique role of organizational ethics in the promotion of organization and individual performance, more and more attention has been paid to the aca- demic and practical communities. From another perspective, the changes in the corporate competitive environment have led to a greater proportion of role-based behaviors in the work of employees, and how to promote employee challenge-oriented organizationalcitizenship under brand-new working condi- tions (challenge-oriented organizationalcitizenship behavior, COCB) has also become the focus of the organization’s human resource management. Challeng- ing organizationalcitizenship behavior mainly refers to the creative idea expres- sion and transformational effort that employees spontaneously generate to im- prove the operational efficiency of the organization . In essence, it is clearly a category of positive behavior, which is closely related to the positivity of the in- ternal and external organization of the individual . Therefore, organizational ethics is likely to be an important antecedent variable for employees to challenge organizationalcitizenship behavior. Further literature studies indicate that al- though some studies have examined the relationship between organizational ethics and related outcomes, few studies have focused on the relationship be- tween organizational ethics and challenging organizationalcitizenship behavior. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to explore the impact of organi- zational ethics on employee challenged organizationalcitizenship behavior in the context of China. In addition, it is also necessary to explore the internal me- chanisms that influence organizational morality to influence em- ployee-challenging organizationalcitizenship behavior. According to the cogni
attitude of workers. They stated that attitudes such as employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and workplace behavior such as absenteeism and OCB are found to be correlated with perception of justice in the work place. Perception of justice in the workers may generate a state of mind with a positive attitude. This condition may in turn lead the workers to get engage in performing OCB (2000). According to Moorman (1993), organizational justice is about the organizationalbehaviors. The evaluation of the employees by their chiefs and their perceptions toward its fairness determine their organizationalbehaviors. Morman's theory points out the fair attitudes of managers are more important than the just evaluations about the general procedures. The procedural justice, who is about the formal procedures related to the organization, focuses on the organization generally, on the other hand, interpersonal justice enables the workers see themselves as valuable and important individuals. The tripartite conceptualization of organizational justice consists of distributive, procedural, and interactional dimensions. Distributive justice represents the perceived fairness regarding the allocation of organizational resources; procedural justice implies the perceived fairness of the means and procedures used to determine those allocations; and interactional justice means the perceived fairness concerning the quality of interpersonal treatment, typically received from one’s supervisor, in an organization when procedures are enacted (Colquitt et al., 2005). On the other hand, some describe an additional fourth dimension; informational justice (Colquitt and Chertkoff, 2002; Nowakovski and Conlon, 2005). The aim of this study was to find the level of OCB and OJP in employees of Cukurova University Hospital in the city of Adana, Turkey.
Some recommendations for practitioners and researchers are as follow: (1) According to the research results, it is essential to establish a proper environment for educational and training activities and to take into account teachers’ demands in the occupational and organizational fields. Within this context, teachers’ expectations related to their occupations should be determined and criteria preventing teachers’ alienation concerning these expectations should be developed. (2) The empowerment of communication within the organization, democratic leader, transparent management style, open communication channels, and teachers’ value judgments should be borne in mind in order to prevent alienation.(3) School administrators should establish a working environment in which less alienation is experienced and more citizenshipbehaviors are encouraged by providing teachers with humanitarian working conditions. (4) School administrators should involve teachers, educational employees, in making and applying decisions related to them by acting responsibly. Furthermore, school administrators should avoid the applications that weaken or disregard teachers’ value judgments and should establish open school climate. (5) Powerlessness (the dimension of organizational alienation) was detected to be the highest in the research. Thus, school administrators should endeavor to enable teachers to collaborate by inhibiting every application that will damage their perceptions of justice and equality by preventing teachers’ alienation and estrangement. (6) A mid-level, significant and negative oriented correlation was detected between teachers’ organizational alienation and
Good employees are employees who have OCB and COSE behaviors. Employees with both of the above behaviors will work very well in serving customers on an ongoing basis. Moreover, if they get the support of the organization, then the higher performance in providing uniq value compared with competitor companies that will make consumers satisfied, loyal, and create profit growth for the company. There is a numbers of research pay attention on the relationship of OCB and COSE toward customer loyalty such as Castro et al.  and Kim . Castro et al.  examines the effect of OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior (OCB) on Behavioral Intention through intervening variable Quality of Service and Customer Satisfaction. Findings that OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior (OCB) has a significant effect on Behavioral Intention. While Kim  examines the effect of Customer Orientation of Service Customer (COSE) on Repurchase Intention through Interpening Relational Benefits variables. Finding that COSE has significantly influences on Repurchase Intention. Other researchers has an attention on the role of perceived organisazional support as a moderating variable. Yongxing et al.  and Al-Homayan et al.  using Perceived Organizational Support (POS) as the moderating variable. The result of Yongxing et al.  shows that the variable of Organizational Support as moderation gives a significant positive effect to the relationship of work engagement and job performance. While the study of Al- Homayan et al.  found that Organizational Support variables support the relationship between Job Stress variables and Nurses' Job Performance.
Hospitals may want to increase employees’ justice perception because it plays a role in motivating employees to engage in OCB. Justice perceptions are influenced not only by individual differences but also by organizational structures and procedures. The employees believing in the fair distribution of wages, bonus or promotional offers that are received, resources and rights show OCBs such as contribute to the organizational development, appropriate the organization and take care of the job and patients. Also, the employees who believe that they personally are treated fairly by their supervisors are significantly more likely to exhibit citizenshipbehaviors.
Justice is often the center of attention of organizations and human rights, because everyone in any situation and context wants fair treatment by other parties, as well as in organizations. Employees' perceptions of organizational justice are important predictors of employee positive work attitudes. Employees who feel treated fairly by the organization will hold commitment, have confidence in management and leadership, satisfaction, sense of belonging to each other and increase OCB employees so that they contribute to retaining employees in the organization (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng, 2001; Cropanzano, Bowen, & Gilliland, 2007; Greenberg, 1990).
Regarding the results obtained from the data analysis, the first and second hypotheses are approved. In fact, the t-statistics of the first hypothesis and the second hypothesis are 2.483 and 3.136 respectively. Therefore, it can be stated with confidence that, in National Iranian Oil and Petroleum Distribution Company-Tehran Region, the transformational leadership has a significant effect on the citizenship behavior of the employees. The calculated coefficient of this hypothesis is 0.180, which indicates that the transformational leadership has a positive effect on the employees’ organizationalcitizenship behavior from both individual and organizational aspects. From the results of this hypothesis testing, it can be inferred that the transformational leadership can form a dynamic and organic organizational structure in the organization, create flexibility in the tasks and freedom of action instead of prewritten job descriptions, grant authority instead of the concentration of decision-makings, and generally provide a desirable environment for the emergence of the citizenshipbehaviors in the organization. Winnington et al. (2004) also expressed that the employees working with the transformational leaders are usually motivated to work beyond their official tasks in order to benefit the organization.
Abstract The aim of the study is to solve the problem of decreasing student academic performance which is influenced by satisfaction in using e-learning, the quality of e-learning systems, environment, and organizational culture. The research method used is verification by using structural equational modeling test with partial least square approach, primary data obtained from questionnaires designed by researchers. Respondents are students who are in management accounting courses with the number of samples using the power analysis. The results of the study answer the problems that occur that there is no evidence of environmental uncertainty, organizational culture towards e-learning. But, e-learning affects user satisfaction, and user satisfaction influences student academic performance. The results of the study are expected to provide input for managers to consider the application of e-learning system learning in management accounting courses. The uniqueness of this research is the development of a success model of information systems from DeLone & McLane, shown by the addition of exogenous variables, namely the environment and organizational culture that were not previously present in the model.
In this sample, the affective and continuance commitments were correlated with both helping and compliance dimensions of OCBs, but it was opposite for continuance and normative commitment with helping dimension of OCBs. The employees with high affective commitment are likely to support their colleagues by voluntarily helping them. Contrary to most of the western countries, Pakistan (where these relationships were explored) is not only more strongly collectivist but also possesses a hierarchical social structure formally imposed from outside based on a risk-averse attitude and demanding normative commitment. This type of risk-aversive normative commitment gives rise to citizenshipbehaviors like sportsmanship (associated with a strong sense of obligation and duty) than most the western contexts. The fact that normative commitment was correlated with sportsmanship also supported this expectation of risk-aversive normative commitment is associated with sportsmanship dimension of OCBs in Pakistani culture.
This study examined the relationship between sustainable products with brand citizenship of fast moving consumer goods. An analysis was conducted on a survey data of 128 students studying various programmes at higher learning institutions in Perlis. Three dimensions of brand citizenship have been identified consisting of helping behaviour, brand sportsmanship and self-development of brand enhancement. Meanwhile, the sustainable products consist of two dimensions which are ethics and health consciousness. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that sustainable product has significant relationship with brand citizenship of fast moving consumer goods. This study is hoped to differentiate between the sustainable products with corporate social responsibility practiced by fast moving consumer goods company. It is suggested that for the future, the sample size of this study should include other segment of customers of fast moving consumer goods despite focusing on students only.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the, relationship between organizational justice and organizationalcitizenship behavior among 186 experts of Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance (MEAF) in Iran. Design/methodology/approach – The papers develops a research model based on current literature and then test this model in MEAF selected from 18 Ministry, public sector in Iran. Statistics society consists of 186 experts include assistant of general managers in both personnel affairs and welfare and domestic payments department, and also professionals, managers and deputy of personnel affair and department of organization and methods in MEAF. The sample size provided based on "Cohan- Morgan- Korjsay" is 186 experts which has been determined with descriptive methods. For data analyzing we used analysis of Kolmogorov-Smirnov's, analysis of correlation, and analysis of variance test. Findings – The results indicate that we found that there is positive relationship between organizational justice and OCB. Research limitations/implications – This study could benefit from a large sample from public sector and replication in more Ministries. Practical implications – The paper offers practical suggestions to the public sector and management in general on how to manage the organizational justice effects on OCB. Originality/value – This paper has tried to provide an inclusive understanding about the relationship between organizational justice and OCB in the MEAF in Iran. Since there was a lack of such research in an Iranian context, this paper can provide theoretical basis for future researches as well as practical implications for managers and the professionals. Keyword: Organizational Justice, OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior, Iran
Organizations use past experience of employees or other organizations to form information. The critical point of creating information by employees can generally cause various problems when the information is taken outside. Different ways and method can be used when information is spreaded. Newspapers, conferences, production reports or computer based information systems can help to spread the information inside the organization. Accordingly organizational information of an employee becomes as a shared information and organizationallearning occurs. Information can be created within the organization and transferred to the receiver with suitable ways or right channels but if this information is not applied to behaviors or decisions, organizationallearning does not occur. For that reasonin order to complete the cycle and learning, information should be used on the right place and time. Drew and Smith (1995) defined learning way of the learningorganization as shown in Figure 5.1. In the path "focus" can be defined as realizing the vision and the path to be followed. Focusing can occur as a result of strategic planning, thinking and gathering information by decision makers and key actors. Top level focusing can only be achieved when the details of the work are known and the keyactor has the necessary knowledge. Passion as another component expresses a more strategic intension. The most significant property of passion is that it causes to be focused on objectives and face the problems in both managerial and individual level. Passion is affected by every level of management not only from the upper management.
This research placed in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office, discusses about the influence of job satisfaction consist and work loyalty on OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. The variables are (1) job satisfaction that of work itself, supervision, workers, promotion and pay (2) work loyalty that consist of personal characteristic, job characteristic, characteristic design’s company and experience gained in work (3) OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior consist of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. This research aims to search: (1) The influence of job satisfaction on OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior (2) The influence of work loyalty on OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior (3) The influence of job satisfaction and work loyalty simultaneously on OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior. This research is catagorized as a survey research. Types of data used in this research is quantitative data or shaped number. The instrument of this research uses questionnaire. Population in this research is the employees include security of Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office numbered 73 people. Validity test uses Pearson Product Moment meanwhile the reability test uses Alpha Cronbach. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis is used to test the hypothesis in this research. The results of the study found that this research accepted the hypotheses: (1) Job satisfaction has positive and significant influence on employee’s performance in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. (2) Work loyalty has positive and significant influence on employee’s performance in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. (3) The job satisfaction and work loyalty together influence OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. Work loyalty is the dominant variable. Suggestion for Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office are (1) Make a periodic survey about employees job desk related to their position in the department (2) Make a periodically survey about the knowledge of employees about existing activities in Bank Indonesia, so no one will miss the information (3) The author suggested to the next researchers have to focus on indicators that provide such influence that contribute to the work of the department and information activities in the company.
The survey data was collected by sending questionnaires to 375 customer service representatives. In order to increase the accuracy of the response, researchers included with each questionnaire a cover letter that explained the purpose of the study and guaranteed anonymity for the respondent. To maximize the response rate, the researchers, after two weeks, sent follow-up letters and e-mails and made telephone calls. Employees were asked to answer questions about POS, organizational commitment, service-oriented OCBs, and their demographic characteristics. The employee is the only one who can respond to his or her own POS and organizational commitment. With respect to OCB, employee self-evaluation is a useful way to execute an effective survey, as many genuine actions can escape the attention of the manager, who may notice only those who impress him or her most [Organ, 1988].
library reference to university libraries and information centers and search the database of the latest studies and research available has been used.To collect the basic data required to test the research hypotheses of the questionnaire used. To formulate hypotheses every researcher needs conceptual model to identify variables based on assumptions, to explain the conceptual and operational definitions of the variables and the relationships between them (Fattahi, 95:2008). This research is trying to answer a questionnaire survey of a sample and its generalization to the population, the type and extent of customer satisfaction and citizenship behavior of employees must be examined. "Cohen and Vigoda" has stressed the importance of organizationalcitizenship behavior on organizational forms and all have pointed out that organizationalcitizenship behavior, ways to improve the organizational effectiveness (Sobhaninejad, 58:2010). "Artourk" in this connection is that, OCB as new patterns of employee behavior in organizations today as the modern approach of the modern management of human resources has been used in many organizations (Alizadeh, 49:2008). Researchers have identified components in a variety of organizationalcitizenship behavior. The most widely used and accepted organizationalcitizenship behavior, most researchers rely on their own research, including: Altruism, sportsmanship, work ethics, attitude and respect for civil and polite. "Organs" of the five dimensions proposed in 1988. "Poudsakof et al" in 1990 with the help of factor analysis for each of the five dimensions, the standard measures that assess OCB Over the years the use of many of the (spector, 2002: 269-292). Among these dimensions conscience "work"
http://ijessr.com Page 339 mediates its influence on OCB-I partially and on OCB-O fully. This finding provides strong support for the theory that organizational commitment is an inclusive construct of job satisfaction. In conclusion, job satisfaction has a positive impact on commitment to school and OCB, and commitment mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB. Whereas Purba et al. (2015), examined the mediation of organizational commitment on the relationship between personality and organizationalcitizenship behavior (OCB). The study was conducted in Indonesia with a sample of 300 foreign employees at cement plants located in 7 different places in West Java. In this study found affective commitment to mediate the relationship between extraversion and emotional stability and OCB (with a relationship between emotional stability and OCB-I after controlling extraversion as the only exception).