increased THI value from 68 to 78, milkproduction decreased by 21% and DMI by 9.6%. Milk yield decreased by 0.41 kg per cow per day for each point increase in the THI values above 69. Ambient temperature and humidity join to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows as a physiological means of regulating internal body temperature. This is accomplished by decreasing rumen fermentation and the metabolic rate (Moody EG, 1971). A reduction in DMI decreases the nutrients accessible for milk synthesis. Milkproduction turn down and many lactation parameters are affected (Bauman et al., 1980 and Smith et al., 1982). Dairy cows instinctively reduce feed intake throughout the period of heat stress, and this reduction could boost up as weather becomes hotter. Typically, early lactating and high producing cows are more directly and severely affected than late lactating or low producing cows. The reduction in nutrient intake has been identified as a major cause of reducing milk synthesis because it has been associated to a negative energy balance state (Wheelock et al., 2010). Nevertheless, so as to know the exact contribution of decline feed intake to the overall reduced milk yield during heat stress, Rhoads et al. (2009) used a group of thermo-neutral pair-fed dairy cows to abolish the confounding effects of nutrient intake. The cows were in mid-lactation and were either subjected to a THI of 80 units for 16 h/d (cyclically heat-stressed) during 9 d or kept under a THI of 64 units during 24 h/d (constant thermo neutral conditions). In figure 2, a clear relationship was found between milk yield and THI. Milk yield increased from July to October in accordance with the decreased THI. The lowest milk yield (5.12±0.61 l/h/d) was found against the highest THI (84.95) and the highest milk yield (6.10±0.05 l/h/d) was found against the lowest THI (79.57). From the study it is clear that milk yield decreased with increased heat stress and vice- versa.
Support for the peripheral limitation hypothesis and the HDL theory has been mixed. Hammond et al. (Hammond et al., 1996) surgically removed some of the mammary tissue of Swiss Webster mice. The rationale for this experiment was that if the mammary tissue sets the limits on intake and it is normally working at capacity, it would not be possible for the remaining tissue to compensate for the tissue that had been surgically removed. In line with the peripheral limitation hypothesis, the tissue remaining after surgery did not elevate its milkproduction capacity. The peripheral limitation hypothesis also predicts that under different temperature conditions mice would generate constant milk supplies for their offspring because the tissues would always be working at capacity. Supporting this prediction, in lactating cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), food intake was elevated in the cold, but milkproduction was not (Rogowitz, 1998). However, in MF1 mice, milkproduction varied in relation to ambient temperature, being higher in the cold and lower when it was hot, suggesting that the mammary gland did not limit the energy budget (Johnson and Speakman, 2001; Król et al., 2003). This result was therefore more consistent with the HDL theory. This effect was also later demonstrated in Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) (Wu et al., 2009) and common voles (Microtus arvalis) (Simons et al., 2011). Furthermore, when lactating MF1 mice were shaved to increase their capacity to dissipate heat, they increased food intake and milkproduction and they weaned larger pups than unshaved mice (Król et al., 2007). In contrast, shaving Swiss mice (Zhao and Cao, 2009; Zhao et al., 2010) and hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) (Paul et al., 2010) increased food intake, demonstrating an increase in heat loss, but had no significant effect on milkproduction or pup growth. In common voles, shaving resulted in significantly increased pup growth (Simons et al., 2011), and the effects on food intake and milkproduction were in the anticipated direction from the HDL theory, but the latter effects were not statistically significant.
The environmental conditions that prevail inside a livestock building induce various physiological and behavioral effects upon animals. Air quality and climate conditions are considered as major factors affecting them. Poor indoor air quality and climate conditions trigger adverse effects to animals related to their welfare, health, growth and production. Thwaites (1985) documented that a combination of high ambient temperature and high relative humidity is detrimental for sheep as it imposes heat-stress. Silanikove (2000) stated that growth, milkproduction and reproduction of ruminants are impaired by long- term exposure to heat-stress resulting from changes in biological functions. Sevi et al. (2001, 2002) concluded that high temperatures induce adverse effects on the thermal and energy balance, the mineral metabolism, the immune function, the udder health, the milkproduction and the nutritional properties associated with the fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer under the Mediterranean climate. In addition, Finocchiaro et al. (2005) found that milkproduction yields of Mediterranean dairy sheep are affected by heat-stress conditions, whereas Sevi and Caroprese (2012) clearly demonstrated that exposure of sheep to high ambient temperatures has a detrimental impact on their production performance, including nutritional and technological properties of milk. Aggarwal and Upadhyay (2013) discussed in detail the effects of heat-stress on animal (including sheep) productivity, immunity, and hormonal levels, underlying that under heat-stress, a number of physiological and behavioral responses vary in intensity and duration in relation to the animal genetic make-up and environmental factors. Sitzia et al. (2015) stated that for a continuous (i.e. including summer) milking period in the Mediterranean environment the animal heat-stress risk is maximized and concluded that confined systems may face negative effects due to heat-stress, whereas Todaro et al. (2015) concluded, among others, that although sheep are considered to be among the most heat tolerant species, exposure to high ambient temperatures has a detrimental impact on their production performance, immune function and udder health. Marino et al. (2016) describing the relationships between small ruminant farming and climate change, pointed out that a temperature raise increases the negative effect risks on animal health and Sejian et al. (2017) discussed the impacts of climate change on sheep production, reproduction, immune response, diseases, etc, emphasizing on issues related to heat-stress. Finally, Al-Dawood (2017) presented an in-depth review of issues related to heat stress management of small ruminants.
The microbial load in yoghurt kept under refrigeration (4°C) maintained the same number of microbial count from week 1 to week 3 as 1.8 x 103CFU/ml but increased in the 4th week to 2.7 x 103. This might be due to the failure in power supply which leads to the rise in temperature giving room to microorganism to multiply. It is a well-known fact that microorganism multiply rapidly under normal temperature than at lower temperatures. There was a slight decrease to 2.3 x 103 on the 6th and 7th week this might possibly be as a result of the growth of psychotropic bacteria which grows in lower temperatures even below 5°C. Rodríguez-Alcaláet al., (2009) suggested that longer refrigeration time allows increased growth of psychotropic microorganisms and concomitant production of heat-stable enzymes, especially proteinases and lipases. The result of this present study contradicts the findings of Rodríguez- Alcaláet al., 2009 which states that Cooling to a temperature of 4ºC makes the bacteria inactive and prevents them to grow and produce the lactic acid. Li and Li (1998) suggested that the tolerable limit of microbial load of yoghurt should be equal or less than 1.0x10 5 cfu/ml comparing this to the present studies, it is
Grazing management can be described as the manipulation of feed supply and stock feed demands to economically maximise farm productivity per animal and per hectare. Good grazing management should provide a large supply of high quality herbage throughout the year at low cost, avoid physical wastage of herbage and utilise it efficiently and at the same time maintain the productive capacity of the sward. Livestock production from grazing lands 1s a function of soil-plant -animal interactions and this entails the integration of each of these facets into an effective management system to achieve increased livestock productivity . Being aware of changes of weather within and between seasons; changes of sward conditions and quality as well as the varying demands of the cow this is not an easy task and needs quick decisions and proper feed budgeting. It is not the intention of this study to tackle all constraints related to management of a dairy farm. However achievements towards some of these goals start from the proper choice of pasture plants for that locality; the most suitable breed of cattle and to adopt a workable breeding scheme (calving and drying off dates) and be able to manipulate stocking rates (SR), herbage allowances and grazing intervals as the pasture swards change in growth rates and quality.
lactation (305 days), including cows with infertility resulting in them being open for > 100 days. After con- firmation of eligibility, 58 multiparous cows with LDA were included. Each case was matched with a control herd mate, based on age (± 1 month), parity and calving date (± 1 month). Cases and controls for multiparous cows also had a similar 305-d milk yield (± 200 kg) in the previous lactation. The animals were followed during a complete lactation (305 days). Herd health was evalu- ated twice a week by a veterinarian from the University of Sassari. Data concerning insemination date(s) and 305 day milkproduction in the current lactation were collected for all the animals.
However, rice straw has limited itself for a significant biogas production in the AD process due to its intrinsic composition and structure. Rice straw contains high carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) leading to have a low nutrient content available for microorganisms. Furthermore, the structure of rice straw is complex and consists of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulos, which limits a biodegradable activity of enzymes and microorganisms. Consequently, a series of processes of biogas production from hydrolysis to methanization cannot take place efficiently, resulting in a meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. 4,5 A
to 416 days). As discussed previously, high milk yielding cows, such as in Scotland, mobilize body energy reserves for milkproduction, with a potential deleterious effect on cow fertility (Pryce et al., 1999). While the average herd in Northern Ireland had a lower average milk yield (8,744 L per lactation) and calving interval (411 days), the average SCC (237,000 cells/ml) and subsequent estimated incidence of mastitis (29%) was higher than in other re- gions (ranging from 21% to 24%), which may explain the high proportion of first lactation animals as farms try to reduce SSC and mastitis levels. Pritchard, Coffey, Mrode, and Wall (2012) found that the coefficients of genetic variation for SCC and calving interval in the recorded UK dairy population are both low at 3% compared to moder- ately heritable milkproduction traits ranging from 11% to 13%, where genetic gains are more achievable. Regional differences in biological traits would support the need for customized and tailored selection indices for livestock, where producers create economic index weights specific to their farm circumstances. Such customized selection in- dices would seem appropriate for health and fertility traits with low heritability, and given their association with re- ductions in emissions intensity (Cottle & Coffey, 2013). Therefore, improved awareness or tools to enhance mon- itoring may help reduce these health and fertility issues. By reducing the risks associated with poor reproductive and milking performance and the incidence of mastitis the number of cows culled for management rather than invol- untary reasons can be increased. Management and breed- ing policies should be directed towards not only increasing milk yield but decreasing the causes of involuntary culling to allow cows to reach their mature and optimum produc- tion of three to four lactations (Eggar- Danner et al., 2015; Rogers, van Arendonk, & McDaniel, 1988). Furthermore, FIGURE 1 Steady- state herd showing proportion of cows in
Abstract— S everal commercial products have been produced from carob pods ranging from food additives to ready-to-eat foods. Examples include carob gums as food thick ening agents and carob molasses as traditional sweeteners in the Middle East. During processing, carob is cut into different sizes and soak ed in different rea gents to yield permeates that undergoes several processing in late production stages. It has been shown that soak ing in basic media (Sodium Bicarbonate 1%) yields higher brix values followed by soak ing in alcohol (20%), distilled water and acidic media (Citric Acid 1%) respectively. Her we show that powder form yields significantly the highest brix value followed by small, large, mixed and medium, which did not differ significantly from each other. Moreover, no significant difference is noticed between 2 hours, 4 hours or 6 hours of soak ing. Sensory analysis shows that base powder was the most favorable reagent-size interaction among all samples.
The estimation of milk yield using growth rates and fasted weight losses involved several assumptions. To estimate maintenance requirements, litters were fasted for 4-6h and their weight loss was calculated up to a loss over 24h. It was assumed that the weight lost by the litter through the metabolism of body stores to meet maintenance energy requirements would be in proportion to body composition. During a fast however, monogastrics absorb and use any nutrients in the gut before body fat and body protein are used. Weight loss also occurs due to dehydration. Urination and defaecation by 3 and 10 day old pups would not contribute to weight loss during the fasting period as these functions only occur when stimulated by maternal licking of the pup perineal region (Baverstock and Green, 1 975; Walser, 1 977). Pups at D 17 however would be able to urinate and defaecate without the assistance of their mother and therefore this would contribute to error. Perspiration is also another small source of error for pups of all ages (Fiorotto et al. , 1 99 1 ). Reddy and Donker (1965) measured the weight loss attributed to respiration, urination and defaecation in rats as being approximately 8% of litter weight per day. These losses were measured by recording the weight loss of litters when separated from the dam and calculating this up to a loss over 24h. As this is essentially what has been done in the present study and there is no clear way to distinguish between insensible weight loss and basal metabolism, no correction was made to account for insensible weight loss.
(Kulikowska-Karpińska and Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, 2001). In plants, environmental adversity often leads to the in- creased generation of reduced oxygen species and con- sequently, SOD has been proposed to be important in plant stress tolerance . In the present study, SOD activity in the cotyledons are significant higher than those of the hypocotyls and radicles at the same zinc level, suggesting that the cotyledons are most sensitive, when exposed to zinc toxicity. Isoform enzymes of Page analysis showed that the levels of SOD transcripts are induced in response to zinc stress; however, they differ in different tissues and zinc concentrations. These results might suggest that a hierarchy of regulatory events act at the transcription of SOD genes. Pioneer studies had shown a general stimulation of constitutive SODs and the induction of specific SOD isoenzymes in different plant species (Prasad et al., 1999). Enhanced SOD activity could potentially increase oxidative stress due to in- creased production of H 2 O 2 . Based on the above results,
The large crop yields achieved by fodder beet, Beta vulgaris M., (FB) have led to its extensive use as a winter forage crop in New Zealand dairy systems. Compared with an alternative forage such as kale, FB can produce >20 t DM/ha (Chakwizira et al. 2013), which can be grazed or harvested and fed elsewhere or stored if necessary. This versatility is attractive for many farmers, as FB may be harvested to return the land to pasture and the FB fed to supplement the early lactation herbage supply. Although FB bulbs are high in metabolisable energy [ME: 11.8 MJ ME/kg DM (Clark et al. 1987)], studies undertaken internationally report minimal improvement of milk yield when FB is fed alongside various levels of protein (Fisher et al. 1994), or concentrates (Ferris et al. 2003). However, the milk response to supplementing a grazed herbage diet with FB has had little study.
main sales channel was direct to the consumer (N=11), other options were a small consortium (N=1) and a non-specialised shop (N=1). The marketing channels were websites and social networks (N=8) and word of mouth (N=8). None of the sampled farms sold milk to paediatric wards. Consumers mostly bought fresh milk directly on farm more than once a week (N=5) or less frequently (N=6). The answers to the question “what influences consumers’ purchasing decisions?” were rather vague and in most cases could be interpreted as the need to drink donkey milk because of health reasons. All the consumers, as reported by farmers, were children in the household. All the farms but one performed mechanical milking, the remaining one did manual milking; machines used were modified from a goat milkmaid. Nine farms milked once a day, the remaining one milked upon request. All the farmers adopted a method of cleaning and disinfection of the teats: damp cloth, disinfectant or pre-dipping. Five farms performed pasteurization, four refrigerated the milk, one farm performed filtering and one farm froze the milk. All the farms but one periodically carried out milk analysis, with eight farms searching for somatic cells (22916,7±34851,5 SSC/ml) in addition to bacterial count (134166,7±229383,3 cfu/ml). All the farmers declared not to use any drugs on lactating donkeys. It remains to be investigated if and how lactating donkeys were treated when ill.
Probiotics in almond-based matrices were considered as a means of obtaining fermented products which would cover both the current demand for health-promoting foods and for alternatives to standard yoghurts. Firstly, the combined effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH) and heat treatment on the physical stability of almond “milk” was studied. The beverage was homogenised by applying 62, 103 and 172 MPa (MF1, MF2 and MF3 respectively); MF3 was also combined with two different heat treatments (85 °C-30 min (LH) and 121 °C-15 min (HH)). Both microstructure and colloidal stability were analysed in all the processed samples to select the most suitable treatment with which to obtain a stable product. The selected almond milk was then fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus and the final product was characterised throughout cold storage time (28 days) as to pH, acidity, serum retention and starter viability. A sensory evaluation and probiotic survival to in vitro digestion was also conducted. The results showed that the physical and structural almond-milk properties were affected by both HPH and heat treatments, obtaining the greatest stability in MF3-LH samples. The fermented milk permitted probiotic survivals above the level suggested as minimum for ensuring health benefits during the entire controlled time and, hence, can be considered as a functional food. No differences in the sensory acceptability of the product were found between 1 and 28 storage days. Therefore, a new, functional, fermented product was developed, which was suitable for targeted groups, such as the lactose-intolerant and cow-milk-protein allergic populations.
Abouteffect of climate change on nutrition revealed that above 93.34 per cent of respondents were aware that decreased availability of fodder & pastures and water intake increases. The 89.17 per cent were aware about decreased availability of water for irrigation and 86.67 % were aware that decreased grazing or pasture land. 75 per cent respondents were aware that climate change reduced feed intake as well productivity of fodder crops decreased. 62.5 per cent aware that quality of fodder is affected. Sanjitet. al. (2014) reported similar finding that almost all the livestock rearer perceived that due to heat stress in summer, feed intake of animal as well as production of their livestock was decreased.
The production of breast milk as the best food for baby is affected by many factors; one of them is mothers' intake. Temulawak drink as breast milk booster can also increase appetite. According to Sudarsono(2006),from the numerous benefits of temulawak rhizome, the most common medical use of it is to lower the fever, treat constipation, boost breast milkproduction, and prevent the inflamation of the uterus in postpartum mothers. According to Santoso (2008),there is an effect on giving temulawak drink to the increase of the appetite of children with body weight below normal. The same thing happens to breastfeeding mothers.A good and regular eating habit during breastfeeding will increase the nutrition intake which will lead to a better quality of breast milk. It has been a long time since Indonesian people used temulawak as a postpartum therapy to keep the mothers' wellbeing and health.The simple mindset of the community, supported by the fact that temulawak is easy to get, leads to the production and consumption of a natural herbs assortments.Besides that, herbs' substances are not accumulated in the body, thus they do not disturb the body metabolism system.
For all six strains, a colony which had developed on the YPD plates after each heat treatment was used to establish a culture (1 mL) in YPD broth in a 48-well plate (160 rpm, 30 ° C; overnight). These were then inoculated in triplicate into 1 mL of CDGJM using a 48-pin replicating tool and incubated as above. Supernatants were assayed for glycerol content (Figure 1). The control cultures (no heat shock) showed glycerol yields ranging from 100 mg/L to approximately 5 g/L. Although some treatments resulted in lower glycerol production, many of the heat shock treatments produced an increase in glycerol yield. In most cases, such increases were modest; however, for L2056, glycerol yields increased by around 10-fold to nearly 6 g/L for the 60 ° C treatment. Based on these results, further work was performed with strains L2056, a high producer and highly responsive strain,