At the cold temperature, transcript accumulation of FAD2-1A doubled, while FAD2- 1B accumulation decreased from stage 1 to 2. At stage 2 through 3, FAD2-1A and - B transcript accumulation was similar in abundance at the warm and normal temperatures, but FAD2-1B accumulation was 1.5-2 times higher than FAD2-1A at the cold temperature. Figure 1 shows FAD2-1A and -B expression levels at stage 4. At this stage, FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B transcript accumulation is similar at the normal (26/22 o C) temperature in all three varieties. Cold or warm growth temperature however, resulted in increased expression of FAD2-1B over FAD2-1A, slight at the warm temperature, but more pronounced at the cold temperature in all three varieties. This finding may reflect the relative importance of FAD2-1B expression for determining seed 18:2 levels at the cold temperature at later seed stages. Variations of FAD2-1B transcript accumulation were observed among the three soybean varieties at all three growth temperatures at stage 4, but FAD2-1A exhibited varietal differences only at the cold temperature (Fig.1). The most extreme differences in FAD2-1 transcript accumulation were seen among the soybean varieties at the cold temperature, with Dare showing the highest FAD2-1A and -B accumulation. An earlier report (Heppard et al., 1996) detected no change in FAD2- 1 transcript accumulation in response to changing temperature. It should be noted that, at the time, the existence of the two FAD2-1 genes, A and B was unknown.
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sporulation was recorded at temperature 30 o C and 20 o C it was fair (++) at 35 o C; whereas poor (+) sporulation was recorded at 15 o C. At the temperatures of 10 o C and 40 o C there was no sporulation of the test pathogen.The present results are in agreement with the results obtained by Mishra and Gupta (1994), Shirshikar (1995), Murthy (1997), Varaprasad (2000), Singh and Singh (2001) and Laxman (2006), who reported that optimum temperature for growth and sporulation of C. truncatum was 25 o C to 30 o C.
10.97 grams, while soybeans grown in paddy field have weight of 100 grains about 22.77 grams (Table 2), and this were higher than those listed in the descriptio n (Kementerian Pertanian, 2013). Soybean seeds are small if they weigh 8-10 grams/100 grains, classified as medium size if they weigh >10-13 grams/100 grains, and are considered large seeds if they weigh >13 grams/100 grains (Suharno & Didik, 2008; Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan, 2013; Ginting & Tastra, 2013). This indicates that the effect of drought during pod formation and filling of pods can decrease the weight of 51.82% soybean seeds. Farmer preference for seed size of soybean varies, some prefer large-seeded soybeans, some also want small or medium seeded soybeans. With the results of this study is expected farmers can consider about size seed of soybean that preferenced, because soybeans initially large seeds could have turned into a small seeds. The genetic properties of a variety may change due to environmental factors. Some components of environmental factors that are important in determining the growth and production of plants include solar radiation, temperature, soil, and water.
Cooling curves were obtained according ASTM D6200 "Standard Test Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quench Oils by Cooling Curve Analysis". ASTM D6200 utilizes a 12.5 mm dia x 60 mm INCONEL 600 cylindrical probe with a Type K thermocouple inserted to the geometric center. After heating the probe in a furnace to 850°C, it was then manually and rapidly immersed into 2000 mL of the vegetable oil at 40°C which was contained in a tall-form stainless steel beaker. The data acquisition rate was at 5 Hz. The probe temperature and cooling times are recorded at selected time intervals to establish a cooling temperature versus time curve. From the cooling temperature-time and cooling rate curves, the following critical parameters were determined: • Cooling rate [ºC/s] at 700 ºC (CR700) • Maximum cooling rate [ºC/s] (CR max )
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Using satellite data , we observed that vegetation vigour decreases are able to be linked to yield by means of the vegetation index. A close relationship exists between the canopy-LST of soybeans and yields in February during drought occurrence . In the present paper, we propose the following: 1) temperature fluctuations around the optimum level in the crop canopy have an inverse effect on soybean yields during the summer crop in Rio Grande do Sul State; 2) heat waves that may or may not be associated with droughts can occur; thus, it is possible to detect a decrease in yields due to heat waves, even if a drought has not occurred; 3) considering that heat waves can potentially intensify a drought effect during crop cycle development, it is expected that the most severe decrease in yields occurs when those effects are combined; 4) in this study, we define a heat wave as any registered land surface temperature (LST) occurrence that exceeds the average conditions of summer crops dur- ing a specific time window with a resulting yield decrease.
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method proposed by Lindsay and Norvell (1978) and concentration of these micronutrients was measured on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Water extractable sulphate was determined by Tabatabai (1974). N: S ratio was determined by estimating the total nitrogen content by Microkjeldahl method (McKenzie and Wallace 1954) and total sulphur content (Chesnin and Yien 1950) by wet digestion with nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture. Fatty acids were analyzed by forming their ethyl esters (Uppstrom and Johansson 1978). The ethyl esters prepared were identified and estimated as relative percentage by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The esters thus prepared were analysed using M/s Nucon Engineers AIMIL Gas chromatograph (solid state) model: 57 or equipped with a flame ionization detector fitted with a 6’ x 1/8” stainless steel column, packed with 6% BDS (Butane diol succinate) on 100-120 mesh chromosorb HP. The conditions for the separation were as follows: Oven temperature : 190-200 o C ; Injector and flame ionization
As it can be observed on Figure 2, the following conjecture is obtained: as long as human activity rate increases (GDP and DG), temperature variations will increase, and with that, ecological reserves will decrease. Stimulating the human activity rate translates into higher gas emissions resulting in the greenhouse effect whose mechanism heats the earth’s atmosphere. The earth’s atmosphere is composed by a thin layer of gases that surrounds the planet and that are fundamental for the development of most forms of life. Also, its chemical composition consists largely of two gases: 79% nitrogen and 20%oxygen, the remaining1% is formed by various gases such as argon and carbon dioxide (Caballero, Lozano & Ortega, 2007).
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Abstract— The presence of humic substances in biostimulants composition affect positively plantgrowth by the improvement of the cation exchange capacity of the soils (CEC) and also by theformation of water soluble complexes with ions which can be uptak en by roots. Biostimulantsimprove plant growth due to the cytok inin and humic acids present in their composition. Over theyears the use of these products has been increasing and it is necessary to conduct more studies toevaluate their efficiency in promoting plant growth. The aim of this research was to evaluate theeffect of biostimulants (Brotax Solo®, Naturvital®, PT4-O® and Brotax-5®), applied with andwithout mineral fertilization, on nutrient uptak e by maize and soybean plants. A greenhouseexperiment was conducted in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Three-liter pots were filledwith 0-20 cm depth samples of Quartzipsamment soil. Base saturation was increased to 60% byapplying lime in the samples following incubation for 20 days at 80% the water retentioncapacity. After this period, mineral fertilizers were added to pots of specific treatments. Theapplied doses in L ha-1 were:Brotax Solo®: 0; 150 and 300; Brotax-5®: 0; 8 and 16; Naturvital®:0, 25 and 50; PT4-O®: 0; 0.5 and 1; referring to control, recommended dose by manufacturer and100% higher than this one, respectively. The products were diluted in water and they wereapplied in the pots 21 days after planting. Two months after planting, plant tops were collected,dried, weighted and nutrient contents in plants were determined. Data were subjected to analysisof variance (ANOVA) and means were compared by the LSD test (α = 0.05). Nutrient content inplants was higher in fertilized than in non-fertilized pots, for all products and crops. Ca and B;Zn; K; Ca and Mg contents were higher in maize plants treated with Brotax Solo®, Naturvital25®, PT4-O® and Brotax-5®, respectively. In soybean plants only the product PT4-O® showedincrement in Fe content. The amount of nutrients and humic acids in the studied products was notsufficient to increase significantly the amount of nutrients in the maize and soybean plants.
The paper studies oil absorption by polyurethane sorbents synthesized at temperatures of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°C that is necessary for the development of physicochemical foundations of the oil absorbents synthesis. It is revealed that the kinetic curves of oil absorption of the obtained sorbents, as well as previously studied industrial polyurethane foams existing in a glassy state, are characterized by the presence of maximum (at 30 min), while increasing the synthesis temperature leads to an increase in oil absorption. The author gives interpretation of obtained patterns, which are confirmed, in particular, by the electron-microscopic study.
Electrochemical measurements (EIS and PDP) have been used to study the temperature effect in the range (30p C - 70p C) on the performance of Ajowan seeds extract (ASE) and its inhibitive effects on the corrosion of steel in 2.0M H2SO4. A good agreement between the data obtained by impedance and polarization measurements was found. Results obtained reveal that ASE reduces the corrosion rate at all temperatures studied. The inhibition efficiency increases with rise temperature and the activation corrosion energy decrease in presence of ASE suggest a chemical adsorption model for the corrosion processes.Thermodynamic parameters, Ea, Δ H#, Δ S# have been calculated and are discussed.
parameters such as texture and flavour were measured using visual appraisal just before the preservation and then on daily basis. Freshly made yoghurt was treated alike and kept for the period of 3 months (which is the claimed shelf life of yoghurt by most manufacturers). The physical, chemical parameters and microbial load were also measured at weekly intervals. The result of the physical and chemical parameters explains deterioration before the end of the experiment in both samples. It was also concluded that freshly made yoghurt kept at room temperature be consumed only on the first day of production and fermented milk is advised to be pasteurized before consumption due to the high microbial load.
Responses of soybean and maize to N and P have been documented in soybean growing areas of Nigeria but little has been done to establish the scale of macro (N, P and K) and micronutrient (Zn, Mo) deficiencies. Similarly, little effort has been made in research to establish the best nutrient management strategies in maize-soybean intercrop under variable soil conditions as a way of improving maize/soybean production and productivity (Mbah et al., 2007). Though, a number of studies have been conducted on mono-cropped maize and soybean as affected by fertilizer rates, documented information on the optimum productivity of maize and soybean under intercropping systems in Makurdi is scanty, hence the need for this enquiry. The objective of the study is to determine the effect of three levels fertilizer on growth parameters and yield of maize-soybean intercrop with a view to identify the appropriate NPK fertilizer level (s) that will give optimal growth parameters and yield of maize-soybean intercrop in the study area.
temperature is inversely proportional to the size of nanoparticle. The consistency of our findings with the available experimental data validates the success of our theory. The decrement of Curie temperature is also supported by the theory that there exists the different degree of spin-spin interaction between the surface atoms and the inner atoms, which leads to the variation of the lattice vibration. As a result, it changes the Curie temperature of the ferromagnetic nanomaterials 38 . But, in bulk materials, because of
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The prepared powder for formation of B 4 C- nanoTiB 2 composites with 10 ww% TiB 2 are placed to determine calcination temperature at 973, 1273 and 1523K with argon flow. The DTA/DDTA and TG/ DTG plots in Figure 5 show that the first exothermic reaction is associated with many weight loss leading to dehydration and evaporation of water from Ti(OH) 4 phase and the formation of TiO 2 phase by a decrease in mass of about 13.2 wt% that is given by below reaction:
For each fibre the dependency between tension force and elongation was recorded and transformed into stress strain curve using Eqs (2) and (3). The average values of tensile strength for each level of temperature and moisture content of Ensete fibres are shown in Tables 1 and 2, as well as their statistical analysis in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Figs 2 and 3 present also their graphical relationships. In addition, the average values of strain at failure for differ- ent levels of moisture content are presented in Fig. 4, and the curves of moisture uptake and release as a function of time for 60 and 90% relative humidity are presented in Fig. 5. It is evident in Table 1 or Fig. 2 that the environmen- tal temperature had a limited effect on the tensile strength of Ensete fibres. A decrease in the performance of Ensete fibres was observed at the minus temperature, and a peak
The mean value of Poisson ratio for tomato fruits var. Admiro stored at a temperature of 13 ºC was 0.71, and it was much higher in comparison with the fruit stored at 21ºC. Tomato fruits cv. Encore were marked by smaller variations in the mean values of Poisson ratio which reached 0.530 at 13°C and 0.477 at 21°C (Table 3). The changes in the value of Poisson ratio of the skin of tomatoes cv. Admiro and Encore are shown in Figs 2 and 3. In Admiro variety toma- toes stored at 13°C decreased from 0.73 on harvesting day to 0.57 after 26 days of storage (Fig.2a), implying a 22% drop. As regards the fruits stored at 21°C, the values of Poisson ratio remained stable in the range of 0.46-0.47 throughout the storage period (Fig. 3a).
19°C, it could be said that rapid growth, which is obtained at high temperatures, enhances survival. The duration of this experiment took an average of 6 days at 23°C. Transition was observed to occur during the first 4-5 days. The results show that transition from larvae to pupae was better at 23°C, than at 19°C. This could be attributed to the important effect of temperature on the development of the blackfly larvae as earlier mentioned. In the two experiments at two temperature regimes, it was observed that the highest temperature did better in enhancing both survival and pupation. This is probably as a result of the fact that blackfly larvae occur in fast flowing water with reasonably high current velocity and favorable conditions for adequate oxygen up-take by the larvae. The use of a water pump to maintain a continuous water
apparent activation energy E a in the presence and absence of inhibitor. Higher values for E a were found in the presence of inhibitors. Other studies [27-29] showed that in the presence of inhibitor the apparent activation energy was lower than that in the absence of inhibitor. However, in our study, E a increases with increasing the Q1 concentration, and all values of E a were higher than that in the absence of quinoxaline compound. This type of inhibitor retards corrosion at ordinary temperatures but inhibition is diminished at elevated temperature.
Bead production was carried out with the following procedure. Six grams of sodium alginate (SA) (Katki Dunyası, Turkey) was dissolved in 200 mL distilled water by magnetic stirring at room temperature for 24 hours. A homogenous slurry containing 70 g Al 2 O 3 , 5 g CC31 and 150 mL SA solution, was prepared in a planetary ball mill at a rotation speed of 350 rpm for 45 minutes. The cross˗linking solution was prepared via dissolving 1 wt.% calcium chloride (CaCl 2 , Katki Dunyası, Turkey) in distilled water by magnetic stirring at room temperature for 1 hour. Prepared aqueous SA + ceramic solution was added dropwise into CaCl 2 aqueous solution at room temperature using a 60 mL hypodermic syringe through a needle under constant stirring at room temperature. The alginate−ceramic composite beads are formed via cross˗linking in the CaCl 2 solution for
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Oxidation is the most important high temperature corrosion reaction. In most industrial environments, oxidation often participates in the high temperature corrosion reaction, regardless of the predominant mode of corrosion. In fact, alloys often relay upon the oxidation reaction to develop a protective oxide scale to resist corrosion attack such as sulfidation, carburization, and ash/salt deposit corrosion. During service in high temperature plants, tubing, piping, and other steel components are exposed to corrosive environments; as a result, their service lifetime may be limited by creep, fatigue or oxidation. Traditionally materials designed for use at high temperature have been developed primarily for their mechanical properties, but there is now a growing realization that oxidation may limit lifetime, either directly through metal wastage or indirectly through raising local temperatures (and consequently reducing creep-controlled lifetimes) due to the lower thermal conductivity of the oxide scale. But in this thesis I am only concentrated on oxidation behavior of alloy steel (AISI316 & AISI31 0) in presence of air.