Effects of problem based learning on nursing students' critical thinking abilities and performance

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The effects of problem based learning on students' critical thinking skills

The effects of problem based learning on students' critical thinking skills

Research on the use of PBL in athletic training education is limited. Athletic training educators support the use of PBL as an alternative pedagogy, 64 and many use forms of PBL in their classrooms. 65 However, few have conducted experimental research to determine if it is an effective pedagogical technique. 10 The majority of research has been conducted for doctoral dissertations and has not undergone the peer review process of publication. 10, 64, 65 One study examined the variables that influence athletic training students’ attitudes toward PBL and determined that upperclassmen had a more positive attitude towards PBL. 66 While this study did not objectively measure the effect of PBL on CT and problem solving, the participants perceived that PBL enhanced their CT and problem solving skills. In addition, those athletic training students indicated that self- directed learning was better for retention and they enjoyed working with their peers in PBL groups. 66 Another study in athletic training implemented PBL in a pharmacology course and found no significant differences between the TL and PBL groups in terms of test performance or in CT ability as measured by the CCTST. 10
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Comparison of Effects of Context-Based Learning and Cooperative Learning on Professional Behavior and Critical Thinking of Anesthesiology Students

Comparison of Effects of Context-Based Learning and Cooperative Learning on Professional Behavior and Critical Thinking of Anesthesiology Students

18 a study by Manzari et al., CBLwas significantly more effective than lecture- based learning in increasing the knowledge, attitude and practice scores of nurses about their role in organ donation process (23). In general, CBL is more effective in improving clinical practice. However, moving from a traditional approach to a CBL-based curriculum is challenging and requires simultaneous philosophical changes, curriculum planning and proper performance assessment. In 2012, Williams et al. compared effects of CBL and problem-based learning on the growth of professional performance of nurses in Canada, and found that CBL could promote self-awareness in their subjects (24). Although lecturing is the most common method used in Iran’s education system, we did not implement this method in our study since numerous studies have demonstrated that traditional methods are usually ineffective, encourage passive learning and do not take into account individual differences, learners’ needs, problem solving, creative thinking and other higher-level cognitive skills (4).
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The Correlation of Critical Thinking Disposition and Approaches to Learning among Baccalaureate Nursing Students

The Correlation of Critical Thinking Disposition and Approaches to Learning among Baccalaureate Nursing Students

The conceptualization of critical thinking disposition was described in terms of seven traits namely; inquisitiveness, open mindedness, systematicity, analyticity, truth-seeking, critical thinking self-confidence, and maturity. These descriptions indicate that dispositional influences on thinking are multifaceted. In the first place, an interest in or enjoyment of thinking is a prerequisite for active engagement in thinking (inquisitiveness, need for cognition). Secondly, an open attitude underlies the willingness to consider different viewpoints and options before arriving at conclusions (open-mindedness, flexibility). Thirdly, a careful approach in thinking would certainly contribute to effective decision-making and problem-solving (conscientiousness, systematicity). Finally, values such as upholding fairness and truth fuel the striving for judgments that are sound and unbiased (truth- seeking, fair-mindedness). These four dimensions of thinking disposition emphasize different aspects of an individual’s response to situations that call for thinking (Facione et al., 2001; Soeherman, 2010). Critical thinking skills and dispositions are also vital in developing evidence-based nursing practice. Several authors assert that critical thinking skills reduce the research-practice gap and foster evidence-based nursing practice (Profetto- McGrath, et al., 2009). CTDs are core for nurses who work as scientific practitioners because using research is an essential element of their practice. Nurses who are disposed to think critically are more likely to critically interpret the available evidence and, based on that critical interpretation, are able to make high quality judgments and draw valid inferences (Profetto-McGrath, 2003). Moreover, nurses who are disposed to think critically are proficient in critiquing the available evidence and the practice based on that evidence, remain open minded, interpret and evaluate the effectiveness of practice, and search for the evidence which is most suitable and applicable in given context (Profetto-McGrath et al., 2009).
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Efficiency of Problem Based Learning (PBL) over Lecture Method in Terms of Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills and Problem Solving Ability among Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institutions of Tamil Nadu

Efficiency of Problem Based Learning (PBL) over Lecture Method in Terms of Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills and Problem Solving Ability among Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institutions of Tamil Nadu

“You are in the outpatient clinic. Your nursing instructor asks you to be involved in the care of Mrs. Mary, a 50 year old woman. You enter the room and her husband Mr. Tom is attending her. You enquire about Mrs. Mary’s condition and he states that Mrs. Mary has complaints of vomiting, diarrhoea, palpitation , headache and altered consciousness since the previous day after attending a party where she had eaten some cakes, pastry and ice creams. He also informs that she is a known diabetic for the past 20 years and takes insulin 30 units twice a day using insulin pen. Further, he informs that as she was having vomiting and diarrhoea, she did not take any food, due to which she has stopped to take her regular doses of insulin. On examination, you find her skin is very cold and clammy and her breath is fruity odoured. You are also noticing lipodystrophy over her abdomen and she is dehydrated. Her BP is 80/50 mmHg. Pulse is weak and rapid. Urine testing shows presence of ketones. Results of her blood investigation shows that her PH level is 6.7mg/dl, glucose level 640mg/dl, Hgb A1c 7.8%, plasma bicarbonate is 14mEqu/L. Her glycemic index is high. ECG is taken and the finding is evident for hypokalemia. Identify the problem of Mrs.Mary and treat the patient. Further, plan a teaching on discharge.”
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Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills by Task Based Learning in Chemistry Experiment Teaching

Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills by Task Based Learning in Chemistry Experiment Teaching

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is defined as the student- centered and self-directed pedagogical approach (Barrows, 1996; Kek & Huijser, 2011). PBL requires that the learning is done a small group which consists of 6 - 10 persons ideally. Problems form the basis of the learning focus on and simulate the students’ cognitive development. Task-based learning (TBL) is also the learner-centered teaching methods. Student-centered leaning is that the students must take responsibility for their own learning, identify what they need to know, manage the problem on which they are working and determine where they will get that information, and the teacher is as the facilitators or guides (Barrows, 1996). The previous studies had shown the PBL was a powerful pedagogical approach to promote CT (e.g. Joe & Elizabeth, 1999; Magnusseen, Ishida, & Itano, 2000; Celia & Gordon, 2001; Cook & Moyle, 2002; Williams, 2002; Yuan & Qian, 2003; Wang, Lu, & Ze, 2004; Choi, 2004; Ti- wari, Lai, So, & Yeun, 2006; Wang, Tsai, Chiang, Lai, & Lin, 2008; Yuan, Williams, & Fan, 2008; Ozturk, Muslub, & Diclea, 2008; Kek & Huijser, 2011; Martyn, Terwijn, Kek, & Huijser, in press; Choi, Lindquist, & Song, in press). For the CTD, PBL promoted the senior nursing students’ truth-seeking and open- mindedness (Tiwari et al., 2006; Ozturk et al., 2008). And PBL influenced the students’ CTS (Williams, 2002; Martyn et al., in press; Choi et al., in press). Since CT is an outcome of PBL (Worrell & McGrath, 2007), we supposed that TBL also could improve the students’ CT.
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Enhancing students’ learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking

Enhancing students’ learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking

Self-assessment seems ideally suited for implementation into the PBL tutorial [8]. Some literature exists on self- assessment in the PBL tutorial process; however, most em- ploy a self-assessment tool that has not been evaluated for this construct [9–12]. Moreover most research focuses on the ‘accuracy’ of self-assessment and shows that students are inaccurate in assessing their own performance in the PBL tutorial [11, 13, 14]. Whilst this may be true, there has been little research on the ways in which self- assessment might enhance student learning [15]. For this to happen, the implementation of a self-assessment tool requires scaffolding, for example by enhancing students’ awareness of the value of self-assessment, providing con- tinuous feedback to students, and improving the design of the self-assessment tool around a specific task with spe- cific objectives [16, 17]. Self assessment tools should also be designed with the broader context of learning in mind, and not focus on a specific domain such as knowledge ac- quisition [18]. The PBL self-assessment tools reported in previous research [10, 11, 13] have not been constructed or implemented using such approaches.
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Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Students`Critical Thinking Dispositions, Knowledge Acquisition and Retention

Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Students`Critical Thinking Dispositions, Knowledge Acquisition and Retention

increasing of total mean score of knowledge acquisition and retention of the experimental group (30.4,28.4) than total mean score of knowledge acquisition and retention of control group (24.7,21.5). This may be really contributed to the PBL that help students to participate actively in nursing classes, help them to develop cognitive strategies that students use it to learn, understand and retain the knowledge. In addition to PBL facilitate critical thinking that enable students to fulfill the need of their expected role and use of knowledge by students make subject matter more interest and the content subsequently appears more relevant. This ultimately leads to increased motivation to learn among nursing students and enhance knowledge acquisition and retention. Schmidt et al. (2011) agreed with this study and concluded that PBL encourages and provides opportunities for elaboration of knowledge facilitate the comprehension of new information related to the problem and enhance long-term memorability. Also, Frambach (2012) at faculty of health, Maastricht University reported that PBL is the best for nursing students which tend to better acquire scientific conceptions and integrate and organize the knowledge. PBL promote both the acquisition of content knowledge and the development of thinking skills and strategies.
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The effect of problem based learning on students’ knowledge acquisition, critical thinking ability, and intrinsic motivation in the polytechnic’s electrical engineering course

The effect of problem based learning on students’ knowledge acquisition, critical thinking ability, and intrinsic motivation in the polytechnic’s electrical engineering course

The Cornell Critical Thinking Test Specimen (CCTTS): The CCTTS measures critical thinking based on principles of thinking such as inference, which is based on induction, deduction, credibility, observation, meaning, assumption, and disposition (Ennis et al., 2005). The CCTTS comprised of 52 MCQ tests item (translated into Bahasa Melayu) that can be completed within 55 minutes. Choosing CCTTS was in the basis of several reasons; firstly, according to Ennis et al. (2005), the CCTTS is the most common instrument being used in measuring critical thinking abilities and is intended for various levels of audience including college students, which is comparable to students in polytechnic. Secondly, the CCTTS is fair for students in term of political, economic and social value, since items not involve any value judgements. Thirdly, the CCTTS is appropriate for an experimental study, in order to see improvement on critical thinking.
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Influence of critical thinking disposition on the learning efficiency of problem-based learning in undergraduate medical students

Influence of critical thinking disposition on the learning efficiency of problem-based learning in undergraduate medical students

While previous studies most concentrated on following aspects: 1) how the CT disposition was in students, resi- dents or working staffs; 2) the relationship between the CT dispositions and psychological characteristic, such as personalities, emotional intelligence, learning models, or ego resiliency; 3) whether the CT dispositions improved or not after some kinds of curriculum or education re- form; 4) the relationship of CT disposition with the aca- demic or career success. Even among the researches in respecting to the relationship of CT and PBL, most studies were concentrated on the variation of students’ CT dispo- sitions or skills before and after PBL, or the different models and elements of PBL [26, 27, 29]. Similarly, the conclusion was reached that PBL could develop the crit- ical thinking ability of students. However, no studies have investigated how CT and its subscales influence studentsperformance in the PBL process, namely, all behaviors in PBL process, included the preparations and input, the knowledge, the skills and the attitudes.
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Designing Student Worksheets To Improve Critical Thinking Ability Based On Problem Based Learning

Designing Student Worksheets To Improve Critical Thinking Ability Based On Problem Based Learning

The development of the industrial world is increasingly rapid in line with the demands of the world of education, especially Indonesia in improving the results of professional graduates and preparing excellent human resources in creating innovative products [1]. So that mathematics is a subject that must be mastered early because it is a tool/means of learning other fields of science [2]. Because of the development of 21st-century education students is expected to be able to prepare the ability to master various skills, especially creative thinking skills to become increasingly advanced people in life [3]. Mathematics also has a significant contribution in achieving abilities such as the ability to connect, communication skills, problem-solving, the ability to represent (representation) reasoning and evidentiary abilities [2]. In the technological era in designing a learning material that is good will have the desired learning outcomes and facilitate learners in achieving learning needed to play a unique role in the teaching and learning process with a variety of methods, techniques, and learning materials that are increasingly developing [4]. Student worksheets are one of the tools in the learning process to be able to facilitate students in learning to more easily understand mathematical concepts [5]. Schooling student worksheets are often used but have not been based on a particular learning model so that it does not improve good learning outcomes [6]. Based on the results of previous studies through the design of student worksheets with developing learning models is one alternative to be able to improve the ability to learn mathematics which is included in the 21st century [3]. Based on several studies [7] - [12] Student worksheets contain summaries of mastery of learning that must be done by students to improve learning outcomes because interactions can occur between instructors and
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Development Of Integrated Creative And Critical Thinking Module In Problem-Based Learning To Solve Problems

Development Of Integrated Creative And Critical Thinking Module In Problem-Based Learning To Solve Problems

Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) play an important role in producing highly competitive students and the ideal characteristics of a student. As such, quality students who are also equipped with critical features such as innovation, critical thinking and other high values are directly helping Malaysia become a fully developed nation by 2020. Thinking skills are very important in the process of problem solving and decision making. With an understanding of thinking skills, individuals can explain new ideas and insights when interacting. According to [1], understanding studentsthinking styles can help teachers become more effective and engaged in classroom activities that meet their studentsthinking needs. The importance of thinking style is needed for individuals to generate a variety of new ideas, avoid failure and better solve problems. Thinking style is very important in terms of management, teaching and learning [2]. It is generally known that each individual has his or her own way of thinking. The style in question is the preference of style to thinking. Thinking style is an ability, and how we use our existing abilities. Everyone’s thinking style is different. One of the thinking styles used to solve problems is creative and critical thinking.
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The Impacts of 'Problem-Based Learning’ Approach in Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills to Teaching Literature

The Impacts of 'Problem-Based Learning’ Approach in Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills to Teaching Literature

For the last question in reflective journal on the question “What has today’s class taught you about being a critical thinker in solving the problem scenario given?”, most of the students with 53 out of 55 believed that they are now can be categorized under critical thinker. This is due to the process that they had to go through while searching for the solutions to the problem scenarios given. The students also mentioned that at the self-directed learning stage, they were quite confused at first. They felt confused on what to do since in the previous classes, everything is given by the lecturers. Thus, the previous action has limited their abilities to be independent in finding solutions. Therefore, when given triggers, they were quite confused and had no confidence to proceed with the next steps. However, along the way, after third triggers were given, they were comfortable with the stage. Due to self-directed learning stage, they were able to groom their confidence while presenting the information that they had for group reporting. They were also happy if their opinions and solutions were heard by group members. For them, it was not an easy process as they had to do research, read, gather and merge all the authorized resources from books and websites in order to come out with possible solutions. According to Zhang (2009), students engage in collaborative learning through interaction with others, which serves as a catalyst for critical thinking. Due to exposure in using PBL approach, the students managed to choose (knowledge), classify and associate (comprehension), generalize and illustrate (application), compare, criticize and question (analyze) as well as draft and plan (synthesis) the solutions for triggers given. Along the way, the students faced cognitive dissonance among themselves. This was the stage where the students used all
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The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

In addition to critical thinking, learning style, i.e. the information processing method, of the learners, is an important key factor that has a major role in problem solving. According to David Kolb’s theory, learning is a four-step process that includes concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. This position represents two dimensions: concrete experience versus abstract thinking, and reflective observation to active experimentation. These dimensions include four learning styles: divergent, convergent, assimilate, and accommodate. According to Kolb and Ferry, the learner needs four different abilities to function efficiently: Learning styles involve several variables such as academic performance of learner, higher education improvement; critical thinking and problem solving (4).
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Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: a Comparison Between Freshmen and Senior Students

Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: a Comparison Between Freshmen and Senior Students

It seems that nursing students have less opportunity to apply CTS in clinical settings. While techniques, such as questioning, Socratic method, learning in small groups, discussions and debates, writing diaries, problem based teaching and learning, use of case studies and other types of participative learning, have been shown to be ef- fective in developing CTS (20, 34). Previous studies have shown that the nursing curriculum in Iran contains a considerable amount of theoretical, redundant, unnec- essary and inapplicable knowledge and nurse educators are under pressure to teach a large content in a limited time (4, 35). Thus, making a balance between the course content and time available may be the first step in pre- paring the context for educators to assign more time for the development of the students’ CTS. Moreover, as Moattari et al. (35) reported, nurse educators should be prepared to implement active, student-centered, collab- orative and problem-focused teaching strategies to fos- ter the students’ CTS.
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Concept Mapping as a Teaching Tool on Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Diploma Nursing Students

Concept Mapping as a Teaching Tool on Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Diploma Nursing Students

feedback (25). For example, a patient’s chief complaint or medical diagnosis is placed in the center of a concept map. Assessment findings are then placed around it. Seeing a diagram with all of this information enables the nurse to identify important factors that may contribute to the patient’s problem. With this information, the nurse can plan her patient’s care more appropriately, implement her plan and check for its effectiveness. Although educators realise its importance, the challenge still remains how to incorporate critical thinking into the curriculum and use effective teaching methods that enhance and develop critical thinking skills (26). A concept map also helps the nurse to see relationships between certain assessment findings and she may be able to address such related findings with the same interventions. The above assertion incorporates the concepts of critical thinking, life-long adult learning and the professional mandates that nurses will practice.
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Problem based learning through laboratory work and authentic assessment: empowering critical thinking abilities in indonesia students

Problem based learning through laboratory work and authentic assessment: empowering critical thinking abilities in indonesia students

Twenty-first century learning has seen the memorizing concept of learning replaced by a new concept, namely self-finding and self-constructing concept aimed to boost students’ high order thinking skill, critical thinking, creative thinking, and problem-solving ability. The present research incorporated a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model through laboratory work and authentic assessment to enhance the student’s critical thinking ability. The design of the study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group. The participants were 60 students of biology department of School of Teacher’s Training and Education of Persada Khatulistiwa Sintang, Indonesia. The students were taking animal physiology course and were randomly allocated into wither a PBL class or a standard instruction control class. Students were pre-tested for their critical thinking ability and then tested again after the 12-week semester. Both classes significantly improved their critical thinking skills over the semester. However, at post-test, the PBL class scores on the final essay test were significantly higher than the control class. These results support the inclusion of PBL with laboratory work and authentic assessment to improve studentscritical thinking abilities in biology courses.
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The effects of problem based learning on knowledge acquisition, critical thinking, and intrinsic motivation of electrical engineering students

The effects of problem based learning on knowledge acquisition, critical thinking, and intrinsic motivation of electrical engineering students

In response to these demands, polytechnic institutes have introduced several steps to improve their teaching and learning system through the polytechnic transformation agenda (Department of Polytechnic Education - DPE, 2009a; DPE, 2010). The existing system uses a Traditional Learning Approach (TLA) within a Teacher Centred Learning (TCL) boundary, which is seen as less relevant in the 21st century; particularly in producing such desired graduates. However, the recent campaign seeks to shed light on the move to a new delivery system approach in polytechnics. Student Centred Learning (SCL) was introduced to replace the TLA through several learning methods and strategies. These include the method such as Problem Based Learning (PBL), case-study, practical activities, laboratory work, collaborative learning, computer-assisted learning, and group discussion (DPCCE, 2008). However, an observation reveals that there is much room for improvement for the current SCL implementation. The SCL implementation according to these specific approaches should be referring to specific model guidance. In addition, the proposed SCL approach, in the polytechnic’s teaching and learning system should be more authentic or closer to the world of work (Jonassen, Strobel and Lee, 2006).
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Analysis Of Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Problem-Based Learning Approach Using HOTS Questions In SMA N 13 Medan

Analysis Of Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Problem-Based Learning Approach Using HOTS Questions In SMA N 13 Medan

1. INTRODUCTION Education is a system consisting of inputs, processes, and outputs [1]. Education can change one's mindset to create innovations and improvements in all aspects of life towards quality education [2]. As stated by [3], education is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of teaching and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to possess religious and spiritual strength, self- control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed for themselves, society and nation. Education is one of the main pillars to anticipate the future, education is always oriented to preparing students to play a significant role in the future [4]. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the progress of education in this country. Education is necessary to create the next generation of this country that is qualified and skillful. The statement is supported by [5] stating "education is the main foundation in the development of one's abilities. With education, the potential can be explored and developed." Students are expected to actively memorize rather than understand concepts so that students' thinking ability such as critical thinking becomes less developed [6]. Based on the situation, teachers directly provides an explanation of the materials and concepts as well as examples. Students are less involved in constructing their knowledge to understand the concepts. Critical thinking which includes the ability to analyze, draw conclusions, build interpretations, explanations, self- regulation, curiosity, systematic, seek the truth, and confidence in thinking process are required by individual to solve problems [7]. This opinion is affirmed by [8] stating "critical thinking skill is the ability of logical and reflective thinking focused on making trusted decisions ". Concerning critical
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A meta-analysis of the effects of non-traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking abilities of nursing students

A meta-analysis of the effects of non-traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking abilities of nursing students

In this meta-analysis, PBL was not effective in improv- ing nursing studentscritical thinking. This finding is in- consistent with previous reports [19, 26, 27]. Recent a systemic review [28] study explained that learners’ readi- ness, fluency or trait, educators’ belief or attitude in critical thinking, or learning environment can bring dif- ferent educational effect culturally. Kong and colleagues [27] also described that different educational method or environment can influence PBL educational effects. Add- itionally, Kong et al.’s [27] meta-analysis selected more than one instrument in order to examine the CCTDI and CCTST (i.e., Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Ap- praisal [WGCTA], Assessment Technologies Institute Critical Thinking Test [ATI], etc.), therefore, there can be different results. However, there were insufficient evi- dences to support this study ’ s result. Thus, further stud- ies should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of PBL on critical thinking ability.
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Critical Thinking Skills of Nursing Students in Lecture-Based Teaching and Case-Based Learning

Critical Thinking Skills of Nursing Students in Lecture-Based Teaching and Case-Based Learning

As educating students to become critical thinkers is related to providing opportunities for deep learning, nurse educators have a particular responsibility to facilitate this approach. Nursing students and nurses who are effective critical thinkers are well positioned to provide advanced nursing care and solve complex clinical problems, both of which benefit patients, nurses, and institutions (Hoffman et al., 2004). For this reason, it is recommended that nursing faculty set CT as a crucial outcome and competency in their educational programs and utilize valid and reliable instruments to objectively measure the CT skills of nursing learners. Modelling CT effectively would communicate and facilitate students' CT. Faculty need to assure that they display attributes of CT when interacting with their learners. This is important in nursing education because if faculty just deliver their conclusions without their process in defining the problem, examining assumptions, generating and evaluating options, they might deprive the learners of opportunities to think critically.
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