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Iranian EFL Student-Teachers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Self-Efficacy: Patterns and Relationships

Iranian EFL Student-Teachers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Self-Efficacy: Patterns and Relationships

Nowadays, in line with trends in language teaching that follow the use of student- centered teaching/testing activities, there is growing consensus that students differ in their multiple intelligences. Furthermore, self-efficacy is one of the determining factors of success for people almost in any context. Assuming that the multiple intelligences profiles in tandem with self-efficacy of teachers may jointly work in shaping the efficiency and effectiveness of their teaching careers, this study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL student-teachers’ multiple intelligences and their self-efficacy. Thirty five male and female EFL student- teachers from private language schools in Urmia completed Multiple Intelligences (McKenzie 1999) and the Teachers’ Senses of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001) questionnaires. A positive large correlation was found between total multiple intelligence and total self-efficacy of the student-teachers. The amount of R square in regression analysis indicated that teachers’ self-efficacy is accounted for by their multiple intelligences, and intrapersonal intelligence played a pivotal role in predicting self-efficacy of these teachers. The most frequently used and favored abilities were found to be intrapersonal and existential intelligences. Concerning self-efficacy sub-scales, teachers most reported to be self- efficacious in instructional strategies and student engagement. This study suggests that language teachers can benefit from multiple intelligences training programs and can apply the principles in their own classes in order to enhance the quality of the materials they deliver.
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Teaching Writing to EFL Student Teachers: Teachers' Intervention and No Teachers' Intervention through Peer Feedback Writing Techniques

Teaching Writing to EFL Student Teachers: Teachers' Intervention and No Teachers' Intervention through Peer Feedback Writing Techniques

Abstract The purpose of this study was to find out the impacts of teachers’ intervention and no teachers’ intervention peer feedback writing techniques (PFWT) on English as a foreign language (EFL) student teachers’ essay writing ability and their perceptions of learning activities viewed on their level of writing anxiety. The study was conducted in one English education study program at an Indonesian state Islamic university. Writing tests were used to find out whether or not the treatments had the impact on student teachers’ essay writing achievement while a questionnaire was used to gain student teachers’ perceptions of writing activities. Two groups of student teachers taking a writing course were selected as participants. Data were analyzed by using Two Way ANOVA, Descriptive statistics analysis, and non-parametric test. The findings indicated that no teachers’ intervention PFWT had a significant impact on student teachers’ writing ability and the impact was influenced by the different levels of students’ writing anxiety. Additionally, teachers’ intervention PFWT had a significant effect on both students’ having low and high writing anxiety. Finally, students having low writing anxiety perceived teachers’ intervention PFWT more positively compared to those having high writing anxiety.
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DDP EFL Student Teachers’ Perceptions About the Qualities of a Professional Teacher

DDP EFL Student Teachers’ Perceptions About the Qualities of a Professional Teacher

This study explores how EFL student teachers of an undergraduate dual diploma program describe the qualities of a professional teacher after spending a year in their partner university in the United States, and after experiencing international and local practice teaching contexts. As a case study, the data were obtained through in-depth interviews, student teachers’ observation journals, and a survey. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. In addition, student teachers’ observation journals were gathered on a weekly basis. As a supplementary tool, International Survey (TALIS) was administered to all participants. The collected data suggested that study abroad and international short-term fieldwork experience made contributions to their perceptions about the ideal teacher thanks to broadening their worldviews about multiculturalism and diversity, and improving their personal skills, including human relation and communication skills. As a result of these experiences, the prospective teachers re-shaped their perceptions and attributed new features indicating interpersonal skills to the image of a professional teacher. The study also revealed that after returning to Turkey and completing Practice Teaching course in one of the cooperating schools, their perceptions were re-shaped again under the influence of experiencing a real teaching context with the same students for a long time. They indicated that while international fieldwork and study abroad experience showed them being fluent in English, patient, eager to raise human beings, and being able to address individual differences in a classroom, thanks to local practice teaching experience, they added new features to them, including love of teaching, motivating students for life-long learning, being a facilitator to help them find their own path, attending to the learner, getting along with students within the framework of respect, kindness and temperateness, dealing with disruptive behaviors and accomplishing classroom management by developing techniques to create a safe and pleasant learning environment for students.
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EFL student teachers’ learning in a peer tutoring research study group

EFL student teachers’ learning in a peer tutoring research study group

In regard to teaching and learning, participants also seemed to widen their perspectives when they looked at their pedagogical work from the myriad of angles offered by research. They perceived that they had more options to learn about what occurred in tutoring. For example, they collected data about the sessions, analyzed it, and shared their insights with peers in the group. The emerging knowledge from this process allowed them to gain a more integral view of what they could do as guides to support their tutees’ progress. The previous findings intertwined with Smith and Coldron’s (2000) findings about teachers’ development of agency, and with Russell (2000) and Price’s (2001) claims in relation to the problem solving skills teachers acquire by working in research.
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EFL Student Teachers' Reflections on Their Initial Teaching Practice

EFL Student Teachers' Reflections on Their Initial Teaching Practice

The study investigates the perceptions of pre-service English language teachers' experiences at a Croatian university during their ITP. ITP was organised as the last part of ITE programme which included courses on second language acquisition, psychology of education, pedagogy, didactics of teaching foreign languages and an English as a foreign language (EFL) methodology course. The focus of the methodology course was on lesson planning, teaching strategies and the development of observation skills. Some students also attended an elective course on classroom discourse. At the time of the study the student teachers were enrolled in the last semester of Teacher Education Programme and had accomplished their school-based teaching practice. The duration of ITP was three months and it was organised in two blocks, first in an elementary school and then in a secondary school or a school of foreign languages. Each student was allocated to a mentor, an experienced EFL teacher, in each type of school.
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Assessment for Learning: What EFL Student Teachers Learn from Video Self-Reflection Tasks

Assessment for Learning: What EFL Student Teachers Learn from Video Self-Reflection Tasks

Despite the distinction made between formative and summative assessment, both forms of assessment play a crucial role in teachers’ preparation for the teaching profession. However, compared to the summative assessment, the formative assessment is not a common practice in most teacher education institutions in the Republic of Benin. This form of assessment is either non-existent or it receives little attention due to a variety of reasons among which, teacher trainers’ distrust, their reluctance to use it with large numbers of trainees, their ignorance of what it really entails as well as the benefits for trainees, and an examination- oriented school system. This research work is an experiment carried out to examine the effect of formative assessment on a group of Beninese EFL trainees. The type of formative assessment they went through is the microteaching video self-reflection. The aim of the study is to explore their perceptions of classroom teaching through microteaching video self-reflection, what they learned from the experiment, and their appraisal of it. During the experiment, qualitative data were gathered from them through their written reflections. The results reveal trainees’ positive attitudes towards the experience and their view of the reflection task as a valuable learning tool.
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Preparing Future Teachers in Indonesia: Motives of Science and Non-Science Student Teachers for Entering into Teacher Education Programs

Preparing Future Teachers in Indonesia: Motives of Science and Non-Science Student Teachers for Entering into Teacher Education Programs

The rise in the number of senior high school graduates entering teacher education programs in Indonesia has raised a question: What has driven this population to enter four years undergraduate teacher education programs? The existing works indicate three major motives that have driven people for entering or choosing teacher education to be a teacher including altruistic, intrinsic, or extrinsic motives (Fokkens-Bruinsma and Canrınus, 2012; Kılınc et al., 2012; Kyrıacou et al., 2003; Laı et al., 2005; Lın et al., 2012; Low et al., 2011; Manuel and Hughes, 2006; Mukminin et al., 2017b). However, it is surprising that few prior studies have documented student teachers‟ motives and explanations to become a teacher by entering teacher education programs in Indonesia except for Mukminin et al. (2017a) and Mukminin et al. (2017b) whose studies focused on year 2, 3, and 4 EFL student teachers‟ motives to become a teacher through entering an English teacher education program. Research on how Indonesian first-year student teachers across majors consider teacher education programs among other program choices is understudied. The purpose of this current study was to document undocumented motives of the first-year student teachers from seven different undergraduate teacher education programs in one public university, Jambi, Indonesia. Our evidence shed light on our understanding of the Indonesian first-year student teachers‟ motives to choose teacher education programs in order to be the next generation of teacher. Yet, it is not easy to conclude which motives have played a part in a greater role than others as all motives appeared to be interwoven quantitatively and qualitatively across participants. Overall, evidence from this study revealed that first-year student teachers‟ interpretations and explanations of their motives for choosing teacher education programs varied, however the types of motives on their choices were comparable across majors. Particularly, the findings of in-depth interviews with selected student teachers across majors confirmed and extended the questionnaire findings in our study.
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Based on the findings, there was a significant correlation between study habits and academic achievement. Also, there was an influence of study habits on academic achievement. First, from the result of Pearson product moment correlation, we found that there was a positive significant correlation between study habits and academic achievement of EFL student teachers in one English education study program at an Indonesian state university (r= 0.653, p< 0.05). In other words, study habits had a relation to academic achievement. O u r finding is in agreement with what previous studies have found. For example, Singh and Mahipal (2015) agreed that study habits and academic achievement had any correlation. Moreover, Singh and Vyast (2014) argued that the environment of family played a significant role in the educational of students. Thus, a comfortable home environment made students comfortable in learning and encourage good study habits for students so that it affects student academic achievement. Siahi and Maiyo (2015) found that a significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement. The factor that influenced study habits was home environment. Also, Arora (2016) found that there was an influence between study habits and academic achievement. On the contrary, Nouhi et al. (2008) found that students‟ study habits were no correlated with the academic achievement. There are no effects or the effect of study habits vanished when other variables were controlled. It was caused by another factor that was more dominant and had more contribution rather than study habits.
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Embedding a university teacher education programme in a school: an evaluation of a school and university partnership

Embedding a university teacher education programme in a school: an evaluation of a school and university partnership

While they gained more observations of teaching and were said to be more ‘attuned’ to school life and social interaction in the classroom, the student teachers were ‘far less forward’ on the academic side than the previous year’s student teachers ‘about the academic theories behind language learning’ and they could not access the library and other resources as easily as student teachers on campus. The school anticipated professional development for staff in terms of investigating their own practice ‘discussing what they’re doing in their classrooms and why’ and also in helping them to feel more ‘confident and competent at teaching adults, which is quite a big thing for some of them’. Some staff were already appreciating the opportunities afforded by the programme both for ‘going back to educational theory’, evaluating their practice, and having student teachers full of ‘energy and enthusiasm’ working with pupils in their classrooms. It was suggested that it would be valuable for both school and student teachers to ‘attach’ student teachers to work with small groups of children that needed ‘a bit of intervention, a bit of support’, if time could be made available. The whole experience would then result in ‘well formed, well rounded student teachers confidently going off and getting jobs within the industry’. Once a more ‘symbiotic relationship’ between school and university was established, it was felt ‘there was ‘an awful lot that we can learn’.
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Tunisian EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions About Oral Corrective Feedback

Tunisian EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions About Oral Corrective Feedback

The findings of this research study contributed to unveil the prevailing conceptions and views of EFL teachers regarding the concept of oral corrective feedback. EFL teachers hold positive attitudes towards CF, as the majority of them believed in the benefits of OCF and its importance in the language learning process. Most of the participants tend to favor immediate correction over delayed correction. The majority of the teachers seem to maintain the role of OCF in promoting accuracy and fluency. Besides, the informants seem to care about learners’ feelings and emotions since they mostly disagree about the statements that OCF can be a factor of demotivation, anxiety and annoyance. They seem to be aware of these factors while delivering feedback. However, the results display some discrepancy in teachers’ responses to some items; for instance fluency and pronunciation gained little attention on behalf of the teachers and OCF is directed toward grammar and vocabulary errors. This frequent concern with correcting grammar and vocabulary emanates from teachers’ interest in their learners’ accuracy and focus-on form instruction. Explicit correction through explicit correction, recasts and elicitation is the most
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Exploring the Characteristics of Effective Iranian EFL Teachers from Students’ and Teachers’ Perspectives

Exploring the Characteristics of Effective Iranian EFL Teachers from Students’ and Teachers’ Perspectives

Making use of technology (e.g., to show movies and cartoons with educational values) and engaging students in classroom language games were other factors characterizing effective language teaching mentioned by many students in the study. In fact, the role of technology in the classroom has been emphasized by several educators and researchers in the field of language teaching (e.g., Sherman, 2003; Stempleski, 2002). The use of video material, for example, has been referred to by Sherman (2003) as an authentic resource to be used in language classrooms. In this regard, Stempleski (2002) asserts that any video material offers “chances of achieving important goals of motivating students’ interest, providing realistic listening practice, stimulating language use, highlighting students’ awareness of particular language points or other aspects of communication...” (p. 364). Hence, taking these features into account, we might be able to argue that games are most likely to be stimulating and effective teaching tools that can be utilized by language teachers to involve all the students in interactive activities enabling them to practice and experiment with language in a cooperative and motivating manner. That might be the reason why almost half of the student participants in the study expected their EFL teachers to involve them in some language games to help them learn the language in an enjoyable and stimulating way.
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CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN SUPERVISING TEACHERS AND STUDENT TEACHERS

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN SUPERVISING TEACHERS AND STUDENT TEACHERS

 Supervisors should be clearer of certain behaviours of his students teachers some of them are: - clearer as to how to reinforce their desirable acts and or to change student teachers[r]

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Vol 8, No 1 (2017)

Vol 8, No 1 (2017)

The introductory section provided evidence for the widely-held belief that EFL teachers’ reflective practice and CT ability can exert profound impact on the way they succeed in achieving pedagogical goals (Borg, 2006; Farrell, 2012; Freeman, 2002). Based on this premise, the second research question of this study attempted to examine the way EFL teachers’ CT affects their TS. Statistical analyses suggested that in this context, those EFL learners whose teachers enjoy a low CT level show a higher perception toward TS. This means that EFL teacher are not positively affected by EFL teachers’ CT. However, this relationship did not turn out to be a significant one. Put simply, although low CT appeared to be contemporaneous with higher degree of success, this point was not confirmed by statistical analyses. One justification for observing this somehow-surprising result might be considering the fact that Iranian students are not educated as critical thinkers in their L1 educational system and that Iranian culture does not attach a high value to CT (Fahim & Ahmadian, 2012). Therefore, it can be argued that appreciating CT as an asset for EFL teachers is a context- dependent notion.
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A Critical Needs Analysis of Practicum Courses at Farhangian University: Mentors and Students’ Perspectives

A Critical Needs Analysis of Practicum Courses at Farhangian University: Mentors and Students’ Perspectives

Practicum is a significant component of teacher education which links theory to practice and prepares student teachers for their job. The purpose of the courses, as defined within the Curriculum of Teacher Education at Farhangian University, is to prepare student teachers for their teaching career by observing and analyzing the real situation at schools and relating it to their theoretical findings. The present study was an attempt to conduct a critical needs analysis in which teachers and learners voiced their concerns, problems and needs in practicum courses. It mostly focused on student teachers‟ voice since they are the most powerless in this educational setting. It intended to look for distinctive features of the practicum courses (four courses) presented at Farhangian University. To this end, the study investigated the achievement of the course objectives, stated in the curriculum for the practicum, and the fulfillment of students‟ needs from the stakeholders‟ perspective. Findings revealed major problems with these courses including (a) lack oftrainingin action research, lesson study, critical thinking, and reflection skills for all members of practicum, (b) insufficiency of flexibility in teaching methods, resources and materials used by cooperating teachers at schools to act as a role model for student teachers, (c) lack of cooperation between schools and university, and (d) lack of proper supervision by teacher educators, to name a few. The findings of the study would raise TEFL curriculum developers, teacher educators, and cooperating teachers‟ awareness of student teachers‟ needs in practicum courses.
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The Relationship between EFL Teachers’ Resilience and ‎Creativity

The Relationship between EFL Teachers’ Resilience and ‎Creativity

Another feature of resilient teachers is high morale, which is defined as, “a positive attitude, being enthusiastic about teaching, being involved in their work,” and instructors who “are themselves” (Stanford, 2001, p. 76). Consistent with high morale, Bobek (2002) found that a sense of humor to be an important element in improving teacher resilience. Additionally, Bobek (2002) asserted that a sense of humor is a feature often observed among resilient teachers. As pointed out by Bobek (2002), humor “is vital to strengthening an instructor’s resilience. An instructor who promotes a sense of humor and the ability to laugh at their own errors has an excellent medium for releasing frustrations” (p. 204).
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An exploration of EFL teachers’ job satisfaction in the light of stress coping strategies and emotional intelligence

An exploration of EFL teachers’ job satisfaction in the light of stress coping strategies and emotional intelligence

The present study sought to explore the relationship between EFL teachers’ job satisfaction, emotional intelligence (EQ), and stress coping strategies. To this end, 188 EFL teachers were selected from private institutes and high schools of Mashhad. The participants were asked to complete three questionnaires: Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS), Teacher’s EQ Scale (WLEIS), and Stress Coping Strategy Scale (CISS). WLEIS contained four factors: self-emotion appraisal (SEA), others’ emotion appraisal (OEA), use of emotion (UOE), and regulation of emotion (ROE). The CISS focuses on three major dimensions of coping in response to a stressful situation: Task-oriented, Emotion-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented coping. Task-oriented coping refers to responses directed at either problem resolution or cognitively reframing the meaning of the stressful situation. Emotion-oriented coping refers to responses directed toward oneself rather than the problem at hand. An individual using this coping style may respond to a difficult situation by becoming emotionally distressed or engaging in fantasy activities. Avoidance-oriented coping refers to responses designed to avoid dealing with the stressful situation, such as distracting oneself with other situations (e.g., shopping) or through interacting with other persons. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to analyze the data. The results demonstrated that among the coping strategies, task is predicted positively and significantly by job satisfaction and job satisfaction had no role in adopting emotion and avoidance coping strategies. EQ had a positive influence on the adaptation of task strategy, a negative impact on emotion strategy, and no role in avoidance strategy. EQ also predicted job satisfaction positively and significantly. It implies, teachers who had higher levels of EQ were more satisfied with their profession. It was also found that job satisfaction has the highest correlation with UOE followed by SEA. Task had the highest correlation with ROE followed by UOE.
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TEACHERS (INSET) AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT)

TEACHERS (INSET) AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT)

provisions for the in-service education and training of teachers (INSET) for secondary school teachers of English as.. a Foreign Language' (EFL), and their effectiv[r]

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Vol 12, No 1 (2010)

Vol 12, No 1 (2010)

become part of their cultural system and the role learning plays in this process. Outstanding within this discussion is the work of Lev Vygotsky (1978) and his ideas about the culturally and socially mediated nature of human cognition (Lantolf, 2000). The main assumption of this theory is that “individual development must be understood in, and cannot be separated from, its cultural and cultural-historical context” (Rogoff, 2003, p. 50). In this view, the social and the psychological interact in meaningful ways and create each other. Another important concept from the Vygotskian legacy is the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development ( ZPD ). The idea behind this concept is that learners become able to do things when they are provided help by more mature, knowledgeable or skilled peers with tasks that otherwise they would not be able to accomplish alone (Van Lier, 2004). In a developmental sense, the support gained through the interaction extends learners’ ability, pulling them to higher levels of performance. The extension of these two powerful ideas for the field of EFL has led to a wide recognition of EFL learning as increasing participation in activities or situations when the language is used.
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Vol 9, No 1 (2018)

Vol 9, No 1 (2018)

The second example is Lee (2007). This study is designed to answer the following two questions: (1) “What is the nature of teacher feedback in the Hong Kong writing classroom?” and (2) “To what extent is teacher feedback exploited for assessment for learning purpose?” Lee employed a descriptive research to find out the answer to the defined questions. This descriptive research involves the collection of written feedback, interviews with teachers either face-to- face or through email, and focus group interviews. Data analysis involves analysis of teachers’ written feedback, translation, transcription, coding, and summary of email interview data. The study finally reveals the answers as follows: (1) Teacher feedback practices are influenced by institutional context and values, possibly making it hard for them to use feedback to realize the potential of assessment for learning. Teacher feedback is not fully utilized to benefit student learning.; (2) Teacher can be helped to re-examine the goals of writing instruction, how writing is taught, and how assessment should reflect the instructional goals and link to the pedagogical activities.
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Examining EFL Student Response to Student-Centered Classroom Instruction

Examining EFL Student Response to Student-Centered Classroom Instruction

Therefore, the way an instructor perceives and treats students in learning process in student-centered classroom and teacher-centered classroom is very different. For instance, the instructor in student-centered classroom must be able to view the students not as “empty vessels” waiting to be filled with knowledge, but as potential individuals that need guidance in their intellectual development (Wright, 2011). Accordingly, the instructor needs to shift the teaching focus from transferring course content to facilitating students as learning individuals; this means that course content and learning materials are used as a means to identify tasks that will assist students in learning instead of to assist the instructor to deliver the lesson. Based on these beliefs, the roles of an instructor in student-centered classroom include a provider (providing learning resources), a manager (organizing learning resources to enhance student learning), a facilitator (facilitating the establishment of conducive learning atmosphere and environment), a coach (guiding and scaffolding students in every step of their learning process and evaluating students’ learning results), a motivator and counsellor (encouraging students to utilize proper learning strategies to learn), a consultant (providing advice when students are facing learning difficulties) and a delegator (trusting and empowering students to work independently towards the learning goal) (Richards & Rodgers, 1986; Grow, 1991; Wright, 1991; Shu, 2006).
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