In “Can the Treatment of Animals Be Compared to the Holocaust?”, David Sztybel foregrounds the parallel oppression between the Jewish Holocaust and the treatment of animals by focusing on how Jews were treated in the Holocaust and how animals are treated in the present day (100). Solid evidence that Sztybel offers to support his argument includes: Boria Sax’s claiming of the holocaust originally denoted “a Hebrew sacrifice in which the entire animal was given to Yahweh [God] to be consumed with fire” (qtd. in Sztybel 98); Peter Singe’s “clear discussion of how the Nazi experiments are like experiments done on animals” in his work (qtd. in Sztybel102). These analyses prove that the Jewish holocaust and the treatment of animals are bound to the concept of oppression. In the novel, the Handmaids are often figuratively regarded as animals such as pigs (“I wait, washed, brushed, fed, like a prize pig” (THT 69), egg-laying hens (as mentioned above) and so forth. Indeed, Offred’s description of her life as a “pig”resembles the oppression of animals in intensive farming. As for intensive farming, Jim Mason observation is worth noting that every few miles, the road is shrouded in a breath-stopping, rancid smell from some nearby animal factory. It is a sickly, deathly smell … like the smell of a concentration camp. Which, of course, the factory farm quite literally is, because it concentrates a large number of animals indoors and feeds them a steady diet of grain concentrates … In addition, it is a factory in which energy and nutrients from the sun and soil are concentrated by animals and turned into meat, milk, and eggs.(qtd. in Sztybel 105).
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Studies in Xenopus oocytes show that hnRNP I is directly involved in localizing the Vg1 transcript to the vegetal pole (Cote et al., 1999; Kress et al., 2004). To determine if hnRNP I plays a similar role in mRNA localization during zebrafish oogenesis, we examined Vg1 (dvr1 – Zebrafish Information Network) localization in brom bones mutant oocytes by in situ hybridization on ovary sections. We selected ovaries from females that consistently showed strong egg activation defects for this analysis. We found that Vg1 transcripts were localized normally in brom bones mutant oocytes (data not shown). However, in zebrafish, unlike in Xenopus oocytes, Vg1 RNA localizes to the animal pole rather than the vegetal pole of oocytes (Helde and Grunwald, 1993; Bally-Cuif et al., 1998). Therefore, it is possible that although hnRNP I was not required to localize animal pole transcripts, it could play a conserved role in the localization of transcripts to the vegetal pole. To test this possibility we examined three transcripts that localize to the vegetal pole, mago nashi, dazl and bruno-like (brl; cugbp1 – Zebrafish Information Network) (Maegawa et al., 1999; Suzuki et al., 2000; Howley and Ho, 2000; Pozzoli et al., 2004; Marlow and Mullins, 2008). We found that these transcripts also localized normally in brom bones mutant oocytes (Fig. 8; data not shown).
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226 eggs from Landes geese were chosen for the experiment. Geese were kept in free range technolo- gy at a commercial breeding farm in Hodonín in the Czech Republic. Eggs were collected from 3-year-old geese. In order to describe the shape of egg samples the linear dimensions, i.e. length (L) and width (B), were measured with a digital calliper to the nearest 0.01 mm. These quantities were used for the evalu- ation of the shape index SI. The corresponding geo- metrical characteristics are given in Table 1.
The output of the model was compared with field observations in three years in an untreated orchard at Vogelwaarde, Southwest Netherlands. At regular intervals all codling moth damaged fruits where collected from marked plots. The age of the individual larvae was determined from their length and the width of the head capsule. For the individual larvae their approximate date of egg deposition was back-calculated from temperature records. These data reflect only a sub-set of eggs, i.e. those eggs from which larvae have hatched and infected fruits. This effective egg deposition represents the population the grower and advisor have to deal with in practice (Helsen, Polfliet & Trapman, in preparation). Pheromone trap records for 2005 were taken form a regional registration system of 39 traps in 10 orchards. In 2006 and 2007 pheromone trap catches where recorded in the trial orchard.
In order to compare the spectral characteristics of egg yolks of different egg types, the spectral characteristic data curves of each type egg yolk are obtained by counting the average value, which is shown in Figure 9. The spectral characteristic curve of egg yolks shown in Figure 10 is cut from Figure 9. The range of bands is from 400 nm to 1000 nm, i.e., the visible and near-infrared bands. Since their spectral curve is not very different in the range of short-wave infrared band, it is not considered when performing the comparison and analysis step with the spectral data. From Figure 9 and Figure 10, it is very clearly seen that the spectral characteristic curve of egg yolk of E egg type is obvious different with other five types. According to the priori information shown in table 1, the E egg type is the common egg type, while the other five types are natural eggs. Therefore, using the hyperspectral characteristics of egg yolks, natural eggs and common eggs can be easily identified. Other egg yolks features are shown in Figure 11 after the E egg type is removed. It can be known in Figure 11 that in the visible band 700 nm, the order of the reflection values if from big to small, i.e. A>B>C>F>D. The larger the reflection value is, the longer the egg is preserved. The same conclusion is obtained by measuring the PH values of egg whites.
production were determined by observation and by palpation of the shell gland. Egg production was recorded for each hen at the same time each day for a continuous in experimental (12 weeks) period. Egg sequence length and the number of egg sequences were determined from oviposition records following the procedure described by Blake and Ringer (1987). The number of eggs laid on successive days by a particular hen determined the length of each sequence and the number of pauses in each hen’s oviposition determined the number of sequences. For each hen, the length of laying sequence was determined on the day the last egg of the current clutch was laid. If a hen did not experience a pause during that period no value was recorded or else the actual number of pauses observed during that period was recorded. Hen-day egg production, feed consumption, egg weight and hen mortality were recorded daily. All production variables were determined for each replicate. The parameters relative to egg quality were evaluated at 30-40 weeks of age. Twelve eggs were randomly collected per treatment (2 egg per replicate) to determine the parameters. The collected eggs were weighed and broken out individually on a glass plate surface and allowed to sit for 5 min. The height of yolk and albumen, and the diameter of yolk were measured using the slide callipers. Yolks were separated from albumen manually and both were weighed. The weight of shell, albumen and yolk were divided by whole egg weight and then multiplied by 100 to determine percentage weight. Eggshell thickness (without inner and outer shell membranes) was measured at the middle part of the eggshell using screw gauge. Haugh units (99 HU) were calculated from the records of albumen height (H) and egg weight (W) using the following formula: HU = 100 log10 (H−1.7 W0.37 + 7.56) according to Haugh (1937). There was no mortality in experimental birds during the experimental period. However, at the end of the experiment (i.e. after12 weeks) postmortem examinations were carried out and there was significant change occur in ovary. In case of treated birds increase number follicle in ovary other than control group. After postmortem examination, morphological changes were examined. In case of broody hen, shrinkage of reproductive tract but in laying hen higher development of reproductive tract and huge number of prominent follicle found in ovary. All the data were analyzed with SPSS statistics 20.0 software. Probability P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Australian brood parasites (cuckoos) and their hosts are a relatively unknown study system compared with those of Europe or North America, where the classic predictions as- sociated with within-species variability have already been veri ﬁ ed in comparative analyses (e.g., Soler and Møller 1995; Stokke et al. 2002). The diversity of hosts (main hosts p 90 species) and cuckoo species (n p 10) breeding in Australia make this an ideal system for testing the two classic predic- tions associated with clutch variation; whether hosts have (i) low within-clutch variation and (ii) high within-species variation in egg morphology ( ﬁ g. 1). We also use the Austra- lian system to conduct the ﬁ rst test of the hypothesis that host species have evolved greater diversity in their egg phe- notypes than closely related nonhosts ( ﬁ g. 1). Eight of the 10 Australian parasitic cuckoos lay eggs that closely resem- ble those of their primary hosts (Brooker and Brooker 1989; Beruldsen 2003; Starling et al. 2006; Feeney et al. 2014), whereas two bronze-cuckoo species that parasitize dome- nesting hosts have evolved egg crypsis rather than mimicry (Langmore et al. 2009; Gloag et al. 2014). There is evidence of polymorphic, host-speci ﬁ c egg types in two cuckoo spe- cies, the Pallid cuckoo, Cacomantis pallidus, and the Brush cuckoo, Cacomantis variolosus (Beruldsen et al. 2003; Star- ling et al. 2006; Langmore et al. 2009). Like the majority of cuckoo hosts elsewhere, most cup-nesting host species in Australia show high rates of egg rejection (77%; table A1, available online), suggesting that the morphology of host eggs may be under selection to facilitate accurate egg dis- crimination by hosts. Even among dome-nesting hosts, which show lower rates of egg rejection (12.66%; table A1), egg morphology may be under selection as a result of brood parasitism, because the cuckoo removes a single egg dur- ing parasitism and is more likely to remove an egg with high
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influences the rate of embryonic development and it is possible that the degree of egg turning is more important than the frequency of egg turning. Presumably, under natural incubation, embryos must be repeatedly stimulated by slight movements and sounds made by the incubating parents, but very little research has been conducted in this area. The extent to which ostriches move their eggs during incubation has not been clearly reported (Jarvis et al 1 985). S auer and Sauer ( 1 966) noted that eggs were displaced daily, usually when the bird moved while on the nest. The use of the beak in egg turning occurred only when the bird stood to re-arrange the clutch, or after a change in incubating birds (Hurxthal 1 979). Kiwi eggs are disproportionately large (400 g) in relation to the body weight of the adult bird (Calder 1 979, Rowe 1 980) and are incubated in small burrows in which movement is restricted (Potter 1 989). Consequently eggs are turned infrequently during the long incubation period of up to 85 days (Reid and Williams 1975, Goudswaard 1 996). In some nests, vegetation collected by the male kiwi may build up around the egg, in some cases up to the mid-line, resulting in it becoming semi-buried during late incubation, (McLennan 1 988), and this must make it difficult, if not impossible, for the egg to be turned (J. McLennan pers comm. ) . This also suggests that the kiwi egg may be turned most frequently in the early stages of incubation. When monitoring rhea nests both in the wild and in captivity, Bruning ( 1 974) found that centrally located eggs were moved less frequently than peripheral ones. This did not occur in the emu nests but the clutch sizes were small, and differences in egg turning may arise in larger clutches.
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teurisation (5–10 min at 58–60°C) reduces viable bacterial count (Palumbo et al. 1996; Schuman & Sheldon 1997; Froning et al. 2002). Spray- drying is suitable for drying liquid eggs to obtain egg powder with 5% moisture content in which micro-organisms are not able to grow – or even a reduction of bacterium count can be achieved with certain bacteria, however, changes in functional properties have been observed (Lechevalier et al. 2007). A recent alternative is a protracted treatment of liquid eggs (at least 1 h) at 53–55°C. At this temperature (i.e. below 57°C), conalbumin does not coagulate and the temperature is below that generally used in the conventional pasteurisa- tion procedure (Németh et al. 2010a). According to our previous research, this method results in a product with excellent microbial stability and viscosity similar to pasteurised liquid egg white (Németh et al. 2010b).
Egg white is extensively utilized as a functional food material in food processing due to the multiple functional roles of egg white proteins such as foaming, gelling and emulsifying properties. The foaming property of egg white has been widely studied using different methods. In this research, two different foaming methods were used to prepare egg white foams by a whipping method using a standard mix beater and a sparging method using a whipped cream dispenser (pressurized dispenser). Egg white is also commercially available in several different physical forms, such as fresh egg white liquid, frozen fresh egg white liquid (EWL) and spray dried egg white powder (EWP). In this study, EWL and EWP solutions were used to compare their foaming ability and foam stability. Various factors affecting on the formation and stability of egg white foam were investigated to understand their impact on the functional properties of egg white as foaming agents under specific conditions, including whipping time and speed, shaking time, temperature, pH, type and ionic strength of salts, thermal treatment and addition of some ingredients (e.g. sugar and hydrocolloids). All foams produced were analysed on the basis of two different parameters of foam properties, such as foamability after preparation and foam stability with time after foam preparation. Foam stability was also analysed by two different aspects, foam volume stability against foam collapse and foam liquid stability against liquid drainage. Another objective of this study was to investigate the application of cooking egg white foam in a microwave oven after the foam preparation with an aim of developing a prototype of value added new products derived from egg white foam. The microbiological stability of egg white was also measured to determine the shelf stability of non-pasteurised and pasteurised egg white solutions with and without added ingredients against microbial growth. Overall the results obtained in this study provide significant insights into the impact of various factors affecting the formation and stability of egg white foam and the potential application of microwave cooking of egg white foam for applications in various food industries.
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Significant interactions among all the factors included in this trial on egg weight show that it is not easy to evaluate the importance of each as- pect in controlling this important characteristic. In cages, egg weight in ISA Brown decreased with egg collection time, which corresponds with find- ings of Yannakopoulos et al. (1994), Novo et al. (1997), Pavlovski et al. (2000) and Tůmová et al. (2007) while in Moravia the weight increased. On the other hand, deviations in egg weight from hens on litter were not influenced by the egg collection time in any of the genotypes at all. This is similar to the results of our previous experiment on litter (Tůmová and Ebeid, 2005) where the egg weight did not vary significantly with different times of oviposition.
Egg production, egg quality, and blood sam- ple preparation. Egg production and egg weights were recorded daily, while feed consumption was measured at the end of the experiment (36 weeks). Egg mass output was measured using hen-day egg production and egg weight records. Feed conver- sion ratio was calculated as feed consumption per hen divided by egg mass per d per hen. Thirty six eggs per treatment (three eggs/cage) were collect- ed randomly at 36 weeks, and used to determine the egg quality. Haugh units, albumen height, and yolk colour were determined, using an egg multi tester (Touhoku Rhythm Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Eggshell breaking strength was evaluated using an Eggshell force gauge, model II (Robotmation Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and eggshell thickness was measured using a dial pipe gauge (Ozaki Mfg. Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).
The results for egg quality parameters are shown in Table 3. Dietary treatments did not have a significant effect on shape index, yolk percentage, shell percentage, and albumen percentage. The diets containing 4 and 6% HO significantly affected Haugh unit (P < 0.05), with reduced and elevated values, respectively. The highest level of HO (6%) compared to the highest level of HS (20%) led to a greater increase in yolk index during weeks 55-59 (P < 0.05). The yolk color index decreased in HS and HO diets during the second and third periods (59-63 and 63-67 weeks), but not the first period (55-59 weeks).
Pathogens are an important and significant hazard for human and animal health. In recent years, antibiotics are used to treat different types of infection caused by bacterial agents. In veterinary medicine, antibiotics injected into hatching eggs to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of disease, but the adverse effects of drugs have always been a major concern. There is scantly information available about the safety and pathological alterations of florfenicol drug in embryonated eggs. The objective of this study was to investigate using of various dosages of florfenicol solution for in ovo administration in chicken embryo. Fertile chicken eggs were divided into four equal treatment groups as follows: group 1: no injected group. Group 2: phosphate buffered saline-injected group; whose individuals were injected with phosphate buffered saline. Groups 3 and 4 whose individuals were injected with florfenicol injectable solution at a dosage of 20 and 30 mg per Kg egg-weight, respectively. Embryos were re-incubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Results showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Microscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in tissues. Based on macroscopic and microscopic findings, it is concluded that florfenicol at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the chicken embryo. So, florfenicol egg-injection can be used to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of the disease without any adverse effect.
egg yolk cholesterol content in hens. Küçükyılmaz et al. (2012) reported no effect of the housing system on egg yolk cholesterol content. Similarly, Dong et al. (2017) did not demonstrate differences in cholesterol content in the yolk of eggs from both free-range with or without outdoor access. In our study, the differences in egg yolk cholesterol levels between the studied breeds were not significant (Table 4.). Our results fail to confirm an earlier report (Krawczyk et al., 2011) in which egg yolk cholesterol content was significantly lower in the native Greenleg Partridge hens compared to the hens of other breeds. Rizzi and Chiericato (2010) and Rizzi and Marangon (2012), who investigated eggs from Hy-line Brown, Hy-line White and two local breeds of hens (Ermelluinata di Rovigo and Robusta Maculata) also showed that genotype has an effect on the cholesterol level. In both studies, the cholesterol level was higher in the yolks of eggs from local breeds of hens than from commercial hybrids. Wang et al. (2009) noted that Araucana hens lay eggs with lower cholesterol content compared to commercial layers. In turn, Millet et al. (2006) and Gultemirian et al. (2009) found higher cholesterol content in the yolk of eggs from Araucana hens compared to eggs from the commercial Isa Brown and Lohmann hens.
ferences were recorded. These results are in agree- ment with Woodard et al. (1969) and Rozenboim et al. (1998) in Japanese quail and laying hens, respectively. Rozenboim et al. (1998) confirmed that in laying hens the light colour did not affect the average egg weight during the laying period. Our results correspond also with the studies of Freitas et al. (2010) and Borille et al. (2013) who confirmed that egg weight was not influenced by light colour. However, Pyrzak and Siopes (1986) reported that turkey hens kept in red light produced heavier eggs than those on other light treatments. Likewise, Pyrzak et al. (1987) reported that eggs laid under blue light were consistently larger than those produced under red light. Er et al. (2007) observed that egg weight was lower in red light compared to blue and incandescent light. How- ever, Borille et al. (2013) reported that egg weight usually depends particularly on hen’s age and on nutritional factors rather than on light colour.
Both internal and external egg quality in the present study were affected positively by the dietary substitution of SBM by MOLM at different levels in dual purpose Koekeok hens. Weight of sampled eggs and albumen weight, egg length, albumen height, yolk index, and yolk color, shell weight and yolk height, yolk weight were all improved especially at 5% MOLM inclusion. This was consistent with the finding of Etalem et al.  who reported a better egg quality obtained from hens fed 5% MOLM in the total ration. Improvement of albumen height in the present study was also agreed with the findings observed by Price, et al.  and Kaijage et al.  but inconsistent for improvement of yolk index. The higher the yolk index and Haugh unit, the more desirable is the egg quality  which resulted from the present study. This was also in agreement with the reports of Bhatnagar et al.  who conducted feeding MOLM to ISA brown breed at the levels of 5,10 and 20%, at lower levels improved egg quality and higher levels resulted in lower productivity and poorer egg quality indices. Improvement of egg weight in the current study was similar with Kakengi et al.  where substitution of sunflower with MOLM at 5% levels in the diet showed a positive effect on egg weight. The decrease in weight at higher levels of MOLM inclusion in the present study and others were also not clear but probably was due lower energy and CP availability and also associated with lower digestibility of CF component reported in various other leaf meals. Increasing of egg weight due to increase in weight of albumen and yolk especially for T 2 might be the main cause of improvement in Haugh Unit in the present study. This was also in agreement with Nobakht and Moghaddam, et al.  who noted a positive correlation between Haugh Unit and quality of egg components (yolk and albumen).
Proteins/adverse effects"[Mesh] OR total fat[tw] OR total protein[tw] OR dietary fat[tw] OR animal product[tw] OR animal products[tw] OR saturated fat[tw] OR animal fat[tw]) AND ("Neoplasms"[Mesh] OR cancer[tw] OR cancers[tw] OR tumor[tw] OR tumors[tw] OR tumour[tw] OR tumours[tw] OR neoplasm[tw] OR neoplasms[tw] OR neoplasia[tw] OR carcinoma[tw] OR carcinomas[tw] OR malignan*[tw] OR adenocarcinoma*[tw]) NOT ("Animals"[Mesh] NOT "Humans"[Mesh]) NOT (Comment[ptyp] OR Editorial[ptyp] OR Letter[ptyp] OR Case Reports[ptyp] OR News[ptyp] OR "Case-Control Studies"[Mesh]) Embase ('egg'/exp OR egg:ab,ti OR eggs:ab,ti OR total fat:ab,ti OR total protein:ab,ti OR dietary
There is a good scope of market potentiality of backyard poultry for upholding the rural livelihood. Though the average consumption of poultry meat and egg is below than that of world and Asian average, but more than the national average, which is a great opportunity to explore the potentiality of poultry market at the study area. The study will be helpful to the policy makers to recommend the potentiality of the poultry products as an alternate source of income for the underprivileged people. The findings of the study may also be utilized for integration with the available livestock based production system for their livelihood security. Further, it is obvious that the study will help to generate the database of the poultry products market along with the refinement system of the products in order to make a sustainable growth and nutritional nourishment of the people.
Serum total IgE levels were 6-fold above the method reference range among the HIV-1 sero-positive people and 9-fold higher in the HIV-1 uninfected group while Ascaris-specific IgE was 6 times and 8 times higher in the two groups, respectively. The proportions by combined measures of high serum Ascaris-specific IgE plus stool egg positivity as indicators for helminth infection (>65%) exceeded the percentage of participants with stool egg positivity only (>40%) in both HIV positive and negative groups (Table 1). A range of parasites was detected in this adult population, including infection with more than one species. The most prevalent infections were A. lumbri- coides (44 of the 51 HIV + egg positive and 14 of 18 HIV - egg positive participants), followed by T. trichiura (30 of 51 HIV + and 8 of 18 HIV - participants). Other parasites included the Taenia species (5 of 51 and 3 of 18 HIV + and HIV - individuals respectively), Fasciola (one in each of the two HIV-1 groups) and Schistosoma mansoni (one of the 18 HIV-1 negatives). Among the HIV-1 + , 21 of 51 (41%) were dually infected by A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and 5 out of 18 (28%) among HIV - group harboured both these parasites. Worm burdens were lower in the HIV positive group.
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