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Developing Regression Based Approximate Quantities Models for Quantification of Electrical Cables for Residential Building Construction in Nigeria

Developing Regression Based Approximate Quantities Models for Quantification of Electrical Cables for Residential Building Construction in Nigeria

Abstract: In quantity surveying practice, the building and engineering standard method of measurement 4 th edition stipulates that electrical final circuits should be enumerated during quantity take-off of electrical cables. This approach poses challenges during estimation and material scheduling because it does not readily provide the quantity (length) and estimate of cables needed for the electrical installation works. This study was aimed at developing regression based approximate quantities models which can be used by quantity surveyors to predict lighting and power electrical cables quantities for proposed residential building projects. Take-off(measurement) of thirty architectural and electrical drawings designed by registered architects and electrical engineers was carried out to obtain data on the number of lighting points and socket outlets as well as the corresponding length of cables, which was further validated by an experienced quantity surveyor and electrical engineer and analysed using linear regression. Two linear regression models were generated as follows (1) PC qty = 317.237 + 14.358 SO qty , Where: PC qty = power cable quantities
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Redesign Of Drum Packing Workstation At Medium-Scaled Electrical Cables Manufacturer

Redesign Of Drum Packing Workstation At Medium-Scaled Electrical Cables Manufacturer

Manufacturing of an electric cable, requires several processes. There are two types of cable that commonly produced in manufacturing industry which are power cable and telephone cable. Both cables are required to undergo several processes such as drawing, stranding, laying-up, insulation, armouring and sheating. Drawing is a cold

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A Circulated Static Arrangement Compensator Framework for Acknowledging Dynamic Force Stream Control on Existing Electrical Cables

A Circulated Static Arrangement Compensator Framework for Acknowledging Dynamic Force Stream Control on Existing Electrical Cables

As indicated by development of power interest and the expanded number of non-direct loads in force matrices, giving a great electrical force ought to be considered. In this paper, voltage hang and swell of the force quality issues are contemplated and dispersed force stream controller (DPFC) is utilized to alleviate the voltage deviation and enhance power quality. The DPFC is another FACTS gadget, which its structure is like bound together power stream controller (UPFC). Regardless of UPFC, in DPFC the basic dc- connection between the shunt and arrangement converters is disposed of and three-stage arrangement converter is isolated to a few single- stage arrangement dispersed converters through the line. The contextual analysis contains a DPFC sited in a solitary machine limitless transport power framework including two parallel transmission lines, which recreated in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The displayed reenactment results approve the DPFC capacity to enhance the force quality.
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A new tool for the optimal design of electrical cables in Wind Farms

A new tool for the optimal design of electrical cables in Wind Farms

In this paper, a new tool is proposed to design electric installations in wind farms. The structure of the wind farm is considered radial, as in most cases in wind farms, and the ratings of the cables are calculated, taking into account the technical constraints like electrical and thermal, and the economical aspects as cost of cable and energy savings for reduction of electrical losses. The program has been applied to solve the best rating of the cables in different wind farms and wind conditions, and the results are depictured.

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AMG MINERAÇÃO. Mining. September 2015

AMG MINERAÇÃO. Mining. September 2015

international markets, especially in Europe, USA and China. “AMG is a leading producer of special alloys of aluminum and altabs. We were able to establish different types of products, including alloys used in the production of wheels, windows, electrical cables, aluminum cans, plates, coaxial cables, tubes, rivets, zippers and engineering products with specific mechanical properties,” said Costa.

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Fire safety simulation of cable fire in nuclear power plant room based on flammability database of cables

Fire safety simulation of cable fire in nuclear power plant room based on flammability database of cables

For these tests, 4 kind of electrical cables were applied to the flammability tests. The name of cables and specification are shown in table 1. The special specifications for nuclear plans were applied to the cable specimens in Table 1. The cable specimens which include 2 conductor were applied to the tests. The hyper electrical insulation machines is able to measure insulation resistance from 2.5MΩ to 10 7 MΩ.

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technergy INTEGRATED CABLING SOLUTIONS Cables Offshore

technergy INTEGRATED CABLING SOLUTIONS Cables Offshore

Organised in two business units - Energy Cables & Systems (submarine and terrestrial cables for electricity transmission and distribution) and Telecom Cables & Systems (optical fibres and cables for video, data and voice transmission and copper telecom cables), the Prysmian Group has a global presence in 34 countries with 54 plants, 7 R&D Centers in Europe, U.S.A. and South America and more than 12,000 employees.

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Potential Liabilities For Contractors Installing Building Communications Cables That Violate National Electrical Code Requirements.

Potential Liabilities For Contractors Installing Building Communications Cables That Violate National Electrical Code Requirements.

Potentially hazardous communications cables generally are made from lower fire performance materials and variable manufacturing processes, often making them highly combustible when exposed to fire, particularly when installed in building plenum spaces or in vertical floor-to-floor riser shafts. This can cause fires to rapidly spread and dense smoke to be distributed throughout a building, making evacuation and rescue of occupants more difficult. Many of these cables are falsely rated as CMP and CMR and may be deceptively marked as complying with NEC fire safety codes and NFPA approved test methods. In some cases, cable markings and packages may display unauthorized or counterfeit listing references to independent testing agencies.
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Method to discard partial discharge pulses from neighboring high voltage equipment

Method to discard partial discharge pulses from neighboring high voltage equipment

On-line partial discharge (PD) measurements at cable terminations have been considered to be the most effective diagnostic tool for diagnosing defects in cable insulation. Due to PD, fast varying current pulses flow in the cable core and screen. These pulses can be detected using high frequency current transformers or pre-installed power frequency CT used for protection and measurement purposes [1]. On-line PD measurements are often hampered by various noise sources namely radio transmissions, mobile-phone transmissions, corona from high voltage equipment, PD from adjacent cables etc. These noise sources make the process of extracting PD from the raw data a much more difficult task. Since PD pulses exhibit a wide-band frequency spectrum, classical filtering technique is not effective. Hence multi- resolution analysis using wavelets has been proven to be one of the most effective techniques for de-noising PD signals [2- 4]. Various steps are involved in wavelet de-noising of the acquired signal. These are selecting filter kernel or mother wavelet having impulse response similar to the PD pulse shape, decomposition using sub band coding scheme using quadrature mirror filters, thresholding and synthesis. Thresholding plays a vital role in de-noising and is based on the fact that the energy of a signal will often be described by fewer coefficients while the noise energy spectrum spans the
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APPROVAL OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS & CABLES UNDER REGULATION 75(2) OF THE OIL MINES REGULATIONS, 1984

APPROVAL OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS & CABLES UNDER REGULATION 75(2) OF THE OIL MINES REGULATIONS, 1984

The list of approved flameproof intrinsically safe equipment is not exhaustive and subject to verification of the approval documents.. Sl.[r]

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Cable Material Design Criteria for the Medical Industry by Floyd Henry Director of Manufacturing and Engineering Bioconnect, Division of RF Industries

Cable Material Design Criteria for the Medical Industry by Floyd Henry Director of Manufacturing and Engineering Bioconnect, Division of RF Industries

As has been discussed in this paper, the design criteria that applies to medical cables means that, in most cases, common cable manufacturing methods cannot be used, or need to be modified. The packaging and medical manufacturing industries are heavily regulated and must maintain a high level of hygiene to prevent end-users from being exposed to harmful microorganisms. In that vein, a standard, ANSI/ AAMI EC53, was developed to address the specific segment of ECG cables and leads. While it only applies to ECG cables, it is often used as a base upon which to build specifications for other medical cable applications since there is no “global” medical cable standard. The designer should be aware of this standard so a brief discussion is warranted.
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Study on the performance of underground XLPE cables in service based on Tan Delta and capacitance parameters

Study on the performance of underground XLPE cables in service based on Tan Delta and capacitance parameters

After that, Cross linked Polyethylene XLPE has been used over the world as electrical insulating material in underground distribution and transmission class cables because of their excel[r]

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Protection requirements capture for superconducting cables in TeDP aircraft using a thermal-electrical cable model

Protection requirements capture for superconducting cables in TeDP aircraft using a thermal-electrical cable model

To meet the growing demand for air transport for both passengers and cargo, it is estimated that by 2030, 32,600 new aircraft will be required [1]. Alongside meeting this growing demand, the aerospace industry must address environmental targets to reduce gas and noise emissions attributable to aircraft [2, 3]. To achieve these goals, disruptive technological change is required in a number of fundamental areas central to the design of the aircraft. One such area is the propulsion drive train, in which TeDP can provide substantial advantages [2]. In such a system, electrical power is provided by generators driven by gas engines. This electrical power is then distributed to a number of electrical propulsor motors which provide the thrust for the aircraft. No thrust is provided by the gas engines. The use of the gas engines and propulsor motors in this way provides greater design freedom, allowing air-framers to harness aerodynamically advantageous effects such as Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) [4], improving overall aircraft efficiency.
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ABSTRACT : Data transfer through power line is a technology that sends data through Electric line along with electric

ABSTRACT : Data transfer through power line is a technology that sends data through Electric line along with electric

Power line communications (PLC) uses the energy cables as the communication channel and the digital data are transferred via energy cables. PLC system is realized between transceivers modems located on the power lines front- end. Industrial control and home automation have rapidly been gaining popularity for the past decade. PLC, a new technology that sends data through existing electric cables alongside electrical current, is set to turn the largest existing network in the world, the electricity distribution grid, into a data transmission network. PLC will make it possible to both industrial control and home automation over power lines with economical and reliable solutions. Long-distance monitoring of alarms and air-conditioning systems, comfortable control of intelligent household appliances, and off-site reading of electricity meters will all become feasible-simply via the power grid. BPL injectors, repeaters, extractors and customer premises equipment (CPE) are the basic devices installed to enable power line network to provide high-speed Internet access. Power Line Carrier communication systems consist of a high frequency signal injection over the electrical power lines. This kind of technology has been used since the 1950 decade in order to provide signaling and ripple control in High Voltage lines, at transmission level. In the last years the interest for this technology has suffered a revival because the impressing increase of the mobile telecommunications has brought a big development in transmission technologies for this kind of communications.
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STE 04 Site Preparation May1987 pdf

STE 04 Site Preparation May1987 pdf

Clearance, service Connector Specifications contact person CRT - Cable CRT cable specifications CRT cables CRT cables, long Dedicated lines Dust Electrical disturbances Electrical wiring[r]

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Customer Low-Voltage Switchboards Service Cable Terminal Compartment Arrangements and Clearances

Customer Low-Voltage Switchboards Service Cable Terminal Compartment Arrangements and Clearances

If detailed drawings are not available from the switchboard manufacturer, the electrical contractor can secure preliminary approval based on one of the arrangements shown in this specification. However, PPL EU may refuse to connect service when, in PPL EU's opinion, the customer's installation does not conform to this specification. It is then the responsibility of the customer to make the necessary changes before service will be connected.

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COMPARISON OF CABLES

COMPARISON OF CABLES

4) Cold Bend Test is carried out to ascertain the suitability or withstandability of the insulating materials at low temperatures or frost conditions. The temperature set is around -40˚C. The thickness of the insulation is kept such that the insulation doesn’t get cracked up. Depending upon the type of cable used, the thickness of insulation is varied. Generally single PVC has insulation thickness of .711mm and wire thickness of 1.88 mm, stranded red copper has 0.9398 and 2.3114 respectively, silicon rubber cable has 0.9652 and 2.3876 respectively. 5) Ageing in air oven test makes an assessment of change in tensile strength and elongation of material. The treatment given to XLPE cable for the accelerated ageing of air consists of keeping the cable in temperature of 135± 3˚C. The tensile strength variation is ±25% maximum and Elongation variation is ± 25%. The treatment given to PVC cables constitutes of keeping the cable under temperature of 80 ±2 ˚C,100±2˚C,135±2˚C for Type A, Type B and Type C insulation respectively for 7 days. Tensile strength variation is ± 20%,25% and 25% respectively and elongation variation is ±20%, 25%, 35%. The Elastomer insulated cables are kept under temperature of 70˚C for IE 1, 135˚C for IE 2,IE 3,IE 4 and 200˚C for IE 5 insulation cable for duration of 10,7 ,7,7,10 days respectively and Tensile strength variation is observed as ±40%, ± 30%, ±30%, ±50%, ±20% respectively. The variation of elongation at break is ±40%, ± 30%, ±30%, ±50%, ±20%.
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Achievement and experience in service of long length High Voltage AC electrical links by insulated power cables

Achievement and experience in service of long length High Voltage AC electrical links by insulated power cables

Long length high voltage links by AC insulated power cables in Denmark. Item No Country of the link System Power Voltage Length[r]

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Understanding the impact of failure modes of cables for the design of turbo-electric distributed propulsion electrical power systems.

Understanding the impact of failure modes of cables for the design of turbo-electric distributed propulsion electrical power systems.

The stability of a superconducting system can also be measured by considering the ability of components to maintain superconducting properties under different operating conditions. In low temperature superconductors (LTS) the ability of the material to maintain the superconducting state is typically measured through current and temperature margin. These coupled margins determine the maximum tolerable increase in temperature or current before quench occurs. While these design margins can give indications of the stability for a superconductor following a disturbance, they may not be suitable for HTS due to the loss mechanisms that affect steady state temperature in HTS [13]. This is an important distinction as short-term overcurrent conditions that heat the superconductor up can reduce the amount of time the components can support a given current until the cooling system reduces the temperature to the pre-disturbance steady state [14]. This could also have the effect that protection requirements will need to be adjusted according to the systems’ thermal as well as electrical conditions.
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UNDERGROUND POWER CABLE INSULATION ELECTRICAL LIFETIME ESTIMATION METHODS

UNDERGROUND POWER CABLE INSULATION ELECTRICAL LIFETIME ESTIMATION METHODS

During service, the polymeric insulations of power cables are submitted to electrical, thermal, mechanical, environmental stresses etc. that contribute to the initiation and development of certain degradation processes. In 1969 Myashita [1] reported water trees presence inside the polyethylene insulations of submersible cables. After that, the inception and development of water trees under the action of variable electric fields in the presence of water with different salt content was studied in many papers [2-7].

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