electricity transmission system planning

Top PDF electricity transmission system planning:

Learning from the Blackouts Transmission System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets

Learning from the Blackouts Transmission System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets

In general terms, system operating practices in relation to transmission system security have changed little with the introduction of electricity reform. The fundamental basis for system operation remains the local control area. Local system operators remain largely responsible for operational contingency planning and secure system operation within control areas, and can act in an operational context without a great deal of co-ordination or consultation. Co-ordination among system operators within larger integrated transmission systems has been enhanced to a degree to take account of greater interregional electricity flows. Various mechanisms have been developed to improve day-ahead exchange of information on projected trade flows, such as the Day-Ahead Congestion Forecast system in continental Europe, the Open Access Same Time Information System in North America and the Nordic Operational Information System (NOIS) system in Nordel. The NOIS system also provides the platform for the Nordic balancing market. In some cases an institutional framework has been placed over the top of control areas to improve co-ordination and information exchange in relation to reliability and power flows, such as the NERC framework in North America or the System Operation Agreement in the Nordic region. However, co-ordination and communication continues to be handled largely on an exception basis in the context of managing transmission system security, particularly in real-time. The more dynamic operating environment created by unbundling, decentralised decision-making and greater interregional trade needs to be appropriately reflected in operating practices if they are to continue to ensure effective transmission system security in competitive electricity markets. In particular, operating practices need to be flexible and adaptable to permit effective real-time response to system emergencies and disturbances. Contingency planning and emergency responses need to be undertaken from a whole-of-system perspective, reflecting the shared nature of responsibility and action required to maintain transmission system security, particularly in integrated transmission systems spanning multiple control areas. Effective co- ordination and communication is vital for successful system operation to maintain transmission system security.
Show more

216 Read more

An Approach to Short-Term Control of Integrated Energy Systems with Load-Controlled Consumers

An Approach to Short-Term Control of Integrated Energy Systems with Load-Controlled Consumers

The problem of the optimal power flow calculation for several periods of time is related to the planning of the energy system operation for a set time horizon. In [16], the authors present modeling of an optimal power flow coordinated in time for electric and gas system for the case of distributed energy resources. Due to relatively slow flow speeds and specific features of storage in the gas and heating systems, it is important to take into account the dynamic behavior of these energy systems during several periods of time to solve the problems of control and scheduling of the systems. The authors of [17] study a method for calculation of optimal power flow and scheduling for integrated electric and gas systems with a transient model for the natural gas flow. The calculations were performed to compare the solutions obtained with stationary and transient models of natural gas transmission systems. A model of optimal power flow for several time periods was developed to study combined electricity and gas networks in Great Britain [18, 19].
Show more

6 Read more

Transmission Expansion Planning In Lmp Based Electricity Market: A Comparison Of Dc And Ac Approaches

Transmission Expansion Planning In Lmp Based Electricity Market: A Comparison Of Dc And Ac Approaches

IEEE 24-bus system consists of fourteen generators (two each at buses 1,2,15 and 23, and one each at buses 7,13,16,18,21, and 22), demands at buses 1-10, 13-16 and 18-20, and thirty four existing transmission lines. The line data, generator data, generator and demand bids data and upper limits on eight seasonal demands have been taken from [14], for the sake of comparison. The second circuits of existing transmission lines have been considered to be the candidate lines for TEP. In AC approach maximum and minimum reactive power generation limits are taken to be 80% and -40% respectively of respective maximum real power generation limit. In DC approach, the annual social welfaresbefore and after TEP are 204.2M$ and 213.1M$, respectively, which closely matches with centralized approach of [14]. On the other hand, AC approach gives annual social welfares197.8 M$ to 205.7M$, before and after TEP, respectively. However, both approaches lead to expansion of lines 14-16 and 16-17.
Show more

7 Read more

T r a ns m i s s i o n Ne t w o r kC o ng e s t i o n i n D e r e g ul a t e d W ho l e s a l eE l e ct r i ci t yM a r k e t

T r a ns m i s s i o n Ne t w o r kC o ng e s t i o n i n D e r e g ul a t e d W ho l e s a l eE l e ct r i ci t yM a r k e t

In develop countries Electricity market is already func- tioning and it is being started to introduce in developing countries. The sole purpose of introduction of deregula- tion and electricity market is to create a healthy compe- tition among the participant of the market and to make electricity market more efficient, liquid and complete [1]. The fundamental objectives behind the establishment of electricity market are the secure operation of power sys- tem and facilitating an economic operation of the system. Key entities of the electricity market are Generating com- panies (GENCOs), independent system operator (ISO) - many a times known as system operator (SO), Transmis- sion companies (TRANSCOs) and Distribution compa- nies (DISCOs) [2]. The development of electricity market also aims for the maximum participation from the electric utilities to provide transparent and non-discriminatory platform for energy producers.
Show more

5 Read more

Transmission System Expansion Planning with Consideration of N 1 Security Constraints

Transmission System Expansion Planning with Consideration of N 1 Security Constraints

This paper presents a heuristic method for solving transmission system expansion problems (TSEP) with consideration of N-1 security constraints. The method is divided into two phases. An initial plan is established in the first phase by a search process which is based on a modified simplex method and sensitivity indices. The second phase starts from the initial plan and performs the local search in the defined neighborhood. Additionally, reconstruction of the new lines on the existing right of ways, which is one of the interesting issues of TSEP in the urban area, is taken into account. The proposed method provides very satisfactory results compared with others.
Show more

16 Read more

International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission by Regulators: Theory and Practice. Aoife Brophy Haney and Michael G.

International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission by Regulators: Theory and Practice. Aoife Brophy Haney and Michael G.

Abstract Benchmarking of electricity networks has a key role in sharing the benefits of efficiency improvements with consumers and ensuring regulated companies earn a fair return on their investments. This paper analyses the theory and practice of international benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators. We examine the literature relevant to electricity transmission benchmarking and conduct a survey of 48 national electricity regulators. Consideration of the literature and our survey indicates that electricity transmission benchmarking is significantly more challenging than electricity distribution benchmarking. New panel data techniques aimed at dealing with unobserved heterogeneity and the validity of the comparator group look intellectually promising but are in their infancy for regulatory purposes. In electricity transmission choosing variables is particularly difficult, because of the large number of potential variables to choose from. Failure to apply benchmarking appropriately may negatively affect investors’ willingness to invest in the future. While few of our surveyed regulators acknowledge that regulatory risk is currently an issue in transmission benchmarking, many more concede it might be. New regulatory approaches – such as those based on tendering, negotiated settlements, a wider range of outputs or longer term grid planning - are emerging and will necessarily involve a reduced role for benchmarking.
Show more

65 Read more

Distribution Sector Reform in India: An Overview

Distribution Sector Reform in India: An Overview

Abstract:- The Indian power sector has been facing serious functional problems and challenges during the past few decades. In order to revitalize the distribution sector and to improve its techno-economic performances, Government of India has initiated restructuring or reform process since 1991. This paper provides a comprehensive idea of the distribution Sector reform issues, its key driver, objective ,some recommendations and future scope of the reform. Some case studies have also been presented to analyze the effectiveness and viability of the reform process of distribution sector. This paper will be very much helpful for engineers, researchers, system operators to check and improve the health of distribution sectors in future.
Show more

11 Read more

HYBRID PSO WITH GA RECOMBINATION OPERATOR FOR EFFICENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM PLANNING

HYBRID PSO WITH GA RECOMBINATION OPERATOR FOR EFFICENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM PLANNING

Transmission system planning is relevant problem and crucial part of power system planning which determines the number, time, and location of new lines for adding to transmission network. In this paper, PSO-GA hybrid which combines PSO with genetic operators was proposed to solve the planning problem. The proposed hybrid technique combines the strengths of PSO and utilize crossover operator of GA to realize the balance between natural selection and good knowledge sharing to provide robust and efficient search of the solution space. In this hybrid model, two driving parameters are utilized to optimize the performance by giving preference to either PSO or GA. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm can overcome the disadvantages of particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm, and achieve better performance. Results show that with the correct combination of GA and PSO, the hybrid does outperform both the standard PSO and GA models
Show more

10 Read more

Integrated techno-economic power system planning of transmission and distribution grids

Integrated techno-economic power system planning of transmission and distribution grids

Abstract: The energy transition towards renewable and more distributed power production triggers the need for grid and storage expansion on all voltage levels. Today’s power system planning focuses on certain voltage levels or spatial resolutions. In this work we present an open source software tool eGo which is able to optimize grid and storage expansion throughout all voltage levels in a developed top-down approach. Operation and investment costs are minimized by applying a multi-period linear optimal power flow considering the grid infrastructure of the extra-high and high-voltage (380 to 110 kV) level. Hence, the common differentiation of transmission and distribution grid is partly dissolved, integrating the high-voltage level into the optimization problem. Consecutively, optimized curtailment and storage units are allocated in the medium voltage grid in order to lower medium and low voltage grid expansion needs, that are consequently determined. Here, heuristic optimization methods using the non-linear power flow were d eveloped. Applying the tool on future scenarios we derived cost-efficient grid and storage expansion for all voltage levels in G ermany. Due to the integrated approach storage expansion and curtailment can significantly lower grid expansion costs in medium and low voltage grids and at the same time serve the optimal functioning of the overall system. Nevertheless, the cost-reducing effect for the whole of Germany was marginal. Instead, the consideration of realistic, spatially differentiated time series lead to substantial overall savings. Keywords: power grid modelling; transmission grid planning; distribution grid planning; optimization; linear optimal power flow; power flow; grid expansion; storage expansion; renewable energy
Show more

29 Read more

National Report 2013 submitted as of 30 June 2014 Regulatory Office for Network Industries Slovakia

National Report 2013 submitted as of 30 June 2014 Regulatory Office for Network Industries Slovakia

SPP-distribúcia operates the distribution system of the Slovak Republic. The network is made up of large-scale, medium-scale and low-scale gas supply pipelines covering the national territory, and provides the distribution of almost 98 % of total volume of gas distributed in. Out of the total number of 2,928 towns and villages in Slovakia 2,234 of them were gasified (77 %) in 2013, thereby enabling them to have access up to 94 % of Slovak inhabitants in the country. Out of the total length of the distribution system being 33,182 km, as of December 31, 2013, the high- pressure gas pipelines are 6,291 km long and medium-pressure and low-pressure gas pipelines are 26,891 km long. A tendency to apply thermal insulation on residential buildings as well as the switch to heating medium used for space heating in households in family houses is caused by a lower level of use of primarily low-pressure gas supply pipelines. The insufficient use of an oversized distribution system is proven by the fact that in the course of ten years the amount of gas distributed in the course of ten years went down by about 23 %, whereas the length of medium and low-pressure gas supply pipelines has increased by about 6.5 %.
Show more

25 Read more

The Ownership Unbundling of Electricity Transmission System Operators: the European Union Policy and the Case in Lithuania

The Ownership Unbundling of Electricity Transmission System Operators: the European Union Policy and the Case in Lithuania

In some Member States, vertically integrated companies are still partially or completely state-owned. According the new proposal, transmission assets are allowed to stay public but, in order to guarantee the independence of the transmission system operator towards the generation companies, different ministerial departments should be responsible for the newly separated activities (The Commission Proposal, 2007). This will ensures that where supply or production activities are in public ownership, the independence of a publicly owned transmission system operator is still guaranteed; but these proposals do not require state owned companies to sell their network to a privately owned company (The Commission Proposal, 2007). As effectiveness of unbundling in publicly owned companies will depend on the degree of management independence and therefore could be assessed on a case by case basis (An ERGEG public document, 2007).
Show more

9 Read more

Renewable Energy as an Alternative to Fossil Fuel Use: A Legal Framework for Advancing Low Carbon Energy Transition in Nigeria

Renewable Energy as an Alternative to Fossil Fuel Use: A Legal Framework for Advancing Low Carbon Energy Transition in Nigeria

This, to the writer, is the beginning of the structural problems in the industry. Therefore this thesis recommends that the laws be amended to reflect electricity as a matter exclusively under the legislative jurisdiction of the states as is the model in both the Canadian and Australian systems compared in chapter four, which are countries that share similar fossil fuel background with Nigeria and have a similar legal structure in operation. 594 The proposed amendment will not be difficult because, unlike the Canadian Constitution that is largely unwritten, Nigeria operates a written Constitution and its amendment procedure is provided for in section 9 595 which gives the National Assembly the power to alter any of the provisions of the constitution, provided such alteration is backed by the votes of “not less than two-thirds majority of all the members of that house and approved by resolution of the Houses of Assembly of not less than two-thirds of all states”. 596 The amendment procedure is subject to section 58(1) of the Nigerian Constitution which states that the presidential assent is needed and where he withholds his assent, each house would pass the bill by a two-thirds majority and the bill shall become law without the assent of the president. The Nigerian Constitution, has been amended four times since the first release of its Alteration Act in 2010. 597
Show more

171 Read more

SAN DIEGO DISTRIBUTED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IMPACT STUDY. Final Report

SAN DIEGO DISTRIBUTED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IMPACT STUDY. Final Report

The   study   team   relied   on   SDG&E   to   provide   utility-­‐specific   data   that   is   not   generally   publicly   available.    This  included  data  on  utility  retail  loads,  PV  system  interconnection  costs,  distributed  PV   program   costs   administrative   costs   and   projected   marginal   distribution   system   costs   for   voltage   regulation.    Black  &  Veatch  prepared  and  submitted  a  data  request  to  SDG&E  in  March  2013,  with   several   subsequent   follow-­‐up   requests.     Over   the   ensuing   several   months,   SDG&E   provided   some   limited  information  in  the  requested  format,  which  the  study  team  incorporated  into  this  analysis   where   possible   and   feasible.     For   instance,   Black   &   Veatch   approached   the   interconnection   cost   analysis  by  requesting  a  detailed  breakdown  of  costs  by  discrete  tasks  required  for  the  customer   interconnection  process  and  supporting  SDG&E  activities,  however  SDG&E  provided  generally  high-­‐ level  information  on  organization  function  and  program  administration  costs.    Similarly,  instead  of   providing   forecasted   distribution   upgrade   costs   for   voltage   regulation   as   SDG&E   had   initially   offered   in   a   stakeholder   meeting,   they   provided   a   projection   of   the   PV   NEM   capacity   by   feeder   circuits   through   2020.     In   these   cases   where   the   study   team   did   not   receive   the   data   it   was   expecting,   we   used   the   information   that   was   provided   by   SDG&E   and   developed   additional   necessary   assumptions   based   on   our   professional   judgment.     The   result   of   this   is   that   the   study   results  will  not  mirror  SDG&E  costs  for  these  services,  nor  has  the  study  team  validated  the  SDG&E   cost  information.      
Show more

91 Read more

The Future of European Electricity: Choices before 2020. CEPS Policy Brief No. 164, 8 July 2008

The Future of European Electricity: Choices before 2020. CEPS Policy Brief No. 164, 8 July 2008

The electricity sector plays a central role in the European Union’s efforts to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of at least 20% by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. While the electricity sector is currently responsible for about one-third of Europe’s total energy-related GHG emissions, there are large potentials for reducing emissions. Mitigation strategies will need to focus on more efficient electricity use, but also on improved conversion rates and new technologies such as renewables and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Apart from mitigation of climate change, the sector will also have to adapt to climate change. Global warming will have a significant impact on the ability to generate electricity and to deliver it without interruption. This ADAM-CEPS Policy Brief focuses on four issues relevant to the nexus between climate change and the electricity sector. The paper first elaborates on the impacts of climate change on the European electricity sector and on related adaptation needs. Southern countries will most likely be faced with less demand for heating but substantially increased demand for air conditioning. They may also experience losses in hydropower and problems with cooling of thermal power plants. Northern countries will equally experience less demand for heating and may gain potential for electricity production from hydropower. At the same time, they may have to adapt to more storms and heavy precipitation. In both regions, electricity supply disruptions due to storms, floods and heat waves may increase the need for more decentralised electricity generation in order to avoid negative impacts on electricity users. The next section focuses on policy options to facilitate the transition of the electricity sector towards a well-adapted, carbon-lean electricity system. A stable and predictable policy framework is a necessary precondition for investment decisions by the private sector. However, policy instruments need to be assessed according to their effects on wealth distribution, choice of technology and time horizon. Similarly, affected groups (e.g. producers, investors, industries, households) need to be taken into account to enhance the political feasibility of policy interventions. Many EU member states are likely to opt for combinations of policy instruments in order to overcome various sectoral or technology- specific barriers and to promote non-fossil options with substantial innovative and cost-reduction potentials.
Show more

12 Read more

The Wireless Transmission of Electricity with Earth Cloud Capacitor

The Wireless Transmission of Electricity with Earth Cloud Capacitor

is not been hidden by any one and the another aspect of is the requirement and transmission of electricity from the points to its generation transmission and distribution. Here in this research paper we have trying to present a different approach to achieve the wireless transmission of electricity with the help of this paper we can understand the research model and methods that we have implemented to get the wireless transmission of electricity here in this paper we also discuss different issues that can comes during the implementation and also help to design the proper model for wireless transmission. This paper also uses lots of concepts of wireless transmission of signals and distribution of power in proper way in the defined wireless channel. This research paper contains ideas of electrical power signal transmission form one place to another place and this transmission can also comes to less power loss and efficient distribution.
Show more

5 Read more

An integrated framework to support sustainable electricity planning

An integrated framework to support sustainable electricity planning

The changes in the electricity sector along with the need for sustainable development required traditional electricity planning to expand beyond pure financial analysis and even beyond direct environmental impact analysis. The electricity planner has now the task of designing electricity strategies for the future with the view of enhancing the financial performance of the sector while simultaneously addressing environmental and social concerns. However, the integration of the relevant dimensions of sustainable electricity planning poses important challenges to researchers. In addition, to properly deal with the increasing use of renewable energy sources of variable output, traditional optimisation models must be able to integrate the short term operational planning and dispatching process with the long range planning models. This paper proposes a new framework to sustainable electricity planning, based on optimisation models for electricity power planning combined with participatory methodologies for addressing the social dimension of the problem. The effective implementation of this framework is demonstrated for a real case study based on the Portuguese electricity system. The research started from the presentation of electricity generation scenarios for 2020 drawn from a mixed integer linear optimization model. These scenarios were then characterized under different social, economic and environmental impacts, and evaluated according to a multicriteria procedure based on experts’ inputs.
Show more

10 Read more

Competition in Transmission Planning and Development:

Competition in Transmission Planning and Development:

Johannes (Hannes) Pfeifenberger is an economist with a background in power engineering and over 20 years of experience in the areas of public utility economics and finance. He has published widely, assisted clients and stakeholder groups in the formulation of business and regulatory strategy, and submitted expert testimony to the U.S. Congress, courts, state and federal regulatory agencies, and in arbitration proceedings. Hannes has extensive experience in the economic analyses of wholesale power markets and transmission systems. His recent experience includes reviews of RTO capacity market and resource adequacy designs, testimony in contract disputes, and the analysis of transmission benefits, cost allocation, and rate design. He has performed market assessments, market design reviews, asset valuations, and cost‐benefit studies for investor‐owned utilities, independent system operators, transmission companies, regulatory agencies, public power companies, and generators across North America.
Show more

30 Read more

The European Investment Bank: a new database (1958 2012)

The European Investment Bank: a new database (1958 2012)

The classification goes as follows: • Energy Production: Coal, Electricity, Heat, Lignite, Nuclear, Oil and natural gas, Renewable, Solar, Wind; Transmission and supply: Electricity, Hea[r]

18 Read more

Priorities for privatization of Kosovo's electricity distribution network and supply : [presented May 17, 2010]

Priorities for privatization of Kosovo's electricity distribution network and supply : [presented May 17, 2010]

Several Indian states have announced their intention to privatize their state – owned distribution systems. To achieve this goal, the World Bank has recommended that Indian regulators move to a form of “regulation by contract” for potential private distribution companies that would be more asking to what exist in Latin America and elsewhere”. In India, this new regulatory system is called “performance-based multiyear tariffs” or “medium-term fixation” Like Latin America ,the key elements of the proposed system are 1)automatic pass-through of cost elements that are largely beyond the distribution entity’s control (such as power purchases and taxes) and 2) indexing and efficiency targets for cost elements that can be controlled (such as losses and labor cost).A newly proposed national electricity low seems to encourage its adoption .But even if Indian state electricity commissions were to replace their current annual cost-of- services system with multi-year price or revenue cap ,there would still remain a major problem of regulatory credibility.[13]
Show more

53 Read more

Transmission Planning in Deregulated Environments

Transmission Planning in Deregulated Environments

To have a perfect competitive electric market, consumers (or ISO) must have no constraint for purchasing the power from the cheap generation. Under transmission congestion condition, some consumer can't purchase power from the cheap generation and then competition defected. If LMP of all buses are equal, there is no congestion and consequently there is no constraint for consumer to purchase the power from the desired producer.

11 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...