previous case study. The opening scene is unique for both its use of a single continuous shot (with a subtle use of zoom), and for the use of a solely diegetic sound track. There are no overt non-diegetic sound effects, dialogue or music. The 2 minute and 54 second scene begins with a long wide shot of Union Square, bustling with Christmas shoppers. The sequence slowly pans and zooms, initially not directly framing any particular person or interaction. The square is busy, with a band playing in the bottom right corner, a mime who is playfully mimicking passers-by, dogs barking, and generally a scattered crowd of people. It ends with a zoomed in shot of Harry Caul as he exits the square. The audio from the scene is completely diegetic, and (with hindsight) a surveillance recording that is interspersed with short periods of incoherent electronic noise as Caul tunes in to objects of interest. The general mix (aside from these moments of distortion), captures footsteps, the band playing, dancing foot-scuffs, hand-claps, dogs barking and the hubbub of a busy square. These sounds provide a unique opportunity to isolate and identify gaze differences subject to the visual
Visual symmetry imparts a consistent style in many of the videos. When reflecting on its usage, it can be found primarily in the compositions that were considered to be more formative and developmental. Colour Mirror and Soni-Chrome used symmetry extensively and both these were created at a formative period in the portfolio. A comparison between algorithmic and composer led musical composition was being made. The piece immediately following this, Theravada Colour Morph, did not use symmetry. This composition can be considered to be a resynthesis of the earlier exploration and evaluation that was taking place during the preceding two pieces. Space Movement Sound was another experimental piece that used symmetry; in this case methods of using lumia were being explored. The work carried out here influenced the production of Diffraction, which was free from symmetrical imagery. Symmetry was therefore a useful developmental tool, during periods where more attention was being given to music composition and comparison between sound and image and also for the patterns and harmony it imparted in the imagery. Sunset was the exception to this general observation. Its video was created by Heather Minchin, who coincidentally made use of symmetry without her having any knowledge as to the nature of my existing works. The portfolio demonstrates a continuum of progression between the early experimental pieces and the later works. This was due to a number of reasons. First, the development coincided with a gradual replacement of automated material transference techniques, with ones that were determined by the composer. Working first hand with multimedia materials gave greater creative control over the aesthetic outcomes without having to organise them indirectly through a layer of coding. Programming tools were still used in the later pieces, but this was for specific sounddesign purposes within a greater compositional process.
In order to be part of a leading design team, it is essential to be able to develop and communicate new interaction design concepts for the implementation and production of future electronic devices. The course rationale is that students need to have an understanding of physical interaction design processes, where ideas are formed, developed and tested in proof-of-concept models that can be demonstrated to others via video, poster presentations, and working prototypes. The focus is on understanding and applying design and development strategies needed to move from concept to working prototype, with the most recent tools and techniques for producing new forms, input/output from computers and embedded systems, and interactive systems and devices. The course incorporates advanced fabrication techniques; students should be able to build a prototype for any concept they can imagine. By incorporating computer-assisted industrial and electronicdesign techniques, knowledge about specific design tools and procedures is gained. In order to be able to apply this knowledge, a thorough understanding of the many underlying concepts is required. Students who complete the module must acquire the following knowledge, skills and competences:
hypothesis to the origin of music, we assume that in Serbian ritual songs and dances, animal sound patterns were incorporated for ritual purposes, most frequently by direct imitation. The sound examples presented in the article appear to show a clear relationship between the communication systems used by humans and animals. In nature-oriented nations, among which we include Serbia, this long-standing relationship has survived to this day and can be noticed in Serbian folk music. For example, small melodic ranges are typical of many animal species, and their incorporation into Serbian ritual songs suggests that they are indeed very ancient. Drones, heterophony and antiphonal singing are also recognizable in old Serbian folk songs, which can also be heard in wolves' howling. Galloping rhythms can be heard in numerous Serbian folk songs, while ending on the second scale degree is characteristic for most Serbian folk songs and is also found in a turtledove singing. In many Serbian folk songs and dances regular and irregular meters are interchanged, which is a characteristic of the turtledove song. The interval of augmented fourth, which occurs in Istrian and Balkan scales, parallels the sung intervals of a crane. Finally, dotted rhythms, recognizable in rooster singing, represent typical rhythmic patterns found in many Serbian folk songs and dances.
Five of the six speakers on the President’s Roundtable were active parti- cipants in an emerging multidisciplinary field, called ecomusicology. Ecomu- sicology is a “crisis field” poised to address issues of music and the environ- ment in a time of environmental crisis. Ethnomusicologists have played an important, but not dominant, role in developing ecomusicology. Among the study groups within the Society for Ethnomusicology, one is devoted to eco- musicology. In the remainder of this presentation I will discuss this new field which combines scholarship, creative work, and environmental activism, for ecomusicology appeals to an increasing number of ethnomusicologists con- cerned with music and the environment. Indeed, ecomusicology attracts mu- sicologists, ethnomusicologists, environmental activists, acousticians, anth- ropologists, composers, performers, ecological scientists, and scholars in the field of sound studies. Each brings different perspectives, concerns, ques- tions, methodologies, and analyses to the discussion of music and environ- ment. There is a study group within the Society for Ethnomusicology devo- ted to ecomusicology. There is, also, a study group within the American Mu- sicological Society devoted to ecomusicology. By design there is no society for ecomusicology, but ecomusicologists have held two major conferences in this decade, we have a journal called Ecomusicology Review, and a listserv.
Awe, although an emotion that is sometimes cited in the context of music and other arts (e.g., Haidt & Keltner, 2003; Konecni, 2005), seems to be lacking in the current classification. However, this absence may simply be due to the lack of a French word for awe. In substantive terms, transcendence (e.g., feeling over- whelmed, inspired) and wonder (e.g., feeling moved, admiring) are both related to the English awe. Of interest is that the current musical emotion factors do not include a direct equivalent for happiness in a general sense. Rather, musically induced happiness either takes the form of bliss or enchantment—as in wonder— or takes the form of joy combined with a curious, yet universal “affordance” of music: its tendency to elicit motor entrain- ment—as in joyful activation (see Clayton, Sager, & Will, 2004). Peacefulness and tension turned out to be further important classificatory units of musically induced affects. Peacefulness and relaxation seem an obvious affective consequence of the prototyp- ical mental state of the music listener— one in which there is a certain detachment from the “real” world with its physical and psychological threats. The factor tension lends itself to two pos- sible interpretations. In the influential writings by Meyer (1956), surprise, tension, and relief were the principal musical emotions because harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic progressions create ex- pectations that are fulfilled or violated (see Huron, 2006, for a modern elaboration). However, like other researchers (Laukka, 2007), we did not find surprise to be among the more important musical emotions. This inconsistency may be linked to a listener’s musical expertise: An unexpected shift in tonal key or melody, while evoking surprise in the music expert, may induce a thrill or a sense of wonder in the nonexpert auditor.
Apple celebrates a rich history and tradition of innovation and excellence in sound for computing as well as content creation. The original Mac was engineered fully capable of supporting audio without additional hardware or software, making it one of the first personal computers ever to ship with sound. In 2002, even before the launch of the iTunes Store, Apple received a GRAMMY Award® for technical excellence in music, the first and only such award ever given to a personal computing company. When iTunes launched, the, decision was made to standardize on AAC instead of the more popular MP3 format simply because AAC clearly provides superior audio quality compared to other codecs at similar bit rates. In working with Dolby and Fraunhofer, there have since been further improvements to AAC to get it to the level of excellence experienced on iTunes today. If you follow the guidelines outlined in this document and audition sample AAC encodes on Apple devices, you can achieve dynamic range that’s superior to red book audio and a final product that’s virtually indistinguishable from the original recording.
The remaining four layers would be musically textural, made of harmonic patterns and incidental melodic phrases, all mapped along the single dimension offered by an ultrasound sensor with a range of about three metres. Though only offering a single dimension to work with, adaptive audio techniques were employed to map this sole dynamic value across four envelope parameters such that a variety of mixes could be manipulated along the length of the sensor’s reach. The aim was for one or two people to work with the beam, exploring the different layered mixes in an expressive way. Lastly, each of four floor-pad sensors could trigger a variety of ‘stingers’, again, a technique associated with game audio where a musical flourish can be triggered at any point in the game play whilst always appearing to ‘fit’ against the changing musical backdrop. Although the Apollo Ensemble software could be adapted to offer some of these modes of interaction and control, it was more immediate to prototype this aspect of the environment using MaxMsp; a specialist visual programming environment for working with sound and image. In practice, this meant using both platforms simultaneously to create the overall interactive environment.
The bioacoustic signals were recorded during heart auscultation of a healthy male vol- unteer (aged 33, with BMI equal 24.8), at the mitral site. At the same time, the electro- cardiography (ECG) signals from custom built electrocardiograph were synchronously recorded. Next, using the developed Matlab scripts, an automatic ECG signal analysis was performed. Based on the identified locations of the ECG waves, the acoustic signal was divided into short parts, defined as acoustic events. Each acoustic event was 0.557 s long and contained sound related to a single heartbeat. From the set of all the acoustic events obtained for each of the investigated stethoscopes, a subset of the acoustic events most similar to each other were selected. For this purpose, the value of normalized cross-correlation function was determined for each pair of acoustic events, and only the elements with values higher than a given threshold were selected for further analysis. The described procedure is described more in details in . Such an approach allows to reject signals containing noise or other, incidentally recorded body sounds, which— if not removed—could significantly affect the obtained results and misled the analysis. The subsets of representative signals for each case were statistically analyzed for their frequency content. The obtained results reflect the acoustic characteristics of the inves- tigated devices operating in various modes, under the conditions of the actual ausculta- tion examination.
aspirational quality that elevates her above the drab reality of her everyday life. The act of singing itself opens up an imaginative, even utopian, space in which she can envisage a very different reality (a desire made evident at another point in the film when she telephones her mother and pretends that she is studying to be an actress in Beijing). Describing the scene, Jason McGrath writes: ‘As the ambient exterior noises of traffic fill the silences in their conversation, Xiao Wu and Meimei struggle to penetrate each other’s loneliness. When Xiao Wu asks Meimei to sing for him, her choice of song ... vocalizes the feelings of solitude and desire they cannot otherwise express’ (2007, pp. 92–3). It is worth noting that Xiao Wu only finds the courage to sing the song later when he’s alone and naked at a public bathhouse. But, while still in her room, when she asks him to sing, he refuses, and instead asks her to close her eyes before playing her the weary electronic version of ‘Fur Elise’ on his cigarette lighter, which similarly acts as a surrogate for his voice in moments of deeply felt emotion. First heard as he waits to give Xiaoyong a wedding gift (that is rejected), it plays again while Xiao Wu drunkenly watches Xiaoyong being interviewed on television. The scene ends with the lighter running out of battery and the tune whirring down to a halt while the image fades to black. Like the worn cassette tape playing ‘Farewell my Concubine’, ‘Fur Elise’ becomes therefore another aural evocation of the death of the friendship and the socialist values that it represented (to Xiao Wu at least).
The production and sale of recorded music had been a highly lucrative business through the first two decades of the twentieth century. The rapid spread of radio during the 1920s, however, temporarily obliterated the prosperity of the recording industry. For a one-time
investment in a radio set, listeners had access to a seemingly endless stream of free entertainment and culture delivered to their homes. Records, on the other hand, were fragile, and even if treated with care often began to wear and audibly degrade after only a few plays. As a result, record sales fell precipitously over the course of the 1920s in the face of competition from radio. The economic downturn beginning in 1929 exacerbated this trend, as working class audiences with dwindling resources became less likely to buy music, especially when it was available for free through radio. However, some segments of the market fared better than others. While the sale of both high-priced prestige record lines like Victor’s Red Seal and mid-range lines of popular and dance music plummeted, sales of hillbilly and race records were less impacted. 27 This can be partially explained by the uneven spread of both radio and home electrification. Historian Lerone A. Martin has argued that the predominately working class and/or minority audiences for these styles of music were among the last to have their homes connected to the electrical grid, and thus also less likely to purchase radios that required electricity. 28 For them, plugging a radio into a wall socket was not an option. However, records that could be played on a hand-cranked or battery-powered phonograph continued to be available to those without electricity.
§ As a Media and Software Industry Entrepreneur, I founded my company MediaFlake Ltd, a Software and Media Development, Supply and Distribution company based in Greece, active in the field of B2B software applications and B2B/B2C media development for the creative media industries. The company owns various brands to supply its products through different markets and audiences, the Blueface Games development team, the SoundFellas royaltyfree stock and custom on demand sounddesign and music production publishing label and the Game Audio Mastering specialized multi platform game audio finalization studios. All brands growing steadily on the global market supporting the local and worldwide independent professionals.
Once the basic structure of the field recordings was in place I overlaid guitar drones and textures using the same pedal setup as Aberfan and Sense(or), however the effects chain was usually plugged straight into the audio interface, bypassing a guitar amp. This gives a slightly purer, synth like tone to the guitar sound much the same as David Gilmour used by plugging straight into the desk on the guitar solo for The Wall. (Pink Floyd 1979, CD reissue, 1994). The drones were created by using a Digitech Jamman looper pedal. The looper records a loop which can be triggered by the operation of a foot pedal. Further loops can then be overdubbed to create large textures. I used the looper pedal in conjunction with the Electro Harmonix Cathedral reverb and a TC Electronic Nova digital delay to aurally animate the loops and create different textures from them (2:21) as they were recorded into the DAW (Reaper). This was done by modifying delay, feedback and modulation settings manually, similar to how dub producers such as King Tubby may create textures from relatively simple sonic material using the Roland Space echo analogue delay (Demers: 2010. 101).
Office buildings today need to be flexible and must be able to be quickly adapted to organisational changes. Many companies choose to create non-territorial spaces, meaning that workers no longer have their own workspace, but can select any workspace that is free. This provides the opportunity to sit close to the people you are working with at the moment, or to select a quiet space if you need to do focused work. In the office we are affected by unnatural sound sources like ventilation, office machines, etc. However when we ask people what it is that disturbs them most we get the same answer. People are disturbed by speech that does not contain valuable information, often from long distances, and people appreciate good speech clarity within their working groups, and here lies the acoustic challenge to support sound that contains information and reduce sound that is disturbing i.e. noise.
Further semantic and emotional communication might be achieved by means of musical struc- tures, namely rhythm and harmony. Rhythmic structures are set up e.g. by clocks, footsteps, machinery and the like, but can also be created from other diegetic auditory objects. Melodic or harmonic structures ca be created from any tonal diegetic sound (see e.g. the windmill sound in the long initial scene of Once Upon a Time in the West, with its falling major third anticipating the iconic harmonica melody, with its slow and uneven rhythm emphasizing the passing time and helping to build tension). A sounddesign with dominant non-diegetic rhythmic or melodic / harmonic elements crosses the line between soundscapes and music: A filmic soundscape can even be Musique Concr` ete-like, as well as music can become sounddesign (see e.g. Bernard Herrmann’s sharp, dissonant violins in the “shower scene” of Psycho).
Congratulations on taking the very important step of writing and developing your resume! The purpose of this notebook is to offer you sample resumes that, in one respect, are generic but in another and significant way are not: they are based on actual resumes of School of Music graduates. In other words, they represent the work of those who have preceded you. Future examples also will be derived from actual training and experience of future alumni, perhaps even yours!
Songwriters originally viewed radio exactly the way the music industry today views KaZaA users—as pirates. After trying to sue radio out of existence, the songwriters ultimately got together to form ASCAP (and later BMI and SESAC). Radio stations interested in broadcasting music stepped up, paid a fee, and in return got to play whatever music they liked, using whatever equipment worked best. Today, the performing-rights societies ASCAP and BMI collect money and pay out millions annually to their artists. Even though these collecting societies get a fair bit of criticism, there’s no question that the system that has evolved for radio is preferable to one based on trying to sue radio out of existence one broadcaster at a time.
as a foundation for the creation of a contemporary vocal-instrumental practice that retained the qualification of rural. In addition, because of its dissonant and loud sound, izvorna music has, throughout its history, elicited very negative reactions from audiences that are not from these parts of the country. This prejudice related to izvorna remains and is a considerable component in the process of “othering” eastern and northeastern Bosnians, for whom izvorna has become an important expression of their local identity. 12 The perceptions of izvorna as backward is a source of embarrassment for many eastern Bosnians who actually listen to and enjoy this music. For example, my interviewees often stressed that many of their friends are ashamed of izvorna. In other instances, interviewees claimed that they openly demonstrate their fondness for izvorna, regardless of what others think, because “there is nothing to be ashamed of” since it is the music of the place they come from. However, as ethnomusicologist Kim Burton notes, embarrassment related to izvorna has been transformed into “a positive means of reproducing the intimacy and warmth of family, village and small town relationships through the medium of a shared musical understanding” (2015: 113). In other words, for eastern Bosnian, izvorna opens up a specifically local space of intimacy shared only by those who understand and appreciate the genre. This relationship between izvorna and local intimacy is one of the reasons why this particular genre, and not some other, has been chosen by genocide survivors as an arena for the narration of their personal stories of loss and trauma, as well as for the expression of their truth claims.