In the proposed system, an alarm with low power consumption is placed near the driver which will wake up the driver while he falls asleep during driving. The EEG-sensor senses the brain signals of the driver and if he falls asleep it will send the signal to the embedded system for further processing. The signal is sent to the amplifier and the amplified signal is given to the comparator that compares the input signal (amplified brain wave signal) with the threshold voltage that is set according to different sensation states of the driver. According to the output given from the comparator the LED glows indicating the state of the driver. Then the LED is connected to the MSP430 controller circuit through a flexible wire that controls the LCD, Buzzer and Engine of the vehicle. The LCD in our project is used to indicate that the driver is at drowsy state to the other vehicle driver which is coming behind. The buzzer is used to wake up the driver if he is in the drowsy state. Embedded drowsy detection system is the combination of brain wave sensing sensor that is the electrode with an in-built copper plate that extracts the signal and passes it to the amplifier which is then given to the MSP430 circuit for controlling the operation. Driver fatigue is a significant factor in a most of the vehicle accidents. The improvement in the technology for detection or prevention of drowsiness is a major challenge in the accident prevention systems. Because of this hazard that drowsiness is present while driving, methods need to be developed for counteracting its affects. The system to be designed needs to be a low cost drowsy detection system. Preventing drowsiness during driving requires a method for accurately detecting a decline in driver alertness and a method for alerting and refreshing the driver. The traditional detection system takes a long period to detect whether driver is falling asleep or not. To reduce the time of detection, the bio-medical signal from the driver’s brain is sensed by a Brain-wave sensing sensor. This senses the brain activities continuously and provides the signals to the TLV2760 amplifier and is passed to comparator to control LED. To increase the sensitivity, accurate control of the apparatus by MSP430 controller is being proposed. Embedded C is used to program the controller.
Injection moulding is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting material into a mould. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials, including metals, glasses, elastomers confections, and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel, mixed and forced into a mould cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity. Injection moulding, machine is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection moulding machine, such as plastics housings, consumer electronics, medical devices including valves and syringes which vary greatly in their size, complexity and application .The injection moulding process requires the use of an injection moulding machine, raw plastic parts, material, and a mould. The plastic is melted in the injection moulding machine and then injected into the mould, where it cools and solidifies into the final part. The barrel contains the mechanism for heating and injecting the material into the mould. This mechanism is usually a reciprocating screw. A reciprocating screw advance the material forward by either hydraulic or electric motor. During this process the material is melted by heat. The material enters the grooves of the screw. The screw completes the shot volume &returns to reverse position. Wearing of threads is the problem occurring in the reciprocating screw due to effect of high melting temperature and pressure of mould materials. Industries are having a temporary solution to make repair of threads on Lathe machine. This reduces weight and strength of screw resulting in misalignment in the assembly. The screw is the most crucial part of a machine. The material for screw is SAE 52100; other alternate materials used are SAE4340, SAE4040, and SAE1040 .
This paper reports an innovative pedagogic experience performed at South -East University (SEU) of Nanjing (Jiangsu, China) with engineering Bachelor honors students (computer science, mechanics, bio -medical engineering and electronics). The purpose was to develop their motivation and to make them aware of the strategic importance of two aspects of electro nics engineering i.e. integrated technologies and reliability assessment of devices and systems. Indeed, while electronics is driv ing most of human activities sectors, it becomes very important to highlight the major issues of advanced technologies and ver y high reliability levels of devices and systems. In addition, the evolution of the technologies allows an increasingly spreading of the applications. There are today many fields of application of the electronics in the new concepts of smart connected obje cts and Internet of Things (IoT). The main well-known application domains are health, transport, communications, security, energy and environment with the microelectronics at the heart of the systems . This means as well an increasingly multidisciplinar y
Metal matrix composites (MMC) are extensively used in numerous manufacturing sectors such as automotive, aerospace, electronics, marine and medical industries due to their enviable properties like high strength, low weight, high module, low ductility, high wear resistance, high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion . Metal matrix composites (MMC) have been getting universal concentration on account of their greater strength and stiffness in addition to high creep resistance and high wear resistance compared to their corresponding wrought alloys and are extensively used in manufacturing sectors . Aluminium, magnesium alloys and titanium are frequently used as metal matrix and aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), silicon carbide (SiC) and boron carbide (B 4 C) are commonly used as fortification through the production of
Anant Agarwal is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the faculty in 1988, teaching courses in circuits and electronics, VLSI, digital logic and computer architecture. Between 1999 and 2003, he served as an associate director of the Laboratory for Computer Science. He holds a Ph.D. and an M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, and a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from IIT Madras. Agarwal led a group that developed Sparcle (1992), a multithreaded microprocessor, and the MIT Alewife (1994), a scalable shared-memory multiprocessor. He also led the VirtualWires project at MIT and was a founder of Virtual Machine Works, Inc., which took the VirtualWires logic emulation technology to market in 1993. Currently Agarwal leads the Raw project at MIT, which developed a new kind of reconfigurable computing chip. He and his team were awarded a Guinness world record in 2004 for LOUD, the largest microphone array in the world, which can pinpoint, track and amplify individual voices in a crowd. Co-founder of Engim, Inc., which develops multi-channel wireless mixed-signal chipsets, Agarwal also won the Maurice Wilkes prize for computer architecture in 2001, and the Presidential Young Investigator award in 1991.
Before the 1960s, semiconductor engineering was regarded as part of low-current and low-voltage electronic engineering. The currents used in solid-state devices were below one ampere and voltages only a few tens of volts. The year 1970 began one of the most exciting decades in the history of low-current electronics. A number of companies entered the field, including Analog Devices, Computer Labs, and National Semiconductor. The 1980s represented high growth years for integrated circuits, hybrid, and modular data converters. The 1990s major applications were industrial process control, measurement, instrumentation, medicine, audio, video, and computers. In addition, communications became an even bigger driving force for low-cost, low-power, high-performance converters in modems, cell-phone handsets, wireless infrastructure, and other portable applications. The trends of more highly integrated functions and power dissipation drop have continued into the 2000s.
The growing sensitivity to the technologies on Wall Street is clear evi- dence that the electrical/electronics industry is one that will have a sweep- ing impact on future development in a wide range of areas that affect our life style, general health, and capabilities. Even the arts, initially so deter- mined not to utilize technological methods, are embracing some of the new, innovative techniques that permit exploration into areas they never thought possible. The new Windows approach to computer simulation has made computer systems much friendlier to the average person, resulting in an expanding market which further stimulates growth in the field. The computer in the home will eventually be as common as the telephone or television. In fact, all three are now being integrated into a single unit. Every facet of our lives seems touched by developments that appear to surface at an ever-increasing rate. For the layperson, the most obvious improvement of recent years has been the reduced size of electrical/ elec- tronics systems. Televisions are now small enough to be hand-held and have a battery capability that allows them to be more portable. Computers with significant memory capacity are now smaller than this textbook. The size of radios is limited simply by our ability to read the numbers on the face of the dial. Hearing aids are no longer visible, and pacemakers are significantly smaller and more reliable. All the reduction in size is due primarily to a marvelous development of the last few decades—the integrated circuit (IC). First developed in the late 1950s, the IC has now reached a point where cutting 0.18-micrometer lines is commonplace. The integrated circuit shown in Fig. 1.1 is the Intel ® Pentium ® 4 processor, which has 42 million transistors in an area measuring only 0.34 square inches. Intel Corporation recently presented a technical paper describing 0.02-micrometer (20-nanometer) transistors, developed in its silicon research laboratory. These small, ultra-fast transistors will permit placing nearly one billion transistors on a sliver of silicon no larger than a finger- nail. Microprocessors built from these transistors will operate at about 20 GHz. It leaves us only to wonder about the limits of such development. It is natural to wonder what the limits to growth may be when we consider the changes over the last few decades. Rather than following a steady growth curve that would be somewhat predictable, the industry is subject to surges that revolve around significant developments in the field. Present indications are that the level of miniaturization will con- tinue, but at a more moderate pace. Interest has turned toward increas- ing the quality and yield levels (percentage of good integrated circuits in the production process).
The electrical solution turned out to be more cost effective. Early digital electronics systems were based on magnetically controlled switches (or relays). They were mainly used in the implementation of very simple logic networks. Examples of such are train safety systems, where they are still being used at present. The age of digital electronic computing only started in full with the introduction of the vacuum tube. While originally used almost exclusively for analog processing, it was realized early on that the vacuum tube was useful for digital computations as well. Soon complete computers were realized. The era of the vacuum tube based computer culminated in the design of machines such as the ENIAC (intended for computing artillery firing tables) and the UNIVAC I (the first successful commercial computer). To get an idea about integration density, the ENIAC was 80 feet long, 8.5 feet high and several feet wide and incorporated 18,000 vacuum tubes. It became rapidly clear, however, that this design technology had reached its limits. Reliability problems and excessive power consumption made the implementation of larger engines economically and practically infeasible.