The poly(amidoxime) ligand was used to remove heavy metal ions from two different electroplating wastewaters. These wastewaters/spent liquors were obtained from the metal plat- ing workshop (PCB etching) Porcel, Singapore. ICP analysis showed that wastewater 1 contained predominantly copper ions and wastewater 2 included both copper and iron ions. However, both samples also contained small quantities of oth- er heavy metal ions including zinc, lead, chromium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, vanadium, and bismuth. The palm cellulose-based poly(amidoxime) ligand was successful at re- moving approximately 98% of copper and iron for both waste- waters. The ligand was slightly less efficient at removing zinc, nickel, and chromium waste with removal efficiencies of be- tween 85 and 97% being achieved for both wastewaters. Table 7 outlines the removal efficiencies for each metal. Due to the nature of the ligand, it was significantly less efficient at removing calcium and magnesium. ICP-MS results show that the ligand eliminated more than 95% of copper, iron, lead,
from industrial wastewater (10-13). Membrane filtration processes have various advantages, including low energy requirements, high separation efficiency, simple equipment requirements, and simple recycling of heavy metals (14). Today, membrane technologies, especially reverse osmosis, are the most extensively applied methods for water and wastewater treatment. However, in comparison with other membrane technologies, reverse osmosis requires more energy and costs, and results in severe membrane fouling (15). Recently, major attention has been paid to direct osmosis due to its various advantages, such as low energy requirements, low membrane fouling, simple reduction of membrane fouling, and increased water recycling. This technology, which is based on a natural phenomenon, is the process of spontaneous water diffusion across a semipermeable membrane. The driving force for the osmotic transfer of water from the feed solution into the draw solution is the osmotic pressure gradient between the solutions, without any need for external forces (16). In the conventional one- factor-at-a-time approach, only one factor or variable is examined at a time while keeping others fixed. This method is particularly valuable when the number of effective factors in the process is high, the duration of experiments is long, or costs are high (17). On the other hand, this method is unable to evaluate the interactive effects of factors and has a high error rate. Therefore, researchers employ the response surface methodology (RSM), which is a set of mathematical and statistical techniques (18,19) for designing experiments, modeling, optimization, and analyzing the interactive effects of different parameters. In addition, central composite design (CCD) is one of the most commonly used arrangements of RSM in the design of experiments (20,21). With this background in mind, the aim of this study was to optimize chromium removal and water recycling from electroplatingwastewater, using direct osmosis process.
industrial discharge into the surface water . In a typical chrome plating plant, high volume wastewater obtained from the washing unit, has high Cr (VI) concentration range of 1000-2000 mg/l. However, low concentration wastewater emanating from the other sections of the range of 50-200 mg/l. Several treatment methods have been developed to remove hexavalent chromium from wastewater. Common methods such as chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ultra filtration, solvent extraction, electro-chemical method, coagulation, ion-exchange  and reverse osmosis have been used for the removal of Cr (VI) from waste water. Adsorption is also attractive treatment method for the removal of Cr (VI) from electroplatingwastewater [10,29-33].
The electrochemical oxidation was an effective process to remove metal complexes from electroplatingwastewater. Rotation speed of electrodes has a large effect on destruction rate of metal complexes. Rotating of mesh-disc electrodes enhanced the mass transfer. Under the optimal operating parameters with initial pH of 11.0, current density of 10 mA/cm 2 and rotation speed of electrodes of 200 rpm, the destruction efficiency of Cu, Cr and Ni complexes were 99.54%, 97.85% and 98.37% within 120 min, respectively. The colority of wastewater declined from 128 times to 5 times.
Electroplatingwastewater is typically from washing, rinsing and batch dumps and is at a low pH of ~3-5 and contains soluble forms of the various metals. In order to remove soluble metals from the wastewater it must first be made insoluble. The insoluble metal is then coagulated, flocculated and clarified by sedimentation . In this process different streams of liquid waste generated, which require different treatment techniques. Such separate treatment will minimize the possibility of mixing incompatible wastes, which makes treatment difficult, expensive and less reliable. Incompatible mixing can be a hazard to personnel e.g. mixing of Nickel plating wastewater with Cyanide bearing wastewater leading to formation of Nickel Cyanide, which is very difficult to be treated. Therefore, segregation of wastewater streams is of great importance. During the study, it has been noted that in majority of small-scale and tiny units, this is just not done, indicating an urgent need to introduce this basic requirement.
In our study the waste water which has low treatment efficiencies is to be identified based on its characteristics by studying various literature reviews and it is seen that industries like tannery industry, pulp industry, fertilizer manufacturing industry, textile industries effluents discharge was treated by several method and their treatment efficiencies is to be more than 90% but it is identified as the electroplating and dye industries effluent had a low treatment efficiencies of about only 80-85%. And the electroplatingwastewater has more heavy metal which has more carcinogenic effects which causes various health problems. And also the effluent of dyes in waste water concentration reduces the photosynthesis process and also causes difficult for the survival of plants and aquatic organisms and we have collected the wastewaters near chintamani where the BSA electroplating industry discharge their water and in gridumal river were the dye effluents are discharged by sri jothi lakshmi industry. The collection of a representative sample is the most important function of an environmentalist, for general physical and chemical examination, the sample is collected in a clean bottle made up of a good quality glass fitted with a glass stopper. All the three types of sample (Grab, Composite, Integrated) are collected.
There are over 14 different and well-established techniques to grow thin-film semiconductor materials  which can be broadly categorised under physical or chemical deposition. Physical deposition refers to the technologies in which material is released from a source and deposited on a substrate using thermodynamic, electromechanical or mechanical processes [1,74]. Chemical deposition techniques are accomplished by the utilisation of precursors either in their liquid or gaseous state to produce a chemical reaction on the surface of a substrate, leaving behind chemically deposited thin-film coatings on the substrate. Electrodeposition falls under chemical deposition techniques which can be carried out in an uncontrolled environment and without a vacuum system. The setup for electroplating which is mainly constituted of a computerized potentiostat and hotplate/magnetic stirrer with a cost implication of less than £5000 as compared to other techniques such as the well-established metallorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) or close space sublimation (CSS) system with a high initial cost implication of about £1 million for a laboratory setup. In addition, these systems have limitations as concerning the materials that can be grown. Furthermore, the relatively low heat energy required during growth and post-growth treatment makes electroplating a more energy-economic deposition technique as compared to a large number of other techniques. More importantly, grown semiconductor layers using cost-effective electroplating techniques are comparable to semiconductor layers grown using highly expensive techniques [29,75], and they all require post-deposition treatments [76,77].
High-thickness photoresist lithography has been developed for a number of different MEMS applications. It has been used as a structural material, for fabricating complicated three-dimensional (3D) microstructures, moulds for metal electroplating and as packaging material [4, 5]. Currently, a range of techniques exist to realize complex three- dimensional microstructures, moulds for metal electroplating, and packaging material structures. Originally the x-ray LIGA (Lithografie Galvanoformung Abformung) process was used to realize such structures. However, this technique involves considerable process complexity and high cost since a synchrotron radiation source is required. This motivated the search for cheaper and simpler methods to realize micromoulds. The two most promising alternative approaches are based on UV LIGA and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE).
The plating industry also faces a problem with chromium plating of aluminium in the light of legislation re- stricting the use of hexavalent chromium in the plating industry. Voorwald et al.  studied the effect of elec- troless nickel interlayer on the fatigue strength of chromium electroplated AISI 4340 steel. They concluded that the hard chromium electroplating showed excellent adhesion when applied on steel, as well as on the electroless nickel plating. It was also established that the nickel interlayer was able to inhibit or retain the propagation of many original cracks from the hard chromium external layer to the substrate. Hamid and Elkhair  have de- veloped electroless nickel-phosphorus composite deposits for wear resistance of Al 6061 while Wu, Zhao, Xie and Yang  have reviewed electroplating and electroless plating on Magnesium alloys. Khan et al.  re- viewed regulatory, technical and economic issues involved in replacing hexavalent chromium plating as strin- gent restriction legislations have been introduced to phase out hexavalent chromium or limit its use in the plating industry. A promising alternative to hexavalent chromium plating  is trivalent chromium plating.
With the rapid increase in population, developmental works and industries, the environment is bound to get polluted, if timely steps are not taken for proper treatment of the pollutants, before allowing their mixing in the raw form with the main components of the environment i.e. air, food and water, earth, forests etc. which are the life sustaining resources available in the environment. The need of the hour is to adopt necessary steps for proper treatment of all types of wastes that are generated in the society due to our own day to day activities. The electroplating of a metallic product is done to prevent it from corrosion and to give a decorative and smooth finish. This paper deals with Characterization, quantification and treatment of electroplating Industry wastewater. The wastewater was treated with Fenton’s reagent for the removal of heavy metals. The results indicated an increase in the percentage reduction of heavy metals with an increasing dose of Fenton’s reagent. Hydrogen peroxide alone was not effective in the removal of heavy metals. However, hydrogen peroxide in combination with ferrous Sulphate (Fenton’s reagent) was effective in the removal of heavy metals.
The interest in using natural organic compounds is because of its availability, cost and effect on the environment [7- 10]. They pose no detrimental effect on the environment or hazard to human health.A number of natural organic compounds have been identified as good brightening agents in tin electroplating. Examples of these substances linseed oil (LSO). These classes of organic compounds are biodegradable and non toxic.
size of the template used. Secondly, electrodeposition can be used to prepare a wide range of materials from both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions under conditions, which are com- patible with the template. Thirdly, electrochemical deposi- tion allows fine control over the thickness of the resulting film by controlling of the total charge passed to deposit the film. This is a unique feature of the approach. Various mate- rial properties, such as the grain size and surface roughness, can be controlled by the electroplating conditions [5,6].
Sekar et al . used Gelatin,b-naphthol, polyethylene glycol, peptone and histidine in the plating bath to improve the surface morphology, grain size, smoothness and corrosion resistance of the tin deposits. The effects of additives on surface morphology, grain refinement and corrosion resistance were studied. Meinshausen et al . investigated the effect of Indium Addition on Whisker Mitigation in Electroplated Tin. Indium additions reduced whisker growth by at least two orders of magnitude, X-ray confirmed that In had indeed diffused into the Sn and was a likely reason for the mitigation of Sn whiskers. Kee et al . studied the electrodeposition of tin from Tin (II) Methane Sulfonate (MSA) with varying concentration in air and water stable 1-Butyl-1-Methylpyrrolidinium Trifluoro-Methanesulfonate, (BMPOTF) ionic liquid at room temperature. The result shows that Methane Sulfonate salts has promising results with current efficiency as high as 99% and fine, polygonal grain structures were obtained. Sang et al . investigated the adsorption behavior of four typical thiadiazole derivatives. Moreover, they also investigated the adsorption and inhibition behaviors of the corrosion inhibitors on copper foil in rolling oil using experimental and computational techniques. Based on the measured molecular orbitals and Fukui indices, the inhibitor’s active sites were mainly concentrated on the hydrocarbon rings, while the distribution of polar functional groups resulted in coordination and feedback bonding among molecules and led to stable adsorption on the metal surface. Sang’s work provides theoretical guidance for the selection of corrosion inhibitors for deposition on copper foil in rolling oil . However, previous studies focused on the adsorption behavior of additives on metal surfaces without considering the adsorption of additives on metal surfaces during tin electroplating in acidic MSA electrolytes.
The electrolytic apparatus could also be conducted in an ultrasonic bath. Further experiments, should be conducted in an ultrasonic bath without using a mixing device and only using the agitation. This can be done by turning the ultrasonic bath on and then applying the current. This would determine if the ultrasonic waves could prevent particles from bridging together and test to see if dendrites would form on the cathode or an even layer at the bottom due to the ultrasonic waves continually separating the particles from the cathode. The second method for electrolytic deposition in an ultrasonic bath would be to turn on the bath and use another mechanical device to disperse the particles throughout the solution in between electroplating phases.
Linearity, exposure analyses and depth of focus analysis were performed to investigate CD process latitude. It was determined that SIPR 7110M far exceeded the initial resolution goal of 30 µ m. Near vertical sidewalls were observed for all feature sizes which meets electroplating requirements. The 15 µ m resolution indicates that SIPR 7110M has the capability of supporting future generations of flipchip and WLCSP processes as feature sizes decrease. Depth of focus was shown to be more than adequate for thick film processing. Throughput in regards to wait times and exposure times was determined to be acceptable and far exceeds the performance of standard novalak based photoresists at the same thickness.
The micro-electroplating system, as shown in figure 1, contains the electrical power supplier, the micro-stepping motor (M), the micro-anode (H), the cathode (S), the cycle electrolytic cell (P), the high-power LED module (L), the magnifier lens (G) and the CCD camera (CCD). The anode of the electroplating system is made of platinum wire with the diameter of 125 um and put it to a bakelite tube with cold-mounted resin which the diameter is 0.5 mm and the length is 60 mm. One end of platinum wire is welded with a copper conducting wire connecting to a DC-power supply. The cathode is made of a piece of square (10 mm×10 mm× 1mm) pure copper. Its one side is adhered to a copper wire with conducting glue to the connection of a DC-power supply, and the copper was mounted with resin to expose the other side. The depositing cell is set up on the stepping motor and constructed with PolyMethyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) of the dimension of 50 mm × 50 mm × 60 mm. Also, the depositing cell uses a typical sulfate bath with the 0.8M CuSO 4 ‧5H 2 O and 0.65M H 2 SO 4 .
All animal procedures were licensed under the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Qufu Normal University. Adult male Kunming mice (age: 5 - 6 months) used in this study were obtained from Experiment Animal Center in Shandong Lukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. The animals were housed individually in plastic cages (30 cm × 15 cm × 20 cm) with sawdust as bedding under a natural light. The experiment was carried out from May 10 th to June 15 th in 2014. Standard rat pellets chow (Shandong Lukang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jin- ing, China) and water were provided ad libitum. After body mass stabilized, 26 male mice were randomly di- vided into the control group (n = 13) and the experimental group (n = 13). Mice in the control group had free access to water, whereas mice in the experimental group had free access to the electroplating waste water (chromium (Cr): 0.0784 µg/ml, nickel (Ni): 36.4 µg/ml, lead (Pb): 277 µg/ml, Copper (Cu): 153.2 µg/ml, Zinc (Zn): 12.6 µg/ml). Food was provided ad libitum throughout the experiment and the experimental course lasted for 27 days. One mouse in the control group and another in the experimental group died after 8 days and 22 days respectively. These two mice were not included in the subsequent statistical analysis. Day 0 and day n repre- sented initial day and n days of treatment, respectively.
As for the continuous electroplating process, to modify and improve the physical properties of the micro-structure, a process of Deposition-Detection-Withdrawal (DDW) and the way of assuming fixed deposition rate to continuously maintain certain gap distance had both been discussed[18-20]. However, with the lack of feedback signals, the method of assuming fixed deposition rate cannot accurately maintain the gap distance and thus cannot produce well formed micro-structure.