In addition to spatial challenges, singing games are difficult in combined classes due to time constraints. This means that not every student gets a turn every day. With the singing games, Alice indicated that she makes adaptations to keep students engaged in the music making process, even when they are not “it” or it is not their turn. One of these adaptations was observed during the first-grade music class. Students played the game “Lucy Locket” in which one student hid a bean bag and the class sang loudly or softly to assist the “seeker” in finding it. Alice gave the student hiding the pocket a count of 10 to hide it to minimize down time and prevent class disruptions. Before students began singing each time, the teacher rolled foam dice with indications on how to sing the song (i.e. sing the rhythm, tap the beat and sing the words, tap the rhythm and sing the words, etc.). This modification helped engage the students who were not having a turn by giving them a complicated part-work activity. All students were actively engaged in music activities and behavior issues were kept to a minimum.
undergraduate elementarymusic methods course taken by the preservice teachers prior to student teaching. In examining and describing the university course offerings of University ‘A’ and University ‘Z,’ it should first be noted that both institutions are highly regarded and nationally recognized for their training of music educators. Moreover, the methods course instructors are also nationally regarded scholars in the area of elementarymusiceducation. Without negative connotations to either institution, it can be noted that there appears to be a difference in breadth of elementarymusic training based on institutional focus. The undergraduate program at University ‘A’ recommends a five-year track for elementarymusic training and requires three methods courses. This expanded elementarymusic track allows more in-depth instruction in prominent methodologies and a greater number of preservice teaching experiences. In contrast University ‘Z’ structures a four-year path and requires one course in elementarymusic. The single course means that a preservice teacher’s training in prominent methodologies occurs at a more introductory level and that elementarymusic teaching experiences are lower in frequency. At the same time University ‘Z’ also requires preservice teachers to take separate coursework in world music, teaching general music, and a contemporary music workshop, thereby addressing the broad K-12 certification. These are not requirements for University ‘A.’
methods to those that incorporate more learner-centered approaches, the teacher educators’ still persistently use teacher-centered method in their practices (2010).This is also confirmed by Shizha (2005) when he states that because African teachers in colonial schools internalized so much of Eurocentric ways of teaching, even in their later career, most of them still relied on methods and use of materials as they were taught and looked at doing anything outside what they were taught as naïve. However, some informants felt that since student-centered methods encouraged participation of students in the learning process, the methods promoted active learning in students and gave the ‘question and answer’ and demonstrations methods as examples in which students are involved. In line with this, informants indicated that through ‘question and answer’ method, students learned more by being involved in the learning process from both the music educator and the answers from their fellow students. This suggests that through student-centred methods, students learn in groups with defined roles for each one in order to accomplish the given tasks which Lave and Wenger (1991) refers to as cooperative learning. In this method, it is believed that students create new rich knowledge which Lave and Wenger (1991) argue is co-produced through the interactions between the teacher and the students in the classroom by combining their individual previous knowledges they possess. According to Lucas et al (2002) this belief is based on the constructivist perspective of learning where students engage in the learning process to generate meaning in response to new ideas and experiences they encounter in school using their prior knowledge. This is in agreement with the social and situated learning theories of Bandura (1977; Lave and Wenger, 1991) as forms of constructivist theory in which they emphasise the importance of prior knowledge students bring to school derived from personal and cultural experiences from their homes as being central to the students’ learning in the classroom. Because all forms of constructivism advocate that all
International studies to compare how different countries face common challenges can be used to make the most effective policies to resolve these issues (Burnard, Dillon, Rusinek, & Sæther, 2008). Conducting a comparative study may provide the view to understand one’s own classrooms through investigating those of others, the view to uncover the hidden assumptions that underpin what one normally does, and the available alternatives. Ingersoll (2007) reasoned that his policy research of comparing teacher preparation and qualifications among six nations placed concerns and debates about teacher qualifications in context, since these concerns have been occurring across the world. He argued that comparative educational research reveals both commonalities and differences, thus not trying to identify any one approach as better than another but providing a useful function by shedding light on the different systems. As such, Dolby and Rahman (2008) stated that international research on teaching and teacher education has provided a wide range of literature to deal with possible solutions to the problems that teacher education programs and the teaching profession commonly have been facing.
Our model of teacher preparation, Collaboration for the Renewal of Education (CORE), goes beyond that of a traditional student teaching placement. CORE has grown out of a rich history with roots in the clinical observation, peer coaching, and team models of professional development. CORE draws from this background and incorporates the best characteristics from these models. CORE is purposely struc- tured to give equal voice to all participants, to honor all participants as lifelong learners, and to view everyone as a co-teacher. The mod- el attempts to breakdown the stereotypes of the ivory tower and to bridge the gap between public school and university educators. Sim- ply stated, everyone is an expert in areas of strength and everyone has something to learn. The Multiple Subject Program has developed a flexible organization for teacher preparation that acknowledges the contribution made to candidates’ teacher preparation by public school teachers and administrators. The program purposefully builds in time to meet with mentors at the CORE site, to hear what they are thinking, to implement their ideas into the program, and to learn together. It is not typical for university faculty to commit to spending one day a week in a public school for the purpose of supervising student teachers. That the LEEE faculty eagerly participates in this
Fuelberth, R. V., & Laird, L. E. (2014). Tools and stories: Preparing music educators for successful inclusive classrooms through Universal Design for Learning. In S. M. Malley (Ed.), 2013 VSA intersections: Arts and special education exemplary programs and approaches. Washington, DC: The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Retrieved from http:www.kennedy-
Provision of free and compulsory education to all children is a commitment made by the Indian Constitution six decades ago. In the initial years, the state had to focus on expanding the schools network by establishing new schools and raising the demand for education among the masses, which had up till then largely been ignored by the colonial regime. Assessing the progress made in this regard involved measuring the availability of schools and counting the number of children who were enrolled. Policies and programmes launched in the early decades after independence, therefore, focused on expanding the system to make it more inclusive through incentives and other promotional mechanisms. It was, however, recognized that the narrow perspective of viewing UEE merely in numerical terms was inadequate and did not guarantee full participation of children in the educational process. With this in mind, the National Policy on Education 1986 (GoI, 1986) defined universal elementaryeducation as a compact focusing on universal access, universal participation and universal achievement. This is in tune with the perspective adopted under the international EFA declarations in Jomtien and Dakar which view provision of basic education as a ‘basic right.’ In fact, the Indian Parliament amended the Constitution in 2002 to make free and compulsory elementaryeducation in the age group of 6-14 a fundamental right. Despite these positive shifts in the policy perspective on providing free and compulsory elementaryeducation to all children, the goal of UEE, as captured in the previous section, continues to be elusive, leaving millions of children outside the frame of elementaryeducation. Questions that the country continues to face are: Why do children continue to stay away from school? Why do parents hold their children back from attending school even though schooling has been made free and compulsory? Answering these questions requires careful analysis of the empirical realities in terms of who the children are who remain excluded and why they are excluded. The present section attempts to review the findings of research studies done with a focus on these questions in order to construct a profile of children who are not benefiting from the education system in the country.
Technology can be used for individuals to practice their skills and for groups or group lessons to get better results when making music together. Zhou et al  discuss the implementation of MOGCLASS in an elementary school class. MOGCLASS is a multimodal collaborative music environment that improves the musical experience of children by taking away obstacles during music lessons and it provides an easier way to manage the lessons for teachers. According to Zhou et al, there are four reasons to implement this system in a class, (i) limited range of instruments, (ii) lack of time to gain basic skills with instruments, (iii) ineffective practicing due to sound pollution and (iv) management of young children. The system uses mobile devices for the children and teacher. The teacher is completely in control of who is playing together, which students can hear each other and what their tasks are. The mobile device the children use is omnipotent and easy to use, also are they able to play with headphones so that everyone can practice simultaneously without disturbing others.
Music is inherently emotional, and musical memories are among the most visceral and vivid. Consequently, musicians must learn how to connect with people on an emotional level. Whether harmonizing in a choir or performing in a string quartet or simply jamming with friends, music students of any age, even the very young, learn how to share attention, co-operate and collaborate. These are extremely valuable skills in both personal relationships and in the workplace. Studies have even shown that collaborative musical activities can increase toddlers’ pro-social behaviours, making them more likely to help someone in need. 6
Consequently, the potential of applying such technologies to musiceducation was re- cognized. An automatic system that could potentially give instructions and feedback in terms of rhythm, pitch, intonation, expression, and other musical aspects could become a very powerful teaching and learning tool. However, in the early years between the 1980s and the early 2000s, automatic methods for pitch detection, music transcription, and sound separation among other methods, were still in very preliminary stages. Consequently, initial systems for musiceducation, even though innovative and creative, had many restrictions and mainly relied on the possibilities offered by recording studios. In the late 1980s, play-along CDs became popular and offered a number of specially recorded tracks where the user could play with the provided accompaniment. Furthermore, instructional videos were recorded, which mainly featured famous musicians that offered some guidelines in terms of performance and practice. Later on, and mainly aiming for entertainment and not explicitly for music
How does the prolonged tone (Ex.3) influence the emotional assessment of the music part? To use a metaphor from our sense of taste, we would call it a delicious thing; a detail which gives flavours the melody by its dissonance, subsequently it causes an excitement and then brings the satisfaction after a slight calming down by distributing the dissonance (Ex.4). Right now we have maybe encountered the rudiments of asserting expressionism, which always offers an opportunity for individual experience. It might arise spontane- ously; it may also be based on a strengthened effort to search and find causes of such an emotional delicacy. The semantic value of the discovered detail will become even more obvious if the third and the forth bars are compared with the following Schott arrange- ment. The piece as a whole is somehow deprived; it misses something which got lost via the individualized interpretation into the other language – into the language typical for folk and pop music, in which the tonal tenseness is by no means relevant. On the contrary, it is based on maximum simplification at all levels of sound construction, reaching the level of a certain uniformity of the music speech in which every striking swerve may disturb communication. A distinctive group of consumers lack enough experience to absorb such “eccentricity”. When we later, after multiple analyses of the details, employ the acquired experience of listening (the Elephant), we can state that Saint-Saëns probably did not use those playful details just for the purpose of formal enriching of the harmony flow but more likely he respected their share in the legibility of the energetic richness of music thoughts. This, actually, corresponds to his intention to entertain the listeners by means of the whole cycle of pictures. „He does not try to be the innovator. He simply acts with an excellent mastering of the composer’s craft …“ 5
Orono School District First Grade Teacher Orono, MN Otsego School District Fifth Grade Teacher Otsego, MN Owatonna Public Schools Reading Intervention Owatonna, MN Parkview Center School Third Grade Teacher Roseville, MN Peace Maker Resources Cooperative Skills Instructor Bemidji, MN Pine City Elementary Fourth Grade Teacher Pine City, MN Pine River-Backus Elementary School Third Grade Teacher Pine River, MN Ponemah School District Second Grade Teacher Ponemah, MN Prairie Elementary School Teaching Assistant Urbana, IL Primrose School Early Preschool Teacher Savage, MN Red Lake School District Elementary Teacher Red Lake, MN REM Northstar Program Director Ada, MN Remer School District Fourth Grade Teacher Remer, MN Renville Public Schools Teacher Renville, MN Rochester Public School District Kindergarten Teacher Rochester, MN Rochester School District Third Grade Teacher Rochester, MN Roseau Elementary School Second Grade Teacher Roseau, MN Rothsay Public School Third Grade Teacher Rothsay, MN Rush City School District Teacher Rush City, MN Sacred Heart Area School Kindergarten Teacher Staples, MN Saint Paul Public Schools Discovery Club-Teacher St. Paul, MN Sauk Rapids Middle School Sixth Grade Math Teacher Sauk Rapids, MN Schoolcraft Learning Community Kindergarten Teacher Bemidji, MN Self Employed Child Care Provider Goodhue, MN Self Employed Daycare Provider St. Michael, MN Sibley East School District Elementary Teacher Arlington, MN Simmons Middle School Arts and Literature Teacher Aberdeen, SD Sioux Falls School District Third Grade Teacher Sioux Falls, MN Somerset Academy of Las Vegas Second Grade Teacher Las Vegas, NV South Koochiching, River School District Literacy Coordinator Birchdale, MN South Washington County School District First Grade Teacher Cottage Grove, MN Spring Lake Park School District Math Teacher Spring Lake Park, MN St. Francis School District Basic Skills Teacher St. Francis, MN St. Mary’s Mission School Kindergarten Teacher Red Lake, MN St. Paul School District Teacher St. Paul, MN St. Philips Catholic School Teacher Bemidji, MN St. Timothy’s School Band Teacher Maple Lake, MN Stellher Human Services School Based Behavior Interventionist Bemidji, MN Stepping Stones Learning Center Preschool Teacher Aitkin, MN Stewartville School District Fourth Grade Teacher Stewartville, MN STRIDE Academy Teacher St. Cloud, MN
Studies show school music is enjoyed by many pupils (Lamont, Hargreaves, Marshall and Tarrant, 2003), and there is widespread belief among commentators and policymakers that music should be „for all‟ (for example Welch, 2001). However, there remain a host of negative beliefs and behaviours towards music in formal schooling, among both learners and teachers, which pose serious challenges for musiceducation and which innovations in policy and practice have had limited success in overcoming. Understanding the basis of attitudes and practices among learners, teachers and musiceducation researchers towards music in formal education is crucial for enabling widening participation and the future success of a music curriculum. Underpinning this situation lies a second- order problem within musiceducation research itself. Taken as a whole, existing studies show the challenges facing musiceducation to be multifaceted, but, while existing research provides a host of ideas for resolving particular issues, as yet the field remains fragmented. We have many pieces of the puzzle but no means of bringing them together. Research requires a framework capable of integrating the findings of studies of the different issues facing musiceducation. In this chapter we address this issue using an approach from the sociology of educational knowledge: Legitimation Code Theory (LCT). As we shall illustrate, this approach is not only useful for understanding problems in musiceducation but also enables studies of disparate issues to be brought together within an overarching framework.
University and relevant education office committees provided ethical clearance for the research. Data were collected in the form of individual interviews with seven music students whose parents provided consent, two parents, the two teaching artists and the school principal. An interview was conducted with the teaching artists first, where they were asked to describe the program. Very few prompts were required to guide the open-ended interview, which lasted 95 minutes. Students and parents then participated in interviews that were also open-ended, but required more prompts to encourage participants to provide further descriptions. The first question was: “Can you please tell me about the Harmony in Strings program and how it has been for you/your child.” Further prompts included: what is your favourite memory, what is your worst memory, would you recommend the program to other students, why/why not, what did you notice about other people that were in the program? Interviews with students and parents lasted between 10 and 20 minutes and were conducted in the music room during class time. The school principal was interviewed last and once again required minimal prompting to solicit their perspective on the program, both historically, currently and the perceived benefits and limitations. This interview closed after 30 minutes due to time constraints and both interviewee and interviewer were aware of the length of time available and focused discussion to solicit a succinct but comprehensive view. Interviews were transcribed in real time.
In most higher education-based teacher-training programmes in the United Kingdom, a period of learning away from schools is followed by a practicum, a teaching practice experience in the classroom. Once beginning music teach- ers begin to function as novice teachers, their main focus tends to be upon their own personal classroom performance, where they are concerned with reproducing the “idiosyncratic and contextual factors” (Bronkhorst, Meijer, Koster & Vermunt, 2011, p. 1122) of a school setting. At this stage beginning music teachers are appar- ently functioning as teachers; indeed, many see this as a sort of extended role play activity, but while operating at this functioning and reproductive stage many beginning music teachers are not yet able to recognize how their teaching impacts upon learning. Working away from schools enables beginning music teachers to explore in a secure environment many of the pedagogic issues they will encounter for real in the practicum. This means that they are able to experience what Vescio, Ross and Adams (2008, p. 83) define as an “authentic pedagogy” which “empha- sises higher order thinking, in other words, the construction of meaning through conversation and the development of a depth of knowledge that has value beyond the classroom”.
Psychology and Acoustics of Music. Nearly every issue of the various musiceducation research journals has one or more articles that could be considered relevant for music psychology. The New Handbook on Music Teaching and Learning (Colwell & Richardson, 2002) includes many topics related to music psychology. Before leaving this brief overview of literature, it is perhaps worth noting a few examples of books that, by their titles alone, would appear to have little to offer to the understanding of the phenomenon of music. The Hand (Wilson, 1998), for example, has a chapter entitled “In Tune and Evolving Prestissimo,” that provides some wonderful insights into an evolutionary basis for human musicality. 1 Alternatively, consider two books by Oliver Sacks. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1987), is ostensibly about a variety of cognitive impairments. However, there are a number of anecdotal clinical reports where music is a central player in the story. In each case, when the focus is on the impairment, we see the individual as impoverished, less than whole. With music, however, “all that was defective or pathological fell away, and one saw only absorption and animation, wholeness and health” (p. 192). Likewise, in Awakenings (1983), there are more examples of the power of music:
The intractable nature of an individual’s self-perception can be both puzzling and amusing. One particular example serves to illustrate this problem, but there are many variations on the theme. A teacher came to the first session of a course I was running (Journal 20). She walked up to me as soon as she arrived to say that she couldn’t hold a tune at all and was this course for her? I said absolutely it was. In the first session she, like everyone, sang on her own. Her degree of accuracy in singing a typical MusicEducation Program song was well within the bounds of the acceptable, even though the song was new to her. Given the teacher’s opening question to me, I initiated a discussion in the group about personal vocal perception to illustrate how wide the discrepancy can be between our own perceptions and those of others. Children, on the other hand, seem to be the opposite if they do not encounter a judgemental environment too early. They sing automatically and do not question their accuracy. They do not even seem to contemplate the question of whether or not they have a fine singing voice. It would appear to be like considering whether one’s speaking voice is ‘good’ or ‘not’ rather than a tool to allow for communication.