emergence of life

Top PDF emergence of life:

Emergence of life: Physical chemistry changes the paradigm

Emergence of life: Physical chemistry changes the paradigm

The third premise of required chemical complexity is physicochemically and logically straightforward [26, 41], but the least understood. The higher the complexity of evolving inanimate chemical mixtures, either prebiotic or biotic e.g., dead cells, the more likely a subset of che- micals can separate and evolve into living states. In other words, the complexity of the whole planetary environ- ment must be considered. The atomic and molecular diversity of the environment must be very high at the origin of life, and the highest complexity currently con- ceivable involves the interactions of non-equilibrium chemistries of hydrothermal vents with the chemistries of solar diurnal cycles (premise 2). Planets lacking sufficient quantities of key elements, particularly metals (e.g., Fe, Mo, K, Na, Mg, Ca) may not be conducive for life’s emergence even in an abundance of the usual ‘sus- pects’ – the biomolecules made up of C, H, O, N, S, and P evolving, for example, from prebiotic formamide chemistry [58]. Therefore, ‘life as we know it’ could not have emerged without hydrothermal vents and related geochemistry interacting with the cyclic reception of solar radiation. In that sense, Earth may be a rare planet with the ‘right’ geophysics and geochemistry, containing all the elements of the periodic table, and in proportions conducive for cellular emergence of life.
Show more

15 Read more

When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images

When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images

Table 4. brown dwarfs and planets (at a great distance from the star) with a temperature above 500 ° C. [9] The objects from 1-5 achieve high temperatures independently. Venus makes it possible due to the tidal forces of Sun and Earth does it independently and with the binary effects, too. The objects can achieve the optimal temperatures for the appearance and progress of life at all distances from a central object. Those objects that have an independent rotation and are closer to the central object make the optimal temperature conditions with the quantity of mass, which is lesser than the one of Earth and the
Show more

13 Read more

Chemical Systems, chemical contiguity and the emergence of life

Chemical Systems, chemical contiguity and the emergence of life

Uptake and transduction of energy (light, geothermal, or chemi- cal energy) is essential to permit the emergence of truly (semi-)autonomous protocells [89] and as mentioned above requires a form of compartmentalization. The direct linking of the energy harvesting with chemical conversions, although likely one of the first forms of energy transduction, had limited applicability considering that the formation of a carbon–carbon bond is a two-electron process and that current biochemistry is hallmarked by energy storage and timely-defined consumption. It is therefore apposite to ponder on the question of the emer- gence of energy storage in the form of high-energy currency molecular systems. Some experimental evidence exists to support scenarios involving membranes as a central participant in energy harvesting and conversion into usable chemical energy, by creation of high-energy bonds in P compounds or other molecules. So far the energy harvesting in protocell models composed of fatty acid vesicles has, to the best of our knowledge, not been attempted yet. There is perhaps one notable exception [90], which, however, does not produce a phosphodiester bond. This might be due to the fact that the bioenergetics of P is intimately linked to the presence of sophis- ticated protein machinery for the harvesting of light itself, and its conversion to a proton gradient, as well as its dissipation by the formation of ATP. The question as to whether, and if so what, alternative molecular assemblies could have been de- veloped as primitive energy currency systems remains open and a topic of considerable debate.
Show more

13 Read more

Are Scientific Models of Life Testable? A Lesson from Simpson’s Paradox

Are Scientific Models of Life Testable? A Lesson from Simpson’s Paradox

There are presently over a dozen hypotheses trying to address the question of the origin of life [20]. We focus on two, namely the Metabolism First Theory (MFT) [21,22] and the RNA World Theory (RWT) [23]. One way to frame the debate between these two hypotheses is in terms of which factor, “energy” or “heredity,” is the central theme behind the emergence of life. The MFT upholds energy as the central driving force for life’s emergence, whereas the RWT champions heredity. According to the MFT, the development of the first living system must have involved a sequence of chemical transformations achieving increasing levels of chemical complexity—including pathways, cycles and hypercycles—compared to its available starting materials. Within this framework, one possible starting point for the sequence to become living entities is considered to be polymers of amino acids, namely peptides. MFT suggests that the chemistry leading to life could have occurred in a relatively stable environment containing some catalytic activities that would have expedited the production of other important and relevant bio-molecules. Many proponents of MFT believe minerals served several critical functions during this process [24,25]. These functions include: catalysis, protection, support and selection. Minerals could have acted as a surface for the assemblage of chemical systems and protected these systems from dispersal and destruction. The surface of these minerals could have also acted as a platform for molecules to accumulate and to be interacted with it. In addition, it is conjectured that minerals might have acted as selective agents thereby affording a framework for certain biologically useful molecules such as amino acid, leucine, which breaks down within a few minutes at 2000 ◦ C pressurized water, and may persist for days when pyrrhotite, an iron-sulphur mineral commonly found at submarine volcanic vents, is added to the mix [26]. In short, proponents of MFT contend that life originated through metabolic processes, and not via heredity.
Show more

12 Read more

Inherited Bleeding Disorders in Iraq and Consanguineous Marriage

Inherited Bleeding Disorders in Iraq and Consanguineous Marriage

Consanguinity is high in patients with inherited bleeding disorders in Iraq, leading to emergence of life-threatening autosomal recessive inherited diseases.. Genetic counse[r]

9 Read more

‘We [for]got him’: Remembering and Forgetting in the Narration of bin Laden’s Death

‘We [for]got him’: Remembering and Forgetting in the Narration of bin Laden’s Death

Fourth, almost immediately, the killing was also inserted into the American historical narrative Ð Òthe story of our historyÓ 140 Ð as Òa good day for AmericaÓ 141 and an Òhistoric week in the life of our nationÓ 142 . For Carney, it represented a Ògreat victory for the American peopleÓ. 143 Irreducible to internal politicking or Òpartisan narrativeÓ, this was an ÒAmerican accomplishment.Ó 144 As the President recounted in his State of the Union, party allegiances and personal ambitions ÒdidnÕt matter that day in the Situation Room, when I sat next to Bob Gates - man who was George BushÕs defense secretary Ð and Hillary Clinton Ð a woman who ran against me for presidentÓ. 145 This moment of unity also reaffirmed the character of the American national identity. Like Bush before him, Obama insisted that US counter-terrorism operations served as a Òreminder of what weÕre about as a peopleÓ. 146 And, almost inevitably, constructions of bin LadenÕs killing both drew upon and reinforced notions of American exceptionalism:
Show more

21 Read more

Women and the Emergence of Grassroots Institutions on Post-Fast Track Farms in Zimbabwe

Women and the Emergence of Grassroots Institutions on Post-Fast Track Farms in Zimbabwe

Bebbington (2002) notes, the persistent theme of feminist authors is that social capital is not innocent; neither in terms of its place in development discourse nor in its operational forms as networks. Women in Mazowe appear deficient of social capital as a result of discriminatory practices and institutions sustained through men’s social capital. Women’s organizations are often not recognized as anything but pastimes. They are not regarded as important elements of associational life; most men interviewed criticized them for being “gossip groups”. Gender inequalities in resources, power, and rights structure the character of the rules and norms of association between women and between women and men. Structural inequalities are thus enforced via associational forms that promote male dominance in the public sphere and relegate women to the domestic realm. The issue, however, is not a simple dichotomy between male oppressors and oppressed women, but rather entails a multi-layered relationship in which different women and men at different times and in different classes have varying power, control, and status. Women have agency, and there are some who have revolted against the gender order and forced their way into influential positions at the local level. Due to their class, some women on A2 farms are accessing more resources and better services than A1 men. Gender alone cannot explain the variation in people’s experiences of resettlement.
Show more

14 Read more

The City of Tomorrow       Today

The City of Tomorrow Today

unifying force among Troy’s citizens because it reinforces social stratification. This mega- mall is anchored by Sachs Fifth Avenue and Neiman Marcus, with in-line stores like Coach, Louis Vuitton, and Tiffany & Co. Shoppers do not frequent these stores to engage with their fellow citizens. They shop at Somerset to materialize and broadcast their social stature, presenting themselves as “winners” of the socioeconomic competition. Like its ancestor the Roman bath, Somerset Collection is seen by contemporary observers as a symbol of the city’s economic and social prowess. But in reality, it is a painful reminder of the plutocratic aspirations and inter- class competition that prevent Troy from establishing a diverse and rich public life.
Show more

6 Read more

A Study Of Entrepreneurial Choices And Challenges Encountered By Young Graduates

A Study Of Entrepreneurial Choices And Challenges Encountered By Young Graduates

Abstract: India, one of the most populous countries is growing phenomenally, though the challenges of unemployment is compounding. An unique method of overcoming this issue is through motivation of college students in becoming entrepreneurs, which will not only create employment but will also reduce the pressure of gaining employment on the students. However, flexible government policies in favor of entrepreneurs will facilitate the economic development of the country. In this study, a quantitative method is used to collect the data on entrepreneurship and the changing preferences of college students. A survey (N= 209) among college students of Bengaluru, India is conducted to identify the impact of entrepreneurship on work life choices of young graduates, evaluate the emergence of entrepreneurs in influencing decisions and analyzing the differing choices of males and females in terms of entrepreneurial selections. Analysis of the collected data indicates that Indian Government policy, unskilled labor, entrepreneurial education, family background and caste are factors affecting the entrepreneurial growth rate in Bangalore. Entrepreneurship education in Bangalore is still in the early stages, thus, depriving the college students from acquiring gainful practical knowledge. The structure of a conventional learning system and lack of social experiences also affects the learning process.
Show more

7 Read more

Legacies denied : the intergenerational dimension in crime and punishment

Legacies denied : the intergenerational dimension in crime and punishment

The questions and scaling weights used to create the scale are given in Table 1 and described as the “Criminal Activity Scale” (CAS) for Wave III of the Add Health data. The CAS, like other commonly used scales, measures a wide array of behaviors that result in state sanction of arrest, conviction, and incarceration. To control for emergence of early-onset/sociopathic criminal behavior, the dataset is limited to individuals that completed delinquency sections in Waves I and Wave III of data collection. The data structure of this design creates a sample of individuals ages 18-27 at time of interview. However, because of significant decline in the sample size of
Show more

51 Read more

Global Emergence and Significance of Magnesium/Technology

Global Emergence and Significance of Magnesium/Technology

is expanding worldwide. Further, irresponsible development of materials and engineering technologies over past century has led to widespread contamination of soil and water bodies leading to adverse health effects on wide spectrum of living organisms including plants, animals and humans. Besides, the surge in electronic devices in day to day life ranging from household (grinders, mixers, TV etc.) to personal equipment (mobile phones, tablets etc.) has exposed humans to dangerous levels of electromagnetic radiation, a carcinogen (Group 2B) as per WHO 7 and fifth largest pollution that we are encountering 8 .
Show more

7 Read more

Design and analysis of Architecture based integrating sensor Networks with Cloud Computing

Design and analysis of Architecture based integrating sensor Networks with Cloud Computing

Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is widely applied in many fields since its emergence. However, the limited resources of a sensor, especially limited battery life, limited bandwidth and limited processing power, are the main challenges for deploying and operating WSNs. This paper proposes a novel architecture based on cloud computing for wireless sensor network, which can improve the performance of WSN. Based on this architecture, a cloud acts as a virtual sink with many sink points that collect sensing data from sensors. Each sink point is responsible for collecting data from the sensors within a zone. Sensing data are stored and processed in distributed manner in cloud. Our simulation results show that the proposed architecture.
Show more

6 Read more

Mythopoetic imagination as a source of critique  and reconstruction

Mythopoetic imagination as a source of critique and reconstruction

20 German scientist Rudolph Clausius claimed in the 1860s that everything will end in “heat-death” (Wärmetod). The second law of thermodynamics says roughly that entropy within closed systems should gradually become maximal and disorder should eventually reign. Entropy is a measure specifying the amount of disorder or randomness or something similar in a system that contains energy or information. Despite the confidence of Wes- tern scientific establishment in the truth of this gloomy cosmic story, the meaning and scope of the second law is ambiguous. Entropy has many meanings and we do not even know whether cosmos is a closed system. For a critical discussion on the de- velopment of the second law of thermodynamics, see Peter A. Corning and Stephen Jay Kline, “Thermodynamics, Information and Life Revisited, Part I: ‘To Be or Entropy’,” Systems Research and Behavioural Science 15, no. 4 (1998), 273-95.
Show more

22 Read more

The Real Silent Majority: Denver and the Realignment of American Politics After the Sixties

The Real Silent Majority: Denver and the Realignment of American Politics After the Sixties

“recommitment of our people to the principles of democracy upon which our nation was founded.” Many Coloradans, Lamm noted, found their state’s government unresponsive to the new realities of explosive growth and the crushing financial burdens it exacerbated. Rather than address these problems, government seemed to move “in the opposite direction,” traveling around the country to “sell Colorado” instead of selling the legislature on sound land use policies and improved quality of life. “Rather than make ‘Olympic’ efforts to come to grips with our problems and our limited tax base,” Lamm lamented, “Colorado’s leaders are attempting to spend limited tax dollars hosting an Olympics which promises both to be a large drain on state funds and counterproductive to the serious growth problems Colorado is already experiencing.” He compared the current Colorado leadership to the British General Burgoyne, who clung so blindly to the status quo that he marched into battle during the Revolutionary War toting silver tea service and chests of china. 110
Show more

259 Read more

The Emergence of Predators in Early Life: There was No Garden of Eden

The Emergence of Predators in Early Life: There was No Garden of Eden

Our primary conclusion, given the wide range of initial conditions and parameter settings that lead to predation, is that differentiation into predators and primary producers is likely to arise early in evolution. From first principles, it is unlikely that there ever was an extended period (,1–3 billion years) when there were no phagocytotic predators that lived by engulfing smaller cells; that is, there was no ‘Garden of Eden’. Our results are a sharp reminder not to ignore fundamental physical and ecological principles in evolution. We know that, on an evolutionary timescale in the modern world, there are transitions between carnivory and herbivory (giant pandas, for example) and the reverse, there are transitions from photosynthetic organisms to heterotrophic parasites (apicomplexans, such as Plasmodium), and so on. For prokaryotes the ability to use all known classes of available chemical energy sources can be called the ‘law of prokaryote infallibility’ [36]. Certainly, the more specialized a lineage becomes, the harder it may be to change its basic life history parameters, but this only reinforces the conclusion that changes were likely easier earlier in evolution. That a very early population could differentiate into primary producers and predators will not be a surprise to ecologists; though it may be to molecular biologists. It is important in molecular evolution that our theories are consistent with basic physical, thermodynamic and ecological knowledge. We do not expect that there was any extended period where normal biological principles did not apply; a time with no predators that engulfed smaller cells.
Show more

11 Read more

Research on the Development of Artificial Intelligence in China

Research on the Development of Artificial Intelligence in China

The invention of the science and technology for deep impact on China’s employment problem, especially the emergence of intelligent robot. On the one hand, it is worse for manual workers, pure manual labor doesn’t need much professional knowledge or technology, such as security person, ordinary factory workers is the most easy to replace the profession, this will cause a lot of ordinary workers unemployed; On the other hand, the development of science and technology of jobs is more and more challenging, it is required a high level of science and technology for talents, this undoubtedly for people who want to have a place in society proposes a bigger challenge. As Pan thinks in multiple impacts of AI technology development on employment and countermeasures that “there is a great degree of uncertainty in the impact of AI development on employment scale, and the impact on employment structure will be reflected in the two-pole growth trend of high and low-end jobs.” [11] At the same time, with the development of AI, some new jobs are producing, such as robot coordinator, its main function is to dispatch the robot, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control architect, planner of life comes to an end, the intelligent medical equipment, smart grid, smart financial, the emergence of intelligent security jobs have greatly reduced the required personnel, combined with a sharp rise in China’s fresh out of college and graduate students each year, people’s livelihood issues in employment has become the largest problem.
Show more

12 Read more

The effect of seed priming on field emergence and root yield of sugar beet

The effect of seed priming on field emergence and root yield of sugar beet

The effect of sugar beet seed (primed and non-primed) on field emergence and root yield of sugar beet was exam- ined. The experiment was realized in the years 2012–2014 at an Experiment Field Station of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW Faculty of Agriculture and Biology in Skierniewice (51°97'N, 20°19'E) in Poland. The experi- mental factor was diversified seed material of the same cultivar of sugar beet – typical seeds, traditionally prepared for sowing (non-primed seeds) and seeds before sowing, subjected to the process of priming. On average for the three years of the study, no significant effect of seed priming on the field emergence was found. On the other hand, the sugar beet emergence on plots with primed seeds was faster, more even and uniform. Seed priming, on aver- age for the three years of the study, significantly increased the mean root mass during harvest. In contrast, priming the seeds did not cause an increase in the final plant density. No significant effect of seed priming on root yield was found, both on average for the studied period and in particular years of the study.
Show more

6 Read more

The emergence of patterning in life’s origin and evolution

The emergence of patterning in life’s origin and evolution

Life, with its novel patternings and collective behaviors, is the quintessential emergent complex phenomenon. Life’s ancient origin has been modeled as a sequence of emergent events that, step by step, transformed the lifeless geochemical world of oceans, atmosphere and rocks into a living planet (De Duve 1995; Morowitz 2002; Hazen 2005). These sequential processes began with the synthesis of key biomolecules, including amino acids, sugars, lipids and bases, in a variety of prebiotic environments (Miller 1953; Miller and Urey 1959; Heinen and Lauwers 1996; Bernstein et al. 1999; Ehrenfreund and Charnley 2000; Cody et al. 2004). Then, a subset of those diverse molecules had to be selected and concentrated, for example through a self-organizing process (Deamer and Pashley 1989; Dworkin et al. 2001; Hazen
Show more

11 Read more

Observations on emergence and life-span of wheat bulb fly, Leptohylemyia coarctata (Fall.), under field-cage conditions.

Observations on emergence and life-span of wheat bulb fly, Leptohylemyia coarctata (Fall.), under field-cage conditions.

On 28th June 1958, 23 male flies were marked and released in the cage; the recapture data can be expressed in three different ways: (a) the actual numbers observed on the following days;[r]

20 Read more

Whither emergence?

Whither emergence?

a defining aspect of neoliberal economic restructuring over the past few decades has been the re-making of the nation-form in the image of the corporation — Nationality, Inc — complete with its own trademark and a brand image. The shift marks the move from the ideas and practices of nation building to those of nation branding, which is often suggested as the attainment of a higher and more complete form of nationhood appropriate to the era of globalization. (2012: 605-606) Notions of emerging, emergence and emerging markets are central to this exercise of competitive nationalized brand building (Kaur and Hansen, 2016: 269), particularly in the international market for finance. The term emerging market represents an idea that originated in the IFC (a leading World Bank member financial institution focused on private sector initiatives in developing economies) over three decades ago to elevate a potential but fledgling asset class (investment category comprising securities with similar characteristics) to a new standard worthy of attention from international banks, fund managers and capital providers. Emergence now transcends economic, political and public policy spheres and is pervasive in the lexicon of economists, academics, analysts, businessmen, executives, fund managers as well as the print and electronic media in India today. The notion of an emerging India interacts deeply with collective construction of national identity. In particular, the idea of emergence increasingly demands adherence to a set of standardized expectations in the domains of macroeconomic policy, financial markets and indeed, the political economy, as repeatedly articulated and enforced by key internal and external actors.
Show more

202 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...