This study is intended to focus on the aspects of police competency in implementing EmergencyResponsePlan in National Stadium Bukit Jalil consequence to the current rising trend of spectator’s violence. This new emerging trend has also given birth to “Ultras Malaya” which is known for their fanaticism and have often cross the boundary of safety and security. The methodology adopted is through the distribution of a set of questionnaire to 150 respondents in Cheras Police District. Questionnaire were divided into four broad categories. Except for demography, knowledge, skills and attitude were measured by using Likert Scale. Knowledge was mainly to gauge the understanding of the personnel on emergency, emergency preparedness and emergencyresponseplan. Skills was to gauge the proficiency to undertake tasks related to emergencyresponse in football stadiums. Attitude was to highlight the perception of the personnel towards training and drill needs, the review of the emergencyresponseplan and the capabilities and the interoperability amongst authorities. Data was analyzed by the descriptive mode such as frequency, mean and percentage. Findings revealed a performance gap whereby majority of officers deployed at national Stadium lacked the necessary experience and exposure to handle such volatile crowd and in a closed area. Hence the understanding that RMP should be the key player in stadium safety should be revisited. The study concluded by recommending a changing face in football policing through increasing the absence of uniformed police, Stadium Management to be responsible for the safety of spectators and appointment of stewards to fill the void created by police withdrawal.
On any given day as much as 20% of the combined US adult and child population can be found in schools. Life-threatening emergencies in schools are relatively uncommon, but when they do occur, they require a planned, practiced, and efficient response with provision of first aid and possible CPR and use of an AED. To maximize survival from a life-threat- ening emergency, schools must develop a medical emergencyresponseplan designed to provide ap- propriate therapy within the first minutes of the emergency. The medical emergencyresponseplan includes 1) creation of an effective and efficient cam- puswide communication system; 2) coordination, practice, and evaluation of a responseplan with the school nurse and physician, athletic trainer, and local EMS agency; 3) risk reduction; 4) training in and equipment for CPR and first aid for the school nurse, athletic trainers, and teachers and CPR training for students; and 5) in schools with a documented need, establishment of an AED program.
The unsolved mystery on the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines (MAS) Flight MH370 has been one of the most highly discussed air crashed incidents in recent times. The doomed flight was en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing with a total of 239 people on board. Even after years of investigation and searching efforts that ended recently, investigators have not been able to identify the reason that led to the deviation from its original route shortly after taking off. Accordingly, this case study evaluates the implementation of Malaysia Airlines’ EmergencyResponsePlan (ERP) in handling the incident, particularly in the early crucial weeks. The data were collected from the ERP practices retrieved from several articles, reports, and journals; and they were analyzed by using a qualitative case study methodology. This study hypothesizes that there were a number of loopholes that led to an ineffective implementation of Malaysia Airlines (MAS)’ ERP steered by the EmergencyResponse Team (ERT) and Malaysian authorities; that was further worsened by both internal and external crisis elements ranging from unverified information to the shortcomings in the Search and Rescue (SAR) operation conducted.
In the absence of suitable livelihood interventions, the suffering of disaster-affected communities will be drawn out and affected people will continue to require humanitarian assistance indefinitely, creating a dependency that is important to avoid. Ignoring livelihood-related vulnerabilities will undermine people’s resilience to future disasters. Similarly, if further vulnerability is to be avoided, protection considerations must be integrated in the response. Schools are being used as evacuation centres throughout the affected area. Schools in all affected provinces have been closed. Failure to quickly get children back to school will affect the future of the children in question and will hamper recovery. If families are not provided with tools and materials for rebuilding their homes, the interruption of affected children’s education is prolonged. Additionally, overcrowding in shelters may generate health problems such as diarrhoea and measles (one confirmed case so far).
The United Nations Emergency Relief Coordinator, Valerie Amos, approved US$5 million from the UN Central EmergencyResponse Fund to support life-saving response activities for people affected by Tropical Cyclone Pam. Given the urgent need to scale up humanitarian operations and assist those in need across 22 affected islands, the rapid-response allocation will go to relief agencies operating in Food and Agriculture ($1.4 million), Health and Nutrition ($1.2 million), Water, Sanitation and Health ($908,000), Logistics ($482,000), Shelter ($446,000 million), Education ($484,000) and Emergency Telecommunications ($150,000).
As the allocation of emergency materials in emergencyresponse stage is an irreversible decision and the disaster information is continuously observed and updated, this paper brings the determination of decision-making time and the formulation of decision scheme into a systematic framework, builds the Bayes sequential decision model for the multiple rescue points selection problem, thus making the total loss of the affected point be the minimum and the response time be the shortest. Through simulation, this paper analyzes the relation among relevant parameters including prior mean value of disaster information, prior standard deviation of disaster information, observation standard deviation of disaster information, maximum observation frequency and total expected decision loss.
An emergency is defined as any incident, caused by hu- mans or a natural event, that requires an effective, re- sponsive action to protect life or property . Therefore, the response to an emergency must be quickly, coordi- nated and well-planned . Initial efforts for the stan- dardization of emergency codes in hospitals started with an incident where three persons were killed in southern California in a shooting at a medical center after the wrong code was called . This particular incident led the Hospital Association of Southern California to de- velop a comprehensive campaign to achieve standardize- tion of hospital emergency codes .
A theoretical approach of ordered emergency tasks generation is proposed for dealing with a specific emergency event rapidly, exactly and effectively. According to the general principles of an emergencyplan developed to response to an emergency management, a workflow model is employed to complete the formal modeling of concrete emergencyplan firstly. Then the HTN planning system SHOP2 is introduced, the transformation method of domain knowledge from emergency domain to SHOP2 domain is studied. At last, the general procedure to solve the emergency decision prob- lems and to generate executive emergency tasks is set up drawing support from SHOP2 planning system, which will combine the principles (or knowledge) of emergencyplan and the real emergency situations.
Operations Command Center is tasked with calling hospitals to get their status. In certain states, an electronic application serves as a digital interface for this manual process. Hospital staff report their status into an electronic system, and that status is then available to the State’s Emergency Operations Managers. However, there is both a lack of timeliness in this reporting as well as a great deal of subjectivity leading to inconsistencies among hospital reports. An automated and standards-based system to inform Emergency Operations Managers of hospital status throughout disaster scenarios could potentially optimize and improve the coordination of medical care delivery during disasters. A Health SDI can aid or serve as such a system. 2. Post-Disaster Recovery Needs
Following severe inundation from storm surges and sea swells of three to five metres generated by TC Pam on 11 and 12 March, the Government of Tuvalu (population 10,800) declared a State of Emergency on 13 March. Seven islands have been affected. The worst affected were the northern islands of Nanumaga and Nanumea, and the central islands of Nui and Vaitupu. The capital atoll, Funafuti, was mostly unaffected. The main impacts are to shelter, infrastructure, food crops and livestock, and water and sanitation.
c. Respond. To respond to terrorism, we must have a rapid and decisive capability to protect Americans, defeat or arrest terrorists, respond against terrorist sponsors, and provide relief to the victims of terrorists. The goal during the immediate response phase of an incident is to terminate terrorist attacks so that the terrorists do not accomplish their objectives or maintain their freedom, while seeking to minimize damage and loss of life and provide emergency assistance. After an incident has occurred, a rapidly deployable interagency Emergency Support Team (EST) will provide required capabilities on scene: a Foreign Emergency Support Team (FEST) for foreign incidents and a Domestic Emergency Support Team (DEST) for domestic incidents. DEST membership will be limited to those agencies required to respond to the specific incident. Both teams will include elements for specific types of incidents such as nuclear, biological or chemical threats.
Coordination of care of the critically injured patient in immediate need of intervention is supply and personnel intensive. The appropriate triage of high volumes of injured patients is essential for resource allocation after a mass casualty incident. Evaluation of complex injury patterns includes concomitant blast and crush injury, pene- trating and blunt visceral injury and neurologic and ortho- pedic injury. Rapid triage, anticipated clinical course and complications of this injury complex are best determined by mature judgment. 41 – 43 Reviewing and continued reas- sessment of the patient, management plans, and imaging helps optimize patient care and prevent complications associated with missed injuries. 40 Mass transportation of those patients not requiring immediate life-sustaining interventions to nearby facilities clears the responding trauma centers for critically ill patients. 43 This mainte- nance of clinical capacity is essential to the MCE response. A designated individual (ie, trauma medical director) should coordinate all operating room personnel, cancel all elective cases, prepare for simultaneous opera- tions and need for delayed second-look operations. 40
There were no large differences in the number and level of diagnostic mistakes between these studies and our study. However, even a small misinterpretation by the EP may lead to irrelevant treatment or a potentially fatal delay in appropriate treatment. This must be avoided wherever possible, but is difficult to achieve in actuality. One solu- tion is to further train EPs to improve their interpretations of CT results. However, a high level of skill is required to interpret CT results, and we believe that it would be al- most impossible to improve interpretation ability with un- systematic short-term training. Keijzers et al. evaluated the effect of imaging training in a randomized study and con- cluded that short-term training did not improve the skill of EPs in interpreting chest CT . The systematic intro- duction of long-term training would be impossible in our hospital, because EPs are too busy working during the day. Our study suggested that a simple precautionary rule could significantly decrease misinterpretations without re- quiring long-term EP training. In particular, the frequency of major misinterpretations decreased in a remarkable manner after implementation of the rule. Our procedure is simple and easy to put into practice, but it proved to be very effective in maximizing the safe interpretation of CT scans by EPs in blunt trauma. Essentially, the rule advised that EPs should interpret emergency CT scans with par- ticular care when a complicated injury was suspected. We believe that the interpretational skill of our EPs is by no means low, but in unstable cases or cases that need inva- sive emergency treatments, there is a high risk that exact interpretation cannot be carried out. We believe that pro- moting cautious and meticulous interpretation in every case, but particularly in the cases mentioned above, is ef- fective in preventing misdiagnosis. Our procedure is sim- ple to implement, allowing interpretation to be finished in a short time.
Initial training of the board-certified EP started in the United States at Memorial Hospital in South Bend, Indi- ana, with a basic introduction to the anesthesia machine. The board-certified anesthesiologist supervised the EP in the same fashion that anesthesiologists already supervise the training of paramedics, emergency medicine residents, and certified registered nurse anesthetists as defined by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. In addition, the anesthesiologist provided instruction on managing the difficult airway, per existing curricula [6,11,12].
Prepare Wellington (a working title for this experience design proposal) is a proposed mechanism to connect the community, its latent resources, and to enable the information generated in the event of a crisis to be captured, documented and made available to the relevant agencies, as well as the community itself. Through this process, the resources of emergency services, local and national government can be allocated in an informed manner. The ideas that are explored in this document are the basis for ongoing work should WREMO wish to take up some of the challenges and opportunities presented. It is also our hope that some of the techniques and information collecting processes might help diversify WREMO’s communication practices and engagement with the people of the Wellington and Wairarapa region.
Potential solutions. The 2016 Rome Declaration, convened by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, describes steps needed for sustainable freshwater fisheries, including improved biological assessments, science-based management and development of a global freshwater fisheries action plan (Taylor and Bartley 2016). Bycatch can be reduced by exploiting temporal and spatial differences between target species and bycatch. Mandatory bycatch reporting can also help (Cairns et al. 2013) as can technology, such as provision of air spaces to increase survival rates of animals accidentally caught in nets (Grant et al. 2004). Solutions to riverine sand and gravel extraction can include reducing demand for construction materials (such as through avoiding over-design in buildings), substituting recycled materials for new concrete, and better management of extraction rates, locations and methods, including through improved supply chain standards (UNEP 2019).
The inspector found evidence of effective fire management procedures in the centre. There were regular fire drills and records were available for review which demonstrated the effectiveness of these drills. All staff had up-to-date training in fire safety and the PIC outlined that additional training was being provided for fire safety while on the centre's transport. The inspector found that there were personal emergency plans in place for the residents. These guided staff on how to support the residents' in the event of an evacuation during the day or night, and identified what equipment was required for each resident.
Indian population and thereby the vehicles are increasing at the same time causing congestion on road networks. DSS is designed by analyzing the ground situation of Dehradun city, for example the problems faced by the inhabitants while travelling on the road network. Especially the problems faced by the emergency service providers like hospitals during transport of a patient. Decision support System (DSS) plays a significant role in solving routing problem of an ambulance on the Dehradun road network when need arises to transport a patient to the nearest hospital. DSS also analyses roads interrupted by the congestion and other activities during peak hours and calculates the fastest route. DSS is capable of handling multi-accident situation.
WHO and UN Children’ s Fund (UNICEF) Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) campaign and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) have made strides in increasing routine vaccine coverage worldwide, many countries involved in conflict have seen their healthcare infrastructure destroyed and vaccine coverage progressively dropping [19–21]. This loss of herd immunity has regional and global implications. The re-emergence of polio in Syria in 2013 and in Cameroon in 2014 brought the potential international impact into sharp focus. WHO recognized the risk: “The consequences of further international spread are particu- larly acute today given the large number of polio-free but conflict-torn and fragile States which have severely compromised routine immunization services and are at high risk of re-infection. Such States would experience extreme difficulty in mounting an effective response were wild poliovirus to be reintroduced” .
environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources” (UNISDR, 2005). Worldwide trends indicate that both natural and human induced disasters are increasing in frequency, intensity and complexity (Ref. Required). According to Waeckerle, (1991), disasters are tragedies that overwhelm our communities, destroy our property and harm our population. Disaster management is the process of addressing an event that has the potential to seriously disrupt the social fabric of the community. Booreang (2015) defined disaster management “as an applied science which seeks, by its systematic observation and analysis of disasters, to improve measures relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergencyresponse, and recovery”. Disaster management is similar to disaster mitigation; however it implies a whole of government approach to using community resources to fight the effects of an event and assumes the community will be self-sufficient for periods of time until the situation can be stabilized. According to the United Nations Development Programme, Disaster management is the body of policy, administrative decisions and operational activities required to prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and repair the effects of natural or man-made disasters. Disaster Management has to do with a full range of activities that are done in security and natural hazard events. The role of any disaster management authority all over the world is to regulate, coordinate, develop systems and train technical manpower for disaster management. It is as a result of this that the federal government of Nigeria established National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) to respond to emergency cases in terms of response, relief and mitigation to victims of disaster such as, fire, flooding, storm, accident, among others.