Lack of proper biomonitoring system is the main problem associated with these emergingpollutants. Currently, various research are being performed in order to develop biosensors that can easily detect these pollutants and can help in further process of treatment related to these. Biosensor, includes a biological component that provides the signal by the help of which pollutants get analyzed and hence get detected. After detection, bioremediation can play an important role regarding the transformation of these toxic contaminants as compared to conventional treatment methods.If the ECs are not being considered as a biggest challenge now, then the environment can face its adverse effects without any proper and effective treatment. World Bank has already predicted that by 2050, these resistant bacteria can kill 10 million people each year and can push as much as 28 million of people into poverty [Bloom et al., 2017]. It is worth mentioning that antibiotics is not the only ECs upon which we have to concern, there are many other in the list, but how to do it remains a dilemma. One way can be by preparing a priority list like EU commission has done by keeping the track record of compounds and updating it each year [Decision, 2015]. This way can proof to be reasonable until we come across a limited number of compounds.
contamination. The presence of specific algal toxins in finished drinking water had not been proved analytically until a recent discovery of cyanobacterial toxins in finished drinking waters in Florida  and in a survey of US and Canadian drinking waters sponsored by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation . In the report to the Florida Department of Health, 75 of the 167 Florida surface water bodies sampled contained toxic cyanobacteria blooms, and microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin were found and quantified in finished drinking waters at level that exceed proposed human health guidelines . Cylindrospermopsin, from a bloom, was found in a drinking-water reservoir in Australia, following a poisoning episode involving 138 children and 10 adults. The US and Canadian survey (conducted from 1996-1998) reported source and finished drinking waters with 80% of the 677 utility source water samples collected testing positive for microcystins, and 4.3% exceeded WHO drinking-water concentration standards . However, only two of the finished drinking-water samples exceeded the WHO guideline. These recent studies clearly show the need for a better mechanistic understanding as to the fate of these chemical toxins. The focus of this dissertation is using radiation chemistry to study on the oxidation processes that will aide in mechanistic studies for emergingpollutants of concern (EPOCs) and the model of an in situ, biologically produced toxin, domoic acid.
Over the past decade the research surrounding the occurrence, source, fate and removal of emergingpollutants has been increasing. The aim of this study was to create an add-on program which analyses the removal of emergingpollutants, to an existing decision support tool (WiSDOM). The tool was also used to evaluate the performance of each optimal solution in terms of removal of conventional pollutants using Multi Objective Genetic Algorithms and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis. Information was collated regarding minimum and maximum concentrations of emergingpollutants for surface water, groundwater, untreated wastewater, drinking water and treated wastewater. This information was used to populate an Excel Spreadsheet Program (ESP) which analysed the removal efficiencies of 13 different emergingpollutants for 42 wastewater treatment unit processes. The ESP is incorporated into the WiSDOM tool to allow the tool to calculate the removal of emergingpollutants. Three main scenarios were created to test the application of the tool and ESP. Scenario 1 focussed on the removal of emergingpollutants from from areas effected by tourism at different scales. Scenario 2 looked at the treatment suited for the removal of emergingpollutants from different socio- economic regions. Lastly, Scenario 3 looked at removing emergingpollutants from hospital and industrial wastewater. The scenarios were focused on wastewater treatment in India and investigated the removal of 13 emergingpollutants commonly found in India.
Pollutant emissions in river basins may be subject to change. How can we succeed in predicting future pollutant emissions and risks? The approach presented here is based on the hypothesis that the existing scenarios on devel- opments in society may provide useful indications on future pollutants. To begin with, the results of four societal scenario-based analyses showed that some developments are directly connected to consumption and the emission of specific substances. Second, it appeared that the effects of other development scenarios are more complex, such as those associated with climate change. Quantitative statements with regard to the implications of such scenarios on future pollutants can be particularly difficult. A third important group of changes are technological developments. Frequently observed changes in this respect are substitutions of problematic substances by substances with a similar structure. When the pollutant consequences of future development scenarios are taken together it will be possible to explore political, societal, or technical mitigation efforts which can be undertaken now or in the near future to counteract the effects of developments that are considered as extremely hazardous for man and the environment. Thereby, a careful monitoring of developments in society can help to develop appropriate strategies which should include preemptive emission and impact reduction efforts. Finally, we developed recommendations how to manage future emergingpollutants in river basins.
management of toxic pollution in European river basins. This 4-year project is of particular relevance considering the multidisciplinary analytical chemistry and biology skills required to investigate the enormous complexity of contamination, effects, and cause-effect relationships. By integrating innovative mode-of-action-based biodiagnostic tools including in vitro and in vivo tests, transgenic organisms, and ‘ omics ’ techniques with powerful fractionation and cutting edge, analytical, and computational structure elucidation tools, powerful new EDA approaches are being developed for the identification of toxicants in European surface and drinking waters. Innovative method development by young researchers at major European universities, research centers, and private companies has been closely interlinked with a joint European demonstration program, higher-tier EDA, and specialized training courses and secondments. Using a simplified protocol based on existing EDA tools, EDA-EMERGE fellows are also being trained to organize and run international and interdisciplinary sampling and monitoring campaigns within selected European river basin sites. Strong networking between academia, the private sector, and leading regulators in the field of river basin management and pollution management ensures the relevance of the research for practice and excellent employment opportunities for the fellows. Additionally, an internationally composed advisory board has been tasked to introduce new perspectives on monitoring, assessment, and management of emergingpollutants within and outside of Europe. The combination of cutting edge science with specialized training in
In 2005, the European Commission funded the NORMAN project to promote a permanent network of reference labo‑ ratories and research centers, including academia, industry, standardization bodies, and NGOs. Since then, NORMAN has (i) facilitated a more rapid and wide‑scope exchange of data on the occurrence and effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), (ii) improved data quality and comparability via validation and harmonization of common sampling and measurement methods (chemical and biological), (iii) provided more transparent information and mon‑ itoring data on CECs, and (iv) established an independent and competent forum for the technical/scientific debate on issues related to emerging substances. NORMAN plays a significant role as an independent organization at the interface between science and policy, with the advantage of speaking to the European Commission and other public institutions with the “bigger voice” of more than 70 members from 20 countries. This article provides a summary of the first 10 years of the NORMAN network. It takes stock of the work done so far and outlines NORMAN’s vision for a Europe‑wide collaboration on CECs and sustainable links from research to policy‑making. It contains an overview of the state of play in prioritizing and monitoring emerging substances with reference to several innovative technolo‑ gies and monitoring approaches. It provides the point of view of the NORMAN network on a burning issue—the regulation of CECs—and presents the positions of various stakeholders in the field (DG ENV, EEA, ECHA, and national agencies) who participated in the NORMAN workshop in October 2016. The main messages and conclusions from the round table discussions are briefly presented.
[30, 40, 83]. For those reasons, the European Union, through the Directive 2013/139/EU, attempted to prevent the diffusion of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment by defining environmental quality standards and by pinpointing priority substances that could represent a potential risk. Furthermore, attempts to evaluate predicted concentrations in fresh waters have been made through many emerging contaminant models, among which the two most widely applied GIS-based models are PhATE (Pharmaceutical Assessment and Transport Evaluation ) and GREAT-ER (Geography-Referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers ). In order to be applied and corroborated, the two models need a huge amount of data in field conditions often difficult to obtain in field studies or in non-instrumented large basins . It is well known that when modeling emerging contaminants the available information is limited and, therefore, simpler models are usually more useful than complex ones . Nevertheless, more refined and higher tiered models will presumably result in more accurate
8. Árvay, J., Tomáš, J., Hauptvogl, M., Kopernická, M., Kováčik, A., Bajčan, D., Massányi, P., Contamination of wild-grown edible mushrooms by heavy metals in a former mercury-mining area. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 2014, 49(11), 815-827, doi:10.1080/03601234.2014.938550 9. Gavrilescu, M., Demnerová, K., Aamand, J., Agathos, S., Fava, F., Emergingpollutants in the environment: present and future challenges in biomonitoring, ecological risks and bioremediation. New biotechnology, 2015, 32(1), 147-156, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2014.01.001
Air pollution has had devastating impacts on public health and environment, hence it has become a major concern especially in urban areas. A real-time system is essential because conventional systems are not scalable resulting in limited data of pollution levels available to us for detailed research. The need is for a gadget which can sense the level of pollutants at any time instant and help us know about the condition of the vehicles. This project of ours aims to automate the process of checking quantity of pollutants in cars and send data to a cloud system using local Wi-Fi for regular analysis of pollution levels. The real time analysis is the need of the hour and we strive to achieve that aim through this project. The device has been created to be of aid to the environment and the society.
The EPA’s attempt at temporally tying the “addition” (or “discharge”) of the pollutant to the “point source” does not follow the plain language of the Clean Water Act. Injecting a temporal requirement to the “discharge of a pollutant” is not only unsupported by the Act, but it is also contrary to the purpose of the permitting program, which is “to prevent harmful discharges into the Nation’s waters.” If the EPA’s interpretation were allowed to stand, discharges that are innocuous at the time they are made but extremely harmful at a later point would not be subject to the permitting program. Further, the EPA’s interpretation ignores the directive given to it by Congress in the Clean Water Act, which is to protect water quality. As the EPA itself recognizes, “Congress generally intended that pollutants be controlled at the source whenever possible.” 179
Pollutants such as metals occur naturally in the environment. However, due to man’s daily activities to improve his livelihood, their levels in ecosystems increase to levels that cause adverse effects to other organisms. Metals like lead are introduced in aquatic ecosystems as effluent from mining and industrial activities. Pesticides which are used by man to improve the quality and quantity of crops find their way in aquatic environments via aerial drifts during spraying, leaching and as runoffs after heavy rains. In fact literature shows that of the pesticides applied by farmers only 50% gets to the target organisms  and the rest end up on nontarget organisms where they usually cause deleterious effects on these organisms. Literature reports show that metals and pesticides in- duce oxidative stress in cells of living organisms and this result from an imbalance between the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species .
parameters. Thus, concentration of the gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters are correlated. Many studies have already proven that, without the intrusion of any meteorological parameters the correlation cannot be accurate. Stathopoulou et.al. (2008) has observed the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration levels in urban environments of Athens. In the 3 monitoring stations ozone has been recorded between 1996-1997 where continuous monitoring of temperature has been recorded in 23 stations. They show linear correlation and temporal variation between ozone concentration and air temperature. Further, neural arrangement showed that temperature is a predominant parameter which affects the ozone concentration.
Despite these recent breakthroughs and widespread emerging interest in mtDNA methylation, whether en- vironmental exposures influence epigenetic mechanisms in mtDNA has not yet been explored, particularly in human investigations. In the present study, we examined whether mtDNA methylation in three specific mtDNA loci, i.e., the MT-TF , MT-RNR1 and displacement loop (D-loop) regions, differed in individuals with exposures to airborne pollutants. Mitochondrial tRNAs are essen- tial for protein synthesis in mitochondria. Alteration in MT-TF is associated with several disease, such as neuromuscular disease , myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers , mitochondrial myopathy , acute rhabdo- myolysis , tubulointerstitial nephritis and stroke . The MT-RNR1 gene encodes for a protein that facilitates the formation of RNA secondary structures, assembly of the mitochondrial ribosome, and mitochondrial translation . The D-loop region that we examined contains pro- moters for mtDNA transcription and nearly the entire mitochondrial genome transcribes from the D-loop . We sampled groups with high- and low-exposure from three independent studies on different types of airborne pollutants including steel workers and controls exposed to metal-rich particulate matter (PM 1 ) in Brescia, Italy (Study
PAHs are very stable thermally and are resistant to degradation. These aromatic compounds have high melting and boiling points. PAHs with lower molecular weight are generally water soluble and with each additional ring the hydrophobicity and aqueous insolubility increases. These compounds have low vapour pressure . Due to their lipophilic nature these pollutants are quite soluble in organic solvents. Owing to peculiar UV absorbance spectrum of each isomer of PAH and unique UV spectrum of each ring structure the identification becomes easy. These aromatic pollutants are light sensitive, corrosion resistant, heat stable and can exert physiological actions . PAHs are important constituents of crude oil, creosote, asphalt and coal tar. These are mainly used in pharmaceutical industries in the manufacturing of pesticides, certain dyes, and pigments also in agrochemical production. These persistent pollutants are used in construction of roads and roofs. Furthermore, specific refined products of certain PAHs, are used in electronics, functional plastics and liquid crystals .
From the technology innovation perspective, the book introduces low-cost ways to deliver the most basic and necessary services to society. This idea rests on frugal innovation, an appropriate terminology for emerging economies, where capital is scarce and risks are high. Yet this is not a book on theories of technology. It dives immediately into applications of technology using frugal approaches to empower communities for a sustainable society. The focus of the technology applications is on education, health, and ﬁ nancial payments, which are the most critical enablers for developing countries to create opportunities for improving the lives of their citizens.