understanding skills in middle childhood may result in over-attunement to peer relationship problems, thus contributing to children’s socioemotional maladjustment over time (Hoglund, Lalonde, & Leadbeater, 2008). Thus, the lack of findings may reflect developmental process. That is, this study may have failed to find significant predictive associations between third- graders’ advanced emotionunderstanding skills and socioemotional competence because such skills may not yet bestow consistent benefits for children at this age. Although the path between advanced emotionunderstanding skills and children’s socioemotional problems was not significant (p = .296), the regression coefficient (β = .19) suggests a maladaptive effect. It is possible that in future studies using measures with less error variance and a greater sample size, this path may become significant. Moreover, studies with older children (i.e., children aged 9 to 11) and adolescents (aged 12 to 18) may reveal additional patterns, as children and adolescents master various other social and cognitive competencies that will enable them to more effectively apply advanced emotionunderstanding skills. More research is needed to confirm the possibility of curvilinear associations between emotionunderstanding skills and socioemotional competencies over time, with samples inclusive of adolescents as well as younger and older children.
specific relationship between parent expressiveness and emotionunderstanding was not the major research question, there were several instances where these variable measures were only cited as “nonsignificant” (e.g., Havadtoy, et al., 1999; Ludemann, 1993). In these instances, scores for the variables were imputed as 0, further diluting the overall meta-analysis results. While the present analyses would not have differed significantly by excluding the null findings, the possibility that actual findings (which were not likely to be 0) would have influenced these results cannot be ruled out. Additionally, the Fail- safe N calculation has been criticized for estimating the number of unpublished (or unrevealed) studies with a mean Z of zero that would be required to render the obtained mean effect size nonsignificant, on the grounds that the unpublished studies are more likely to have a mean Z that is larger than zero (in the opposite direction) (Darlington & Hayes, 2000).
(discriminating, identifying, attributing) were significantly and positively related to social competence and that this association holds for both groups (ASD and TD). That indicates that better emotion recognition is related to higher social competence and this association was found to be bidirectional. These findings validate our expectations regarding a positive correlation between emotion recognition and social competence and are in line with previous studies (Wallace et al., 2011; Boraston et al., 2007). An explanation for this finding is that the two types of functioning can influence one another. Emotionunderstanding contributes to the development of the ability to communicate successfully with others (Crick & Dodge, 1996). Children who are able to produce and perceive emotion expressions accurately are more likely to perform in a socially appropriate manner, as they can recognize process and respond to social signals.
have to attain, and usually their first introduction to reading is through narra- tives. Understanding emotions in narratives requires the development of suf- ficient social-cognitive abilities such as perspective taking and Theory of Mind (Diergarten & Nieding, 2015). People seem innately motivated to understand the mental worlds of others, and many studies have examined the develop- ment of the ability to do so. However, the majority of studies has focused on early childhood (Davidson, Vanegas, & Hilvert, 2015) and usually do not involve reading. Social-cognitive abilities continue to mature throughout childhood and into adolescence (e.g., Burnett, Sebastian, Cohen Kadosh, & Blakemore, 2011), but relatively little is known about the role of social-cognitive abilities in the context of narrative comprehension in childhood. Whereas recent studies have suggested that reading of narratives may contribute to the development of social-cognitive abilities (Kidd & Castano, 2013), the process underlying the relation between emotionunderstanding and narrative comprehension in late childhood is not well understood. The present study examined the role of emo- tions in narrative understanding by combining measures of cognitive processes during reading of narratives with measures of emotionunderstanding.
In line with our aims, we tested indirect and direct paths from mothers’ appropriate mind-related comments to CU traits and impulsive/irresponsible traits, controlling for covariates of gender, SES, verbal ability, and maternal sensitivity. The indirect effects of emotionunderstanding and ToM at 51 months were tested. Mplus 7.2 (Muthén & Muthén, 2012) was used for all analyses (with manifest variables), using bootstrapping of standard errors and confidence intervals to determine significance of direct and indirect effects (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Bootstrapping has been recommended when multivariate normality cannot be assumed, typical of small sample sizes. Multivariate normality is especially
This paper reports on interviews with 7 chefs and food designers to understand the validity of taste-emotion mappings for the design of ecologically valid user experiences. Sweet-positive and bitter-negative mappings were confirmed and a more nuanced understanding of to taste intensity on affective response has emerged. Sour, salty and umami tastes were found to exhibit mappings differing from lab-based findings. Findings have led to three design implications highlighting the value of sensitizing designers about the taste-emotion mapping, the role of temporality, and of opportunities of exploring currently unavailable mappings for sadness and anger.
That is, the manifest physical trademarks of emotion (glaring, gasping, blanching, be- ing tongue-tied, etc.) are actually not the necessary physical levels of emotion responses, however revealing, well-worn, and indispensable to the social aspects of the emotional life they may be. But if palpable peripheral responses are not necessary to emotional arousal, then even when manifest peripheral arousal is present (the person is overtly “worked up”), the emotion itself, as distinct from these reverberations, is still actually realised in the brain. The physiological approach to emotion is stranger than it looks. Yet it is also open to question whether emotion should be identified even with the kinds of event that constitute its physiological core. Such an assumption would be obviously unsound in the case of other mental phenomena. Consider mathematical thoughts. Deep somatic processes, this time cortical, presumably also form the vehicle of math- ematical thought and are necessary and sufficient, in us, for solving mathematical problems. But no strictly physiological description of what happens as a mathematical problem is solved could, on its own, entail or be translated into a perspicuous descrip- tion of the reasoning to the solution of that problem. Still less could such a description be the content of its solution. No depiction of a neuro-chemical processing, as such, however finely drawn, could rank as a proof of a theorem. We might learn a lot about the brain from studying maths (e.g., that it is non-algorithmic); but we couldn’t learn maths by studying the brain, if that was all we had to start with. Neurology couldn’t replace maths. On the contrary, when a neural process occurs by which a mathematical thought is entertained, the content of that thought lies not in what the process is but in what the thought achieved through this process represents, e.g., that the circumfer- ence of a circle = 2 πr. (And the same thought might be realisable by processes and in mediums of quite different kinds, not just neural.) Now, one feature emotions share with mathematical thoughts is that of representing something. Emotions also appraise what they represent, and bodily feelings often loom large in this. The question, then, is whether emotive representing and appraising of elements of the world that affect our interests might consist in somatic changes. I turn, accordingly, to the idea that emo- tions are “embodied appraisals” as set out by Jesse Prinz (Prinz 2004, ch. 3). For this theory precisely denies that emotions represent and appraise by incorporating propo- sitional attitudes.
The view that narrative artworks can offer insights into our lives, in particular, into the nature of the emotions, has gained increasing popularity in recent years. However, talk of narrative often involves reference to a perspective or point of view, which indicates a more fundamental mechanism at work. In this article, I argue that our understanding of the emotions is incomplete without adequate attention to the perspectival structures in which they are embedded. Drawing on Bennett Helm's theory of emotion, I argue that the narrative view fails to take into account the influence of perspective on the emotions. In order to address this gap in our understanding of the emotions, I highlight a mode of engagement with literature that prioritises the perspectival features of a work. Focusing on lyric poetry, I argue that non-narrative artworks are best placed to highlight this fundamental aspect of our emotional experiences.
This paper presents our contextual emotion de- tection system in approaching the SemEval- 2019 shared task 3: EmoContext: Contextual Emotion Detection in Text. This system co- operates with an emotion detection neural net- work method (Poria et al., 2017), emoji2vec (Eisner et al., 2016) embedding, word2vec embedding (Mikolov et al., 2013), and our proposed emoticon and emoji preprocessing method. The experimental results demon- strate the usefulness of our emoticon and emoji prepossessing method, and representations of emoticons and emoji contribute model’s emo- tion detection.
Education level was unrelated to understanding among L1 and LX users but it was linked to frequency, with less educated participants reporting higher use of the word. A difference emerged between L1 and LX users for offensiveness, with more highly educated L1 users rating the word as more offensive than less educated L1 users. These patterns reflect findings in sociolinguistic research (cf. McEnery and Xiao 2004; Rayson, Leech and Hodge 1997). The higher offensiveness ratings of “cunt” by more highly educated participants do not seem to be linked to a better understanding of the word (indeed, it is a common word after all) but rather how the word is perceived in their specific speech community. LX users typically need more time to distinguish subtle social and gender differences in the LX (Mougeon, Nadasdi and Rehner 2010).
The economic stability of the nation depends up on the basic economic activities of the people like saving, spending, buying, selling, investing, lending, producing, marketing, and utilizing these activities. A country, which has witnessed economic growth in a systematic manner, is supported by economic habits influenced by the economic reasoning of the people. Many parts of the world are now in the midst of clutches of economic evils, anti-economic activities, corruption, poverty, unemployment and depression. To prevent these kinds of crises of the world, the educated and learning community should gain the momentum of developing good economic habits, skills with the dual support of economic reasoning and emotional intelligence. Economic decisions and activities should not be done on emotional basis. Persons who are engaged in taking economic decision need emotional balance for the required emotion. Thus, the problem may be stated as follows:
The primary outcome measure (BAI) is measured at three time points: baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, rather than as more continuous measures during treatment. This makes the ﬁ tting of growth curves inappropriate, and similar to recent studies 16 we will therefore employ a mixed-effects, analysis of covari- ance (ANCOVA)-like design. Baseline BAI will be included as a between-subjects covariate, and the two post-treatment assessments will be treated as two levels of the repeated-measures independent variable (TIME: post-treatment vs follow-up). The repeated measures covariance structure will be chosen based on optimal model ﬁ t. Missingness is only expected on the outcome variable, and this analytical strategy will allow us to include all patients with at least one post-treatment measurement of the outcome. To examine the main objective of this study: how attentional control and emotion regulation affect anxiety levels post-treatment, we will include the potential predictor variables as mea- sured at baseline as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with the TIME variable. A signi ﬁ cant main effect of the predictor variable will indicate that the vari- able predicts post-treatment BAI while taking baseline BAI levels into account. A signi ﬁ cant interaction between the predictor variable and TIME will indicate that this effect differs for the post-treatment and follow-up measurements. To explore non-linear relation- ships, we will also add the quadratic effects of predictor variables in a second analysis step. The predictor vari- ables will be tested in separate models, both for the main outcome variable (BAI) and for the secondary outcome variable (SCL 90 R).
using two questionnaires: Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) and Addiction Potential Scale (APS). Result: Descriptive statistics were employed. For the hypothesis testing, MANOVA and Pearson correlation were concurrently used. The results showed that a significant difference was found between male and female students in terms of EI and its components (appraisal and expression of emotion, regulation of emotion, and utilization of emotion).
a certain positive or negative emotional stimulus. For example, if a runner does not finish a marathon that he or she attempted to complete, they could be sad or frustrated at first. If they employed cognitive reappraisal, they would reevaluate the situation and analyze what could have been done differently and how he or she can change in the future to prepare for a more favorable outcome. Cognitive reappraisal is a two-step process that involves 1) the recognition of the negative emotion-eliciting circumstance and the consequent negative emotion and 2) the attempt to reinterpret or reevaluate the circumstance and emotion associated with it through a more positive light . Both “stress and depression” can be alleviated through the consistent use of “positive reappraisal” . The implications behind this are important because, as aforementioned, patients with GAD experience chronic low to high grade stress. Furthermore, GAD is also comorbid with major depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders as well. Cognitive reappraisal is described as a “latent strategy”, yet in the past 20-30 years, there has been research that substantiates meditation as a method to attain cognitive control at will . Although meditation is harder to implement therapeutically, simply being aware of the situation and understanding that the feeling of anxiety will be temporary has proven to be useful to decrease the amount of stress in patients . It modifies the behavioral or physiological response to an emotional stimulus.
2 Challenges involved in the collection of emotion data for different applications In order to develop high quality text to emo- tion speech synthesis systems, large sized natural databases of each target emotion are required (M. Schroder et al., 2001). But it is impractical to de- velop a large sized natural emotion database with spontaneity (naturalness). Hence emotion con- version systems are adopted as a post-processing block for speech synthesis from neutral text. In this, a large database of neutral speech is used by text-to-speech (TTS) system to generate a neutral speech first, which is then fed to emotion con- version system where input neutral speech is con- verted to desired emotional speech. Since emo- tional speech is produced from emotion conver- sion systems, it is reasonable to use enacted par- allel corpus (D. Erro et al., 2010).
Pitch: If the number of notes for a measure is n, then the corresponding sub-section is parti- tioned into n equal parts and the pitch for each note is based on the emotion density of the cor- responding sub-section. Lower emotion densities are mapped to more consonant pitches in the key (C major or C minor), whereas higher emotion densities are mapped to less consonant pitches in the same scale. For example, if the melody is in the key of C major, then the lowest to highest emo- tion densities are mapped linearly to the pitches C, G, E, A, D, F, B. Thus, a low emotion value would create a pitch that is more consonant and a high emotion value would create a pitch that is more dissonant (more interesting and unusual).