Fecundity of red throat emperor is an additional unknown quantity, and a study on how fecundity varies with age would aid future assessments. We have assumed for this assessment that fecundity is proportional to a function of fish length. Prof. Mike Allen in his review of this assessment has pointed out that fecundity may depend strongly on age (presumably increasing with age, as is the case with most fish species) even though length does not for older fish. He gives the example of the red tropical snapper Lutjanus campechanus in the Gulf of Mexico where such a situation has been found. In the case of red throat emperor the residual proportion of female fish that do not change to male (Section 2.6, Table 10 and Figure 7) may turn out to be a very important source of egg production for the population. We also recommend ongoing monitoring of the fishery to record the regional age structures each year, validation of commercial fishers’ catches, and surveys to ascertain the size of the recreational catch. Much of this is already happening, and a transition is under way whereby DPI&F will assume responsibility for sampling previously undertaken by the ELF Project. Keeping records of age structure is particularly important given that length is a poor indicator of age for this species.
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One would justifiably presume that a king such as Ashoka, who idealised compassion not conflict (albeit after his Kalinga war) and humane values rather than authoritarianism, would be a celebrated figure in the history of India. Such was not the case, however, for more than 20 centuries after his death. He came to be better known only during the 20th century. In the western world, for example, H. G. Wells’s fulsome praise of Ashoka in his worldwide bestseller, The Outline of History, first published in London in 1920, might have impacted on the consciousness of readers. Why Ashoka featured so slightly for such a long time in the long history of India may be explained by a number of relevant factors. Firstly, although Buddhism remained a vibrant religious force in India for another seven or eight centuries after Ashoka, it always faced pressure from a Hinduism that every so often emerged from the shadows and asserted itself, thus eroding Buddhist confidence.(5) While the Buddha himself became part and parcel of the iconography of Hindu deities, his religion came to be received with greater warmth abroad rather than in its homeland. The gems of Buddhist literature came to be nurtured in Sri Lanka, for example; and it was in that very literature that Ashoka was most respected and venerated. Secondly, whatever was left of the legacy of Buddhism within India came under ferocious assault from the early iconoclastic Turco-Afghan invaders from the 11th and 12th centuries onwards.(6) Thirdly, since India’s climate shows little mercy to both manuscripts and monuments, much had therefore been lost over the centuries. Some of the edicts inscribed on the rocks and pillars had nevertheless managed to survive and were there for interested observers or travellers but, since Indian scripts had long moved on since Ashoka’s days and had evolved into something very different, no one in India could make any sense of Ashoka’s message in Brahmi or Kharoshti scripts. Fourthly, while early Indian historical concerns are evident in both historical consciousness and historical traditions as represented by many and varied literary texts such as the great epics or the Puranas, it would not be an exaggeration to maintain that history had held out little fascination or interest for scholars in the Hindu world. Ancient Hindus displayed both talent and originality in their approach to such systematic studies as mathematics, grammar, logic or astronomy, yet they produced no outstanding historian who could interpret secular evidence to explain a historical story.(7) For all these reasons both the Buddha and Ashoka remained figures of mystery in India. The fog that had clouded historical understanding for so long lifted with the arrival of British orientalists in the late 18th century. From that time onwards the East India Company became more than a trading
remains . A large concentration of emperor penguins was noted to the east of BofW just before we arrived at Bartlett Inlet (Gearheart, unpublished observations). It seems to be a foraging “hot spot” and, significant for this paper, 6 of the 20 tags stopped transmitting in the vicin- ity of the BofW after short durations ranging from 12 to 51 days post-deployment (Additional file 1: Table S1). The only shorter duration deployment that we are aware of is the juvenile emperor penguin that was released in open water at about 52 S latitude . This 4-day deploy- ment on such a robust juvenile emperor penguin may have been a predatory event. Although the environments and experience of the penguins are not comparable, the early transmission termination of the tags on 12 birds (<30 days for 4 of the penguins) in or near BofW suggests predation events. The 12 and 17 days of P15 and P2 are within the duration of many previous deployments of TDR’s or satellite transmitters on emperor penguins that were nurturing chicks at their respective colonies around Antarctica (1–4 weeks), or while tracking adults after departure for their pre-molt journey (1–3 months) [3–7]. Under foraging and nurturing circumstances, recovery success of TDR’s for birds from the Cape Washington colony was about 91 % (Kooyman, Ponganis unpublished observations) after a trip duration of 1–3 weeks. For the birds on journeys to molt areas, 85 % successfully reached their destination after about 30 days, in some cases over 1000 km from their departure point [10, 11]. Conse- quently, all of the early losses in such a dynamic region around the BofW could have been due to predation.
(church apse is oriented to east side while entry to the west) and has a length of 20.7 m (Boshtrakaj Camaj 2013, 112). First Christian objects seem that were built by local masters, who had embraced the Christian faith, and in some cases (which was also a characteristic) even priests were distinguished as good builders and architects, on this occasion it is interesting to mention the Illyrian priest Pjetri (Drançolli, 2011, 62). In addition to building, he also was recognized as a master of Illyrian sacral Christian works, but after attacks and demolitions from barbaric tribes, he managed to take refuge in Rome, where he built a basilica "Santa Sabina'', in Aventine in Rome (Drançolli 2011, 62-63), a basilica that was made known in the world art. The group of castles of the 6 th century mainly
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Furthermore, from 91 to 88 BCE, the Italian allies initialed the Social War against Rome, for the republic refused to granted the allies Roman citizenship which the allies believed they deserved. This war unintended made Sulla the most powerful man in Rome. When the Social War gradually became a grand civil war, King Mithridates of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia initiated another war against Rome. Sulla was given the power of command for the war in the east and ultimately defeated Mithridates. Sulla then led his army to defeat his political opponents by forcefully taking over Rome, establishing a military dictatorship. The governing system of dictatorship fundamentally con- tradicted the republican system, therefore marking the end of the Roman repub- lican system and paving the way for a new form of government to take over.
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This exchange of selves is at once playful and coercive, which places it in contrast to the exchange between Pliny and Trajan, where, though there are glimpses of the jostle for control of the images of governor and emperor, the correspondents primarily confirm the mutual ideals of sender and addressee. Pliny, like Fronto, constructs images of his addressee with suit him, but unlike Marcus, Trajan happens to be more willing to accept those images. On the other hand, the letters of Cicero to and about Caesar may mean different things depending upon the perspective of the reader, and like Fronto’s letters they require close reading to bring out the hidden meanings. For example, ad Familiares 13.15, the letter of recommendation sent to Caesar on behalf of Precilius, has been read by scholars either as an attempt to create an extraordinary example of a conventional letter form or as a defence against the charge that Cicero had taken part in an anti-Caesarian plot, meant to assure Caesar that the sender had learned the folly of challenging the dictator and would not do so in the future. However, as I argued in chapter two, one can also read in Cicero’s letter an assertion of independence, the message that he will be swayed neither by the anti-Caesarians nor by the Caesarians, but will be his own man. 242
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The Dumai coastal waters, a semi-closed inland sea, is located on the east coast of central Sumatera Island, Riau Province, Indonesia. The waters are separated from Malacca Strait by Rupat Island and connected to the strait by the Rupat Strait (Figure 1). It is elongated from the south to the northwestward with a depth of 1 to 30 meters. The waters have a rather flat bottom topography and is influenced by water masses from the river and Malacca Strait by tidal currents and anthropogenic activities.
In this study, we aim to communicate the beneficial utility of some seaweed obtained from Indian east coast in preventing and managing diabetes via various pharmacologically relevant attestations. Seaweed flora is represented by three major classes’ namely green, brown and red algae which differ from one another in their morphology, life cycle, distribution, pigment and secondary metabolite composition. It was decided by us to take one or two species from each class to assess their antidiabetic potential. During the course of study one species of red algae Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenfuss (Family: Gracilariaceae), two species of green algae Eenteromorpha compressa (L.) Grev. (Family: Ulvaceae) and Ulva fasciata Delile (Family: Ulvaceae) were collected from the Chilika Lake, Odisha, Indian east coast. Due to non- availability of brown seaweed along the Odisha coast, one of the species from this variety Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kutzing (Family: Sargassaceae) was obtained from the Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu, Indian east coast. All seaweeds were properly identified and authenticated by Prof. R.C. Panigrahy, marine
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■ George has many connections with Bradford which is seen by him as a place where he would find it easier to bring up his children in a more traditional way. He even looks for prospective brides for his sons there. Bradford is in the east of northern England; Salford is in the west. ■ George originally comes from Islamabad, which in 1971 is in East Pakistan. His first wife is there and the country is at war with India. He keeps threatening to bring her to England. Dir. Damien O'Donnell UK 2000 Certificate 15
The role of the reader of the Distributio (and the emperor is one of the intended readers) 92 is not so much to express an order of one’s own, as to grasp and maintain – administer - what is already in place. It is an active role, reinforced by the imperatives and the ‘constructive’ verbs through which the subdivisions of money are in turn made, the names called out, the signs written down, the account given. Yet, it is not a creative role. The author is almost resigned to the fact that the world is in a certain way, that fringes of deregulation will always be present, that we have the stand-in; in fact, more than one system of stand-ins, but we cannot retrieve with certainty the ‘things’ behind them and with that, the real cause of the present order(s) of things. The Distributio, like many of the legal texts it seems germane to, does not aspire to retrieve the absolute foundations; it does not aim to go back to level zero, as it were, but to create a meta-level from which the others can be adjudicated and regulated. Sheep, if ever they were the ‘real’ pecunia, are not important any more: all that counts, and all that effectively exists,
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One of aims of the Cultural Materialists is to distinguish the influence of the contemporary situations of playwright’s time on his works. There is a proof which shows the contemporary socio-economical conditions of O’Neill’s time affecting his play: “In 1900s Africans, Latin Americans and Caribbean migrated to North America due to war, political persecution and economical difficulties” (Shiply 68). This historical matter inspires O’Neill and constructs in his mind a background for composing the play. But we see O’Neill as a creative artist looks at the main concern of his time from innovative viewpoint. He in The Emperor Jones, instead of reflecting the current subject of his time i.e. migration to America, contrarily depicts the migration of an Afro- American to a Caribbean Island in order to prepare a new and unorthodox view to a realistic matter. Although O’Neill is highly affected by his contemporary events, he never neglects his artistic creation for the sake of expressing social reality. Thus, The Emperor Jones with realistic foundation is decorated by artistic imagination like expressionistic devices and stands as a more complex work of O’Neill.
(RSAs) have been documented in a variety of birds and diving species (Andrews et al., 1997; Bartholomew, 1954; Butler and Taylor, 1983; Casson and Ronald, 1975; Castellini et al., 1994a; Castellini et al., 1994b; Enstipp et al., 1999; Irving, 1939) and are more pronounced in some species than others [for example, in dogs (Hamlin et al., 1966)]. Previous work on elephant seals has demonstrated that RSAs can be used to estimate respiratory frequency in diving animals, even while at sea (Andrews et al., 2000). Apparent RSA has recently been used to determine probable breathing frequency in resting king penguins (Halsey et al., 2008). The complete ECG record afforded by the digital recorders in this study reveal an RSA pattern in emperor penguins and validate the inference of respiration rate from the regular, momentary tachycardias present in f H data
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and Jones, 1997) of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri is 5.6 min (Ponganis et al., 1997). That ADL study involved relatively shallow dives (<50 m) of emperors foraging from an isolated dive hole. Depth profiles of these dives typically include descent to depth, travel at depth, hunting ascents to the undersurface of the ice to catch fish, and then return to depth for travel and eventual exit at the dive hole (Ponganis et al., 2000) Although shallow dives (<60 m) comprise about 60% of all dives during foraging trips to sea, emperors also routinely dive to 500 m depth, and frequently have diving durations greater than the ADL M (Kooyman and Kooyman, 1995;
1999). These models include three kinds of parameters: sighting probability, survival probability and transition probabilities from one state to another (Nichols et al., 1994). We used two states in our study: (1) birds present but not seen kidnapping, and (2) birds seen kidnapping (Fig.·1). Contrary to classical statistical tests, this modelling approach permits independent estimates of kidnapping and resighting probabilities, hence providing a better estimate of the treatment effect on the kidnapping behaviour of emperor penguins (Lebreton et al., 1992) by taking into account the probability of sighting of the bird. We focused mainly on the probability of transition ( ⌿ ) from the non-kidnapping state to the kidnapping state over one post-treatment day (t) to the next (t+1). This allowed us to estimate the kidnapping probability of failed breeders, and to test for an effect of bromocriptine treatment on the kidnapping behaviour of these birds. In our study, the apparent survival probability (S) represents the probability that an individual survived and stayed on the colony from one post-treatment day (t) to the next (t+1). Note that because all birds survived (they were seen later in the breeding season), S did not measure the survival probability per se. (1–S) represents the probability that a penguin left the colony from one post-treatment day (t) to the next (t+1) and did not come back before the end of the behavioural monitoring period (Fig.·1).
in hopes of escaping the vengeance of his rebellious subject, is an image of an abstract consciousness agonizing in fear of death and passing through several stages of disintegration. The final scene is very tragic and gruesome. Jones goes down to defeat and death, but he never asks to be forgiven like true tragic hero. The tragedy ends with the tragic death of Brutus Jones-“We cotch him. Him dead.” It was his pride and the excessive over confidence that made his decline and death. We see an interesting complexity in the manner of Jones‟ destruction. The beating of the tom-tom is used as the most effective device in the play to objectify the inner terror of Jones. According to Chaman Ahuja the beating of the tom-tom is “at first a call to war, it gradually becomes a presentiment of a brooding fate, i.e. a call to death; next, it merges with Emperor Jones‟ visions of the slaves working to its beat; and later still, it becomes successively the voice of his inner guilt and the throbbing, of its temples. What is more, all the while it is our own heart, beating more rapidly as we follow it. The unseen noise tom-tom that projects Jones‟ rising panic is part of the psychological action; but since that is the dramatic action as well, we may say that through the tom-tom the symbolic and the dramatic actions are synthesized. What is more, by including panic in the audience, it helps them to share the emotions of the terrified Jones-a wonderful feat in participation mystique. ” The beating of tom-tom is seen to be the instrument of fate for determining the doom of the individual concerned.
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Lakoff and Johnson (1980: p. 10) believe that the structural conceptual metaphors are generally “conduit meta- phors”, language construction of structural conceptual metaphor has three forms, namely: “IDEAS (or MESS- AGES) ARE OBJECTS”, “LINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS ARE CONTAINERS”, and “COMMUNICATION IS SENDING”. These language construction forms also can be applied to conceptual metaphors and emotional metaphors in ancient Chinese medicine such as the language in the book Yellow Emperor. For example, in the chapter Angry Sky Theory in Suwen there is an original sentence as (2) “Due to the cold, want as transportation hub, living as scared, air is floating” (Its concrete modern medical meaning is following: If the body has been attacked by pathogenic cold, yang in the body cannot go out and guard outside just like a door rotating within the door hinge pit. So while living people would therefore feel restless and often frivolous, even impetuous). Here, the doctors put ideas (objects) in words (containers), and then the readers take the ideas/objects out of the words (containers).
The “Soul Stealer: Chinese Sorcery Scare 1768” written by Alden Kuhn is a successful example to research more profound problem areas by use of legal history. In the aura of prosperity and good governance by the determination of the Qianlong Emperor, a “Soul incident” occurred and broke this harmony. All the people, from the emperor to the common plebs, were confused for a witch- craft events, with a kind of panic filled in the whole country. Emperors, officials and the plebs dri- ven by different interests and motivations, took full advantages of the event to achieve their pur- pose of class. Behind the ordinary case of “soul stealer”, a huge social crisis is hidden.
Water births currently provide no apparent benefit in childbirth. The practice is based on misrepresen- tations of neonatal physiology and unsupported claims of safety and efficacy. This birthing method fulfils no need for the infant, is of dubious benefit to the mother, is associated with significant, avoidable risks of morbidity and mortality, and currently is unable to pass the risk-benefit test. The continued push for water births in the absence of sound data to support claims undermines the credibility of the ob- stetric profession as it justifiably seeks to mitigate the necessary medicalization of childbirth. Water births should not be considered an acceptable standard of care until rigorous evaluation is pursued. Until that time, water births remain a naked emperor, whose nakedness must be challenged despite a culture of active ignoring that threatens to harm our patients and our profession.
In contrast to pinnipeds, the pre-fledge emperor penguin and probably chicks of other penguin species (Noren et al., 2001; Weber et al., 1974) represent models for the production of elevated Mb concentrations in the absence of any diving activity (i.e. without exercise and hypoxia). Shivering, which could serve as a contractile stimulus for activation of the calcineurin pathway for Mb production, is the primary form of thermogenesis in 1month old king penguin chicks (A. patagonicus) as they first become thermally independent and leave the relative warmth of the parent’s brood patch (Duchamp et al., 2002). In addition, non-shivering thermogenesis, as proposed by Noren and co-workers, may also promote Mb production in king penguin chicks (Noren et al., 2001). Non-shivering thermogenesis
The article deals with the chemical structure of kerogen and its transformation in catagenesis of shale formations by the example of the Middle Volga shale formations and the Domanic carbonaceous deposits of the East European Platform. The studies allowed identifying the main distinctive features in the structure of individual structural components of these types of kerogen and refining the models of the fragment of their chemical structure. Some of the oxygen-containing structures are found to be present in the Middle Volga kerogen as carbohydrate moieties and algaenan components, the alkyl chains in which are interlinked by ether bonds, and the structure of the sulfur-containing components can be represented as sulfide (polysulfide) bound n-alkyl structures, in pyrolysis of which low-molecular and high-molecular alkyl-substituted thiophenes, thienyl- and phenylthiophenes are formed. The average S/C value exceeding 0.04 classifies the Upper Jurassic kerogen as Type II-S. The predominant components constituent in the composition of kerogen of Domanic rocks are lipid components, however, its lower aliphaticity is probably due to the higher maturity of organic matter (OM) and to the low ratio of n-alkyl structures to polyaromatic moieties, the formation of which is connected with the rearrangement of polyene and heteroatomic structures in catagenesis.