organizations. The survey conducted has revealed that in agricultural organizations that do not have a personnel department, formal appraisal is used by only 9.7% of organizations. In those organizations whose corporate structure includes a personnel department, formal appraisal is used by 30.2% of them. Simultaneously it has been validated that the need for the establishment of a personnel department grows with the size of the company (i.e. according to the number of employees). Only 5.7% of agricultural organizations surveyed with less than 50 employees have a personnel department. In the category of 51 to 249 employees, 32.6% of agricultural organizations have a personnel department and in agricultural organizations with more than 250 employees 100% of agricultural organizations have a personnel department. In 70.1% of agricultural organizations personnel- related activities are performed by only 1 employee. Based on the above information, null hypothesis No. 2 was tested on the lack of dependence between the employee performance formal appraisal and the existence of a personnel department. Based on the – square test, the null hypothesis was rejected at the 5% level of signiﬁ cance (p-value = 0.000). The strength of the relationship between the variables is, according to the value of Phi coeﬃ cient (0.210), Cramer’s coeﬃ cient (0.210) and Contingency coeﬃ cient (0.205), direct (with respect to the positive value) and low; see Tab. I. Thus the utilization of formal employee performance appraisal in an organization depends on the existence of a personnel department.
for several purposes in a systematic way using multifarious techniques and tools to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of their employees in relation to certain pre- established criteria and organizational goal as objectively as possible to ultimately know whether the organization is moving towards its predetermined goals. .. Performance Appraisal ensures the best utilization of employee talent because it helps the organization to reward the employees having better abilities and rectify the wrong placement which in turns improves the human resource quality responsible for overall growth of the organization. The inability of organization to adopt a sound system of performance appraisal will be a hindrance to put an optimum use of the human resource in this era of globalization to attain the competitive advantage over others. The matter of fact is that Management assesses the performance of employees to maintain organizational control and disburse rewards and punishments to keep them on the track of organizational growth.
Performance appraisal is one of the important components in the rational and systematic process of human resource management. The information obtained through performance appraisal provides foundations for recruiting and selecting new hires, training and development of existing staff, and motivating and maintaining a quality work force by adequately and properly rewarding their performance. Without a reliable performance appraisal system, a human resource management system falls apart, resulting in the total waste of the valuable human assets a company has. This is not to argue that there should be no formal mechanisms for evaluating performance but, rather, it should be viewed as only one of a number of mechanisms for improving the quality of clinical care (Armstrong & Baron, 1998). Performance appraisal has been defined by DeVries et al., (1981) as the process which allows firms to measure and consequently evaluate an employee’s achievements and behavior over a certain period of time. According to Briscoe & Schuler (2004) performance can be viewed as a combination of several variables, such as motivation, ability, working conditions and expectations. It has been established that there are certain factors that affect employees‟ performance more than others. These factors, according to Dowling et al (1999) include the compensation package; the nature of task; support from higher management; the working environment and the overall corporate culture.
Organizational performance and its resultant efficiency and effectiveness can only be achieved when individuals are continuously appraised and evaluated. The inability of organization to install an effective performance appraisal strategy has hindered them from achieving competitive advantage which they require more now than ever before. Appraisal processes are not systematic and regular and often characterized by personal influences occasioned by organizations preoccupation to use confidential appraisal system which hinders objectivity and fairness. Often organizations ignore management by objectives, critical incidents to personal prejudices. This is retrogressive as it affects the overall performance of the individual. 360 degrees appraisal method whereby superiors and the appraise their subordinates, subordinates appraise their superior and the appraisee appraise himself or herself and the average of all the appraisal taken to arrive at the final appraisal outcome should be now be considered by organizations. Also post appraisal counseling whereby the appraisal outcomes are analyzed to explain strengths and weaknesses and set agenda for better future performance. Organizations should stop giving less attention to the evaluation of their employees and recognize that organizational training needs can only be identified from performance appraisal outcomes. It is an invaluable tool but in the hands of human resource management officers to continuously evaluates and audits the performance of its employees in other to help organizations win competitive advantage.
It is recommended that the software provide open-ended questions (in English language) that employee evaluators would answer with natural language (English) instead of fixed criteria set by the software for performance appraisal. This requires integration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) into the software, where the answers would be analyzed using sentiment analysis.
A Human Resource’s evaluation system firstly aims to identify the gaps between the real employees performance to the one desired, to identify the weaknesses and take corrective measures to continuously improve employees performance and to increase the organization’s efficiency (Boone & Kurtz, 2005; Wilson & Western, 2000). The evaluative procedures aim to identify whether a person responds effectively in work, according to certain predefined criteria standards (Byars & Rue, 2003). However, an organization’s and company’s primary importance is finding and highlighting employees’ strong side and exploiting their strengths without being occupied with their weaknesses (Mondy & Noe, 2005; Drucker, 1954). Jackson & Schuler (2003) report that main objectives of evaluation are employees’ motivation, productivity enhancements and the facilitation of strategic planning. Therefore, for organizations, the evaluation performance is mainly directed towards the future as they encourage employees’ development whilst contributing positively to the entire organization. (Soltani, Gernnard, Van der Meer & Williams, 2005). The traditional approach of Human Resources Management, where evaluation is characterized by the orientation in control based on past performance, is considered obsolete. The most important has a formative character and aims at identifying actions for improvement. The actions concern the identification of educational needs, staff training needs, targeted training activities programs to support the individual to achieve maximum efficiency. (Werther & Davis, 1996; Levin, 1986; Campell, Dunnette, Lawler & Weick, 1970).
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Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the task that make up on individuals job. It indicates how well and individuals are fulfilling the job demands. The main objective of the study is to identify the employee performance appraisal method in Gokal Dass Export Ltd. The process of Human Resource Development helps the employees to acquire and develop Technical, Managerial and behavioral Knowledge, Skills and abilities and mould the values, beliefs and attitudes necessary to perform percent and future roles. It helps the employee and the management to know the level of employees performances compared to the standard or pre-determined level.
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Performance evaluation is a system which is used by superior or managers to assess the job presentation of subordinates. It is one of the key management practices employ in all organizations irrespective of its size. Performance appraisal is an organized effort to differentiate the high performance employees from the less performance workers and to discriminate among strength and weaknesses of an individual has across many job elements. Performance appraisal is a systematic appraisal of how well an employee performs job-related tasks. This study is an attempt to compare employee performance appraisal practices in select IT organizations.
Performance evaluations can be defined as structured and formal interactions between a subordinate and supervisor, which usually take the form of a periodic (annual or semi-annual) interview in which the subordinate's performance is examined and discussed in order to determine weaknesses and strengths, improvements and opportunities for skill development. In many organizations, however, not all evaluation findings are used directly or indirectly to determine reward outcomes. In other words, the evaluation results are used to identify better performing employees who should receive most of the available pay increases, bonuses and promotions. Employee performance assessments can be one of the best tools to boost performance, enhance morale, and increase productivity. Performance assessment is an effective tool for managers when performed correctly and provides employees with important feedback. One of the main reasons for a system of performance evaluation is the principle of accountability from the point of view of the organization. Researchers have known for decades that failure to align responsibility and accountability is one of the main causes of organizational failure. Non-alignment occurs when employees perform responsibilities and duties but are not held accountable for the manner in which they perform those duties and duties.
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The arcs of this type of network signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities or percentage. In practice several Artificial Intelligence (AI) models are used to represent the knowledge extraction of expert systems depending on conditional probability computations, where belief network (BN) is one of these. In addition to the use of BN, the decision support tree is also employed as a decision support tool for filtering and minimizing the features that recognize the employee performance based on his competencies including 9 factors: loyality, self trust, commitment, recall knowledge,
As revealed in the findings, the respondents’ technical skills and their knowledge and understanding of their task are strongly affected ( 4.58), it also indicated that the employee leadership skills, productivity and output and their initiative in pursuing higher education are strongly affected ( 4.51). On the other hand, it reflected that the employees work skills ( 3.43) and expertise ( 3.65 ) are moderately affected. The results imply that the employees seems to be lack in expertise that might have been attributed to insufficient trainings relative to their tasks assignments. The result of the study is supported by the findings of Martineau ( 1999) who stated that the staff perceived that the greatest asset of performance management was its ability to highlight and act on staff development needs. Armstrong and Baron ( 2008) commented that nowadays most performance management systems had shifted emphasis towards continuous staff development and self evaluation.
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valuable information for answering the research question of this study. For example, by first observing a training session, I could identify motivations. For instance, when I saw employees actively communicating with eachother during the training, developing social contacts are probably a motivation to consume training & development practices. Accordingly, the observations were aimed at observing HR practices ‘in practice’ in order to identify ability-, motivation-, and opportunity resources employees need in order to consume these HR practices. However, I was not able to carry out observations for all five highlighted HR practices. Hence, I attended an introduction training session for cleaners to observe the HR practice training & development. I also attended an ‘individual development meeting’, in which I could observe the HR practice performance appraisal. For the other three HR practices (recruitment & selection, compensation, and employee participation) it was more difficult to find a moment to observe a specific practice. The nature of the other practices was not as tangible and clear in practice as training & development practices and performance appraisal practices.
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the level of performance. The midpoint of the scale is normally tied down by such words as "normal," "sufficient," "attractive," or "meets models." Many associations use graphic rating scales since they are anything but difficult to utilize and cost little to create. HR experts can grow such structures rapidly, and in light of the fact that the measurements and grapples are composed at a general level, a solitary structure is relevant to all or most occupations inside an association. Graphic rating scales do exhibit various issues, notwithstanding. Such scales may not viably coordinate conduct; that is, the rating scale does not plainly show what a man must do to accomplish a given rating, in this way employees are left oblivious with reference to what is anticipated from them. For example, a representative given a rating of 2 on "disposition"  may have a troublesome time making sense of how to move forward.
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Youngcourt, Satoris S. ; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G. “Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes. “ 2007 Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined purposes of performance appraisals as perceived by the role incumbent, as opposed to the stated organizational purposes. The relationships between these perceived purposes with several attitudinal outcomes, including satisfaction with the performance appraisal, job satisfaction, affective commitment, and role ambiguity, are reported. Data from 599 retail service employees were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Results suggested support for a model consisting of three performance appraisal purposes having differential relationships with the outcomes examined, suggesting the purpose of the performance appraisal may influence rates' perceptions of and attitudes toward their jobs. In 2008 a paper reports on a study that used focus group interviews with employee in an upscale hotel in Hong Kong, a special administrative region in China, on their view of the appraisal system that has been used. Research finding reveal that the system could be further improved
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Thurston (2015) addressed the specific aspects related with performance appraisal and also revealed that effectiveness and success of appraisal system depends on reactions and feedback from the employees. A study in Pakistan by Ambreen (2015) on the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, (public university) checked at the performance Appraisal Systems used in that university. The research investigated different aspects of performance appraisal system and how performance appraisal system could be applied to improve the performance of teachers in higher education institutions of Pakistan. The researchers undertook the public sector University of Pakistan, as a case study in the present study. Results showed that although employees were aware of the useful outcomes of performance appraisal systems, there were still some hindering factors like untrained raters, exclusion of multiple raters, absence of feedback in the way of successful implementation of performance appraisal system. Present study also suggests the solutions with their implications regarding said factors. It was suggested therefore that employee feedback is critical factor in assessing effectiveness of appraisal system. This feedback can be positive or negative regarding outcomes of appraisal system. On the other hand, Roberson and Stewart (2016) suggest that if negative feedback is delivered in an effective and persuasive manner, employees will take it seriously and will focus on eliminating the negative aspects in their performance.
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Employee involvement is creating surroundings wherein employees are empowered to make their choices and take movements relevant to their jobs. Employee involvement enables the employer in keeping its personnel as it increases ownership and commitment and fosters an environment to make the employees prompted and contributing. Employee contribution have an impact on employee’s overall performance positively (Locke et al., 1997). Employee involvement boom job pleasure, motivation and personal commitment as employees experience themselves extra concerned in the achievement of the organizational desires (Mullins and Peacock, 1991). Empowering the personnel through regarding them in selection making contributions to the achievement of employer because it increases the productiveness, saves time for decision making, lowers the space between supervisor and subordinates, encourages a strong feeling of teamwork amongst workers. Smith (1997) focused on empowering personnel so as to launch their ability. Nykodym et al. (1994) imply that empowering the employees can reduce war amongst personnel.
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Though EPA is functional to current human resource applications in organizations, it does have limitations to the corporation too. Evaluating performance appraisal electronically causes unfair appraisal due to failure of analysing performance data uploaded on EPA. This causes demotivation on employees to perform their works well (Arjomandy.D, 2012). Moreover, EPA is not able to measure the complexity of the work and these results in employees’ failure of accessing the work procedures (Johnson and Gueutal, 2011).
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Generally HRM practice is the way by which the organization creates a positive working environment that motivates the employees to show organizational citizenship behavior. Morrison (1996) argued that, HRM practices inspire the workforce to show greater level of OCB if reciprocal relationship present between employees and employer. Earlier researchers have identified that HRM practices is also an important predictor of SO-OCB (Sun et al., 2007; Zerbe, Dobni, & Harel, 1998). In this regard, Bienstock et al. (2003) recommended that, service providing organization should promote HRM practices to inspire service provider employee‟s OCB for organization‟s success. Organ (1990) also supported that, there is a positive relationship exists between HRM practices and OCB and he argued that employees demonstrate extra role behavior when social exchange relationship exist between employees and employer rather than economic exchange.
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Motivation could be intrinsic or extrinsic. Csikszentmihalyi, Abuhamdeh & Nakamura (2005) and Ryan & Deci (2000) conceptualize intrinsic motivation (IM) as the process of doing something because of inherently interesting force enjoyable agent and where as extrinsic motivation (EM) as doing something to get something as it leads to separable outcome from the outside. Mullins(2005) argues that extrinsic rewards that are given by others, externally in satisfying lower order needs(Human needs of Maslow's theory) while intrinsic rewards are given from internally called self performance reward. He believes that intrinsic rewards directly come from the higher order needs such as individual's feeling of self-esteem and self-actualization to an individual him or herself. For this reason, intrinsic motivation is said to be self-rewarding motivation type (Ibid).
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Performance Appraisal is defined as the process of assessing the performance and progress of an employee or a group of employees on a given job and his / their potential for future development. It consists of all formal procedures used in working organizations and potential of employees. [1, 2]